Bus705 written research proposal-vf-jmaher

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Bus705 written research proposal-vf-jmaher

  1. 1. Jess Maher | 3328773Business 705 Qualitative Research ProposalWhy does the long term maintenance of strategic revolutionary change fail and what effect does removing the change leader have?Comparative Case Studies of Vodafone New Zealand and Vodafone AustraliaSemester Two 2008<br />Contents TOC o "1-3" h z u 1.0Introduction PAGEREF _Toc212961635 h 42.0Background PAGEREF _Toc212961636 h 52.1Personal Interest PAGEREF _Toc212961637 h 73.0Relevance of existing literature PAGEREF _Toc212961638 h 103.1Strategic Change and Change Management PAGEREF _Toc212961639 h 103.2Leadership & Followership PAGEREF _Toc212961640 h 113.2International Human Resource Management: Succession Planning, Expatriation and International Talent Transfer PAGEREF _Toc212961641 h 124.0Research Question, Aims and Objectives PAGEREF _Toc212961642 h 134.1Research Aims & Objectives PAGEREF _Toc212961643 h 145.0Research Methodology & Design PAGEREF _Toc212961644 h 155.2Data Sampling PAGEREF _Toc212961645 h 165.2.1Current VFNZ Management Group PAGEREF _Toc212961646 h 175.2.2Current Line Managers with Marketing Function PAGEREF _Toc212961647 h 185.2.3Key Agents from both groups in historical context PAGEREF _Toc212961648 h 185.3Data Collection PAGEREF _Toc212961649 h 196.0Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc212961650 h 207.0Potential issues with Research PAGEREF _Toc212961651 h 217.1Relationship to Subject PAGEREF _Toc212961652 h 217.2Access: analysing a Historical Event PAGEREF _Toc212961653 h 227.3Getting current VFNZ & VFAus leaders onboard PAGEREF _Toc212961654 h 238.0Potential Research Limitations PAGEREF _Toc212961655 h 248.1Possible Extensions to Research PAGEREF _Toc212961656 h 248.1.1Effect and Influence of Individual Leader PAGEREF _Toc212961657 h 248.1.2Effect and Influence of Leadership Philosophy PAGEREF _Toc212961658 h 259.0Implication of the findings PAGEREF _Toc212961659 h 259.1The Body of Knowledge & Literature PAGEREF _Toc212961660 h 269.2Multinational Corporations Globally PAGEREF _Toc212961661 h 269.3Vodafone Group Internationally PAGEREF _Toc212961662 h 279.4Grahame Maher & The Zone Consulting PAGEREF _Toc212961663 h 2710.0Conclusions PAGEREF _Toc212961664 h 28Appendices PAGEREF _Toc212961665 h 32<br />Introduction<br />The role held by Grahame Maher, currently Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Vodafone Middle East, is relatively unique in the processes of many multinational corporations (MNCs) but particularly within Vodafone (VF). He is recruited and transferred on contracts commonly ranging from 18months to three years internationally within VF. With exceptional results Grahame has become known for his ability to turn around situations, he has become a widely respected member of the VF community, having great influence and effect on those he directly leads. The effect of his change initiatives appear to be dramatic but as time progresses it is apparent his influence wears off. Vodafone New Zealand (VFNZ) presents the oldest change situation where Grahame was featured as CEO and it has only become apparent recently, years since Grahame’s departure that the influence of the undoing of this change is appearing in measureable ways. <br />Grahame’s departure from VFNZ directly to Vodafone Australia (VFAus) saw a similar change process and management philosophy implemented in very different contexts under very different conditions. By utilising comparative case studies between these two branches of the VF, common themes and perceptions maybe identified using longitudinal data analysis in conjunction with focus groups and qualitative interviews (with three key groups; current management, current marketing line managers and previous employed key agents from this change period with particular reference to the other two groups) will allow understanding from the perspective of the employees and followers of this change. Discourse analysis will be utilised to consider the recurrent themes and perceptions among these followers and between the varying parties to the events occurred. <br />The consideration of the varied perspectives of Grahame, VF Group and the employees involved in each of these situations is expected to provide insights for a number of fields of literature; including strategic change & management, leadership & followership and International Human Resource Management, succession planning and expatriation. There are a number of potential issues with the research, particularly my relationship with the subject, which have been considered and planned for. The limitations have also been explored, with the lack of differentiation between the leader and the leadership style providing the opportunity for extension within of branches of VF which Grahame has identified as adopting a similar management philosophy in their leadership. <br />Background<br />In 1998 VFNZ bought Bellsouth, an existing provider in the domestic telecommunications industry. Their market share and previous performance had been dismal and a team was established to initiate the change required. Grahame Maher was transferred from VFAus and appointed as the Chief Operating Officer (COO) of VFNZ within the marketing function. In one year the brand awareness of VF in the New Zealand (NZ) market had increased under Grahame’s direction from 2% to 98% ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Maher</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>170</RecNum><record><rec-number>170</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">170</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Maher, Grahame</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Vodafone Career Profile</title></titles><pages>1</pages><dates><year>2006</year></dates><work-type>Please find attached as Appendix One </work-type><urls><related-urls><url>Please find attached as Appendix One </url></related-urls></urls><access-date>Oct 1, 2008 </access-date></record></Cite></EndNote>(Maher, 2006). After such strong impact and success in the role, approximating 18 months after joining VFNZ, Grahame was promoted to CEO. Over the first three years of this change VF made a big impact on the telecommunications industry in NZ, transforming Bellsouth’s 17% market share and 138,000 customers to a massive 1.1 million customers and dominance in the market with a 55% share under the VF brand, ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Maher</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>170</RecNum><record><rec-number>170</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">170</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Unpublished Work">34</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Maher, Grahame</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Vodafone Career Profile</title></titles><pages>1</pages><dates><year>2006</year></dates><work-type>Please find attached as Appendix One </work-type><urls><related-urls><url>Please find attached as Appendix One </url></related-urls></urls><access-date>Oct 1, 2008 </access-date></record></Cite></EndNote>(Maher, 2006). Vodafone’s landing in the NZ market changed the direction of the market which was old and slow and by making the brand “fun” and “young” VF shook Telecom’s market dominance at the time but also opened up the market with an influx of new consumers seduced by the brand VF had created. <br />As the market took off and VFNZ had made its claim in the domestic economy by overturning the operations acquired under the Bellsouth organisation, Grahame’s ability to lead and motivate change and growth was demanded by VFAus as the market and business continued to deteriorate and lack equitable returns. Plans had been made well in advance that anticipated Grahame’s removal from the VFNZ environment (he was employed on a two year contract to act as CEO of VFNZ) and as part of this process, Grahame ensured that at least two possible options of successors where selected early on in the change process whom were closely involved throughout, in this case Arthur Neealy and Tim Miles. Arthur Neealy (whom was close to retirement age) was one of Grahame’s selected successors, took over the role immediately as Grahame exited VFNZ about a year earlier than expected (for a further breakdown of the timeline and Grahame’s history with VF, see Appendices Two & Three). <br />Grahame was appointed as the CEO of VFAus whilst also juggling the role of COO of the Vodafone Asia Pacific Region (VFAPR). This Regional Division of the global management structure of VF allowed Grahame to have continued responsibility and involvement in VFNZ. Grahame credits the planning involved with his successors and the fact they where internally progressed and people already knew them, to the success of this hand over period. The change process undertaken in the “VFAus situation was different from the beginning, it was much messier scenario & more difficult on entry” (personal communication with Grahame Maher, October 6, 2008). Yet the same management philosophy and general approach has been adopted in this process and the results from the change appear as much of a success as VFNZ. The context in VFAus mainly differed as the organisation Grahame entered was already established as a branch of VF, yet one which was under performing. <br />In August 2004, Grahame was relocated with an appointment in VF Sweden ended his regional connections with VF APR. This continued relocation was relatively unique within VF globally, yet unique to Grahame’s ability as a change leader, fuelled by his desire for international appointments. The effect of Grahame’s initially relocation meant that staff whom were key to VFNZ during change period were also relocated within VF or dispersed to other appointments, a considerable number travelling with Grahame to work within VFAus. Many of the original management team have actually continued to followed Grahame’s appointments to continue working with him directly with many of them in European branches of VF. At the current date, Grahame reports that none of the original management team established through this change remain in VFNZ. <br />The customer base of VFNZ has continued to grow (2.3 mil- December 2007, 2.4mil- June 2008) and in the perception of the VF Group Investors, VFNZ is continuing to perform strongly ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Vodafone Group</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>172</RecNum><record><rec-number>172</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">172</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Vodafone Group, </author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Company Information: Vodafone New Zealand</title></titles><volume>2 Oct, 2008</volume><dates><year>2007</year></dates><pub-location>Auckland</pub-location><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.vodafone.co.nz/about/company-information/</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Vodafone Group, 2007). They are maintain market share (53.5%- December 2007) and remain a strong player in the market ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Vodafone Group</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>191</RecNum><record><rec-number>191</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">191</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Vodafone Group,</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Vodafone NZ: Company Facts &amp; Figures </title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Sep 3</number><dates><year>2008</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.vodafone.co.nz/about/company-information/company-facts-figures.jsp</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Vodafone Group, 2008), however it would appear that there are ever increasing numbers of mobile phone users in the telecommunications industry domestically in general. Whilst VFNZ is maintaining its market share, it is not showing the same performance and impact it once had in the market. In the last 2 years VFNZ has attempted further strategic changes under their current structure, with little inside perspective, but from industry perception, this change within VFNZ has been a stark contrast to the change in question, with an apparent lack of energy, motivation or understanding in the change demonstrated by the front line of VFNZ employees ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Biddle</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>186</RecNum><record><rec-number>186</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">186</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Biddle, Steve</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>What&apos;s gone wrong at Vodafone?</title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Sep, 20</number><dates><year>2006</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.geekzone.co.nz/sbiddle/675</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Biddle, 2006). <br />The VFNZ website still states they are centrally driven by their 4 core values, as installed in the change process by Grahame, being passion for customers, our people, results and the world around us. From the perspective of the NZ mobile phone consumer, VFNZ customer and at least some VFNZ employees, it is not a claim that has the same valence or trust behind it anymore. The website post titled, Grahame Maher’s legacy for Vodafone NZ has rotted away to nothing… sums up consumer opinion to VFNZ with the statement, ‘2001: most people loved VF. 2007: most people now loath VF but there is little other choice’ ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Paroxym</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>190</RecNum><record><rec-number>190</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">190</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Paroxym, Paradox</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Grahame Maher&apos;s legacy for Vodafone NZ has rotted away to nothing</title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Sep 3</number><dates><year>2007</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.geekzone.co.nz/paradoxsm/3455</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Paroxym, 2007). Employee opinion of this departure of Grahame is even more interesting, the impact of Grahame’s departure from any branch of the organisation is somewhat of an grand event. “There are not many MDs [managing directors] that would see hundreds of people in tears when he departed both NZ and Australia” ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Biddle</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>186</RecNum><record><rec-number>186</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">186</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Web Page">12</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Biddle, Steve</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>What&apos;s gone wrong at Vodafone?</title></titles><volume>2008</volume><number>Sep, 20</number><dates><year>2006</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.geekzone.co.nz/sbiddle/675</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Biddle, 2006) and it appears that loyalty to Grahame is maintained long term, possibly even more so than VF. From my understandings of referential power, I would best estimate this is the kind of power dynamic inadvertently drawn upon by Grahame in such situations acting as a charismatic leader. Grahame’s ability to establish such influential leadership in such a short period of time generally under hostile conditions could potentially provide critical insights for the conceptualisation of such management philosophies and strategic plans implemented by MNCs. <br />Personal Interest <br />I have had the opportunity to maintain a unique perspective on the operations of VFNZ, as a teenager being relocated to New Zealand, I had little understanding of what my Dad (Grahame Maher) did at work or what influence he was having within the telecommunications industry locally. As the profile of VF continued to grow and they become strong market leaders in NZ I gained a further perspective by becoming an employee within the Customer Support Centre at VFNZ. My understanding of the changes and influences my Dad was having within the organisation was all derived from those people whom made up the staff, including myself. As my Dad exited the organisation I was still employed with VFNZ (I remained in New Zealand as my family relocated) and continued to be for a several months following. <br />When considering the influence of my Dad as a model for my own learning, Jackson & Parry (2008) describe how psychoanalytical theory of leadership suggestions that my perception of leadership and style of leadership are both strongly influenced by models presented to me during development, with particular reference to my parents (p51). Yet drawing on contextual references of my childhood and insights from family interactions, my Dad never really held the position of the decision maker or leader. A family joke on a recent holiday was labelling, “Mum’s the Boss and Dad’s the bank”. My dad plays a diplomatic role as somewhat of a martyr between my sister, my mum and myself. When dad tries to impart wisdom or guidance, we lovingly refer to him as “Buda” and to quote from recent family wedding speeches, “Shut up Grahame, you might be the boss in Europe, but you’re just a lackey here!!” (Susan Maher, Grahame’s younger sister) demonstrates further the position within the family unit which my Dad holds. <br />With future understandings from psychoanalytical perspective suggests the perception of leadership is formed through processes of projection & transference with reference to the model displayed through childhood, adolescence and young adulthood ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Jackson</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>185</RecNum><record><rec-number>185</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">185</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Jackson, Brad</author><author>Parry, Ken</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A very short, fairly interesting and resonably cheap book about studying leadership</title></titles><section>42-60</section><dates><year>2008</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>SAGE Publications</publisher><urls></urls><access-date>Oct 20, 2008</access-date></record></Cite></EndNote>(Jackson & Parry, 2008) it is interesting to consider Dad as a model for me personally, but the people whom would have been my Dads models, such as my grandparents. I personally draw parallels of the kind of charismatic figure head which Grahame appears to play with my grandfather, Kenneth Maher, whom was a priest with the Unity Church when he passed away in 1997. His role was as such to that the family relocated often, yet he was renowned for his charisma, storytelling and general ability to captivate and audience. While the contexts that my grandfather practised in may have featured resistance and difficulty, he was never in a role which required executing the same “hard calls” like laying off hundreds of employees or questioning the output or performance of business units. (I feel it is relevant to state here as is often presumed otherwise, my Dad is atheist and while I did have exposure to religion from both the Anglican schools I attended and my extended family, I was raised in an atheist home). <br />In previous retrospective consideration, I have come to understand that some of the dysfunction within the dynamic of my family from my perspective is due to my Dad not making more of a stand at times when I perceived it to be important. With volatile extended family history, especially from my Mums side of the family, there have been numerous tensions and difficult situations where I have felt my Dad should have been the person to try to change the direction or perception of the general family unit where I have felt he has remained the “peace-keeper”. At times where I have done something to require reprimand I never remember my Dad doing more than what my sister and I jokingly refer to as the ‘so-disappointed-don’t-talk-to-me’ act. This of course evokes feelings of remorse from my sister or I, but I imagine a much harder line would be required when the people being reprimanded aren’t related to you and may not even have any respect for you, which is assumed to be the case when entering an existing organisation and generally turning it on its head. As my Dad was often distant in my family, with work requiring a large commitment from him throughout my childhood, the influence of his power within the family unit was minimised every time he left and was then entered back again. Yet although the relationships are different, the general body of employees within VF feel they personally have some connection to Grahame, and distance does not dissipate this. The fact that he has to be shared among more people within an organisational sense and therefore have less, if any one on one direct contact time with them all, it is interesting to see the difference in perception between this group and the family unit. <br />As an employee of VFNZ at the time Grahame departed I had the experience of witnessing the emotion created throughout the people whom he manages when he leaves the organisation. The first time I experienced this was also the first time I had lived out of home and away from my parents as they moved to Australia, it was surreal in retrospect to consider that I was almost accompanied through this grieving process by my colleagues whom were also coming to grips with Grahame’s departure. I also have the perspective of as a member of the telecommunications providers target market and a VFNZ customer, my understanding of the organisation is multifaceted and rather unique in this perspective. As such over the last few years I have experienced firsthand the feeling that VFNZ has lost some creditability in the market. People from a variety of places, including when I made it to university, some lecturers, would often tell me, “your Dad has revolutionised the telecommunications industry in NZ”, yet I also commonly hear that “it hasn’t been the same since Grahame left”. My research question combines these two common reports to consider the influence of removing the driving leader from a change environment to question the validity of these statements and consider if there is something to this. <br />Relevance of existing literature <br />When considering this research question a number of bodies of existing literature and knowledge have been identified and would require further consideration before undergoing this research. When considering the process and planning undertaken by VF, the fields of succession planning and international human resource management (IHRM) have been considered with particular reference to the processes of Expatriation and International Talent transfer. <br />Strategic Change and Change Management <br /><ul><li>The process of strategic change has widely been conceptualised within the literature in a variety of forms, the contemporary approaches are deemed more important for understanding this research as classical approaches, which primarily feature economic foundations, have been criticised for being over conceptualised ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Rumelt</Author><Year>1994</Year><RecNum>182</RecNum><record><rec-number>182</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">182</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Rumelt, Richard P.</author><author>Schendel, Dan</author><author>Teece, David J.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Fundamental issues in strategy : a research agenda</title></titles><pages>xiii, 636 p.</pages><section>9-47</section><keywords><keyword>Strategic planning.</keyword></keywords><dates><year>1994</year></dates><pub-location>Boston, Mass.</pub-location><publisher>Harvard Business School Press</publisher><isbn>0875843433 (acid-free paper)</isbn><call-num>TAMAKI LIBRARY 658.4012; R93 GENERAL LIBRARY 658.4012; R93</call-num><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Jarzabkowski</Author><Year>2003</Year><RecNum>155</RecNum><record><rec-number>155</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">155</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Jarzabkowski, Paula</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Strategic practices: An activity theory perspective on continuity and change</title><secondary-title>The Journal of Management Studies</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>The Journal of Management Studies</full-title></periodical><pages>23</pages><volume>40</volume><number>1</number><keywords><keyword>Strategic management</keyword><keyword>Studies</keyword><keyword>Management theory</keyword><keyword>Colleges &amp; universities</keyword><keyword>Models</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2003</year></dates><isbn>00222380</isbn><label>Intbus 703</label><urls><related-urls><url>http://ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=295623771&amp;Fmt=7&amp;clientId=13395&amp;RQT=309&amp;VName=PQD</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Jarzabkowski, 2003; Rumelt, Schendel, & Teece, 1994) and removed from the individuals and micro contexts within which strategy operates ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Jarzabkowski</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>156</RecNum><record><rec-number>156</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">156</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Jarzabkowski, Paula</author><author>Balogun, Julia</author><author>Seidl, David</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Strategizing: The challenges of a practice perspective</title><secondary-title>Human Relations</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Human Relations</full-title></periodical><pages>5</pages><volume>60</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2007</year></dates><isbn>00187267</isbn><urls><related-urls><url>http://ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/login?url=http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1230885971&amp;Fmt=7&amp;clientId=13395&amp;RQT=309&amp;VName=PQD</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Jarzabkowski, Balogun, & Seidl, 2007). There are a number of models and frameworks provided ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Glen</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>198</RecNum><record><rec-number>198</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">198</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Glen, C</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Key Skills retention and motivation: the war for talent still rages and retention is on the high ground </title><secondary-title>Industrial and Commerical Training Journal </secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Industrial and Commerical Training Journal</full-title></periodical><volume>38</volume><number>1</number><dates><year>2006</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Flamholtz</Author><Year>1998</Year><RecNum>195</RecNum><record><rec-number>195</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">195</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Flamholtz, E</author><author>Randle, Y</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Changing the Game: Organisational Transformations of the First, Second &amp; Third Kinds</title></titles><section>149-215</section><dates><year>1998</year></dates><pub-location>New York</pub-location><publisher>Oxford University Press</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Flamholtz & Randle, 1998; Glen, 2006) however by comparison, the consideration of strategic change and maintaining it long term has been less widely addressed. Values Based strategic approaches ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Forde</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>197</RecNum><record><rec-number>197</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">197</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Audiovisual Material">3</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Forde, Liam</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Why is culture so important? What about Values?</title></titles><dates><year>2006</year><pub-dates><date>Apr 10, 2007</date></pub-dates></dates><pub-location>Auckland</pub-location><publisher>The Zone</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Forde, 2006), like that undertaken within VFNZ, has been conceptualised about in various forms in the literature 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ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA (Beyerlein, Freedman, McGee, & Moran, 2003; Blanchard & O'Connor, 1997; Glen, 2006; Rashid, Sambasivan, & Johari, 2003), the ideal strategies and structures for achieving change have been widely discussed as has the influence of corporate culture and values based approach ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Flamholtz</Author><Year>2001</Year><RecNum>196</RecNum><record><rec-number>196</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">196</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Flamholtz, E</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Corporate culture &amp; the bottom line</title><secondary-title>European Management Journal </secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>European Management Journal</full-title></periodical><volume>19</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>2001</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Taylor</Author><Year>2005</Year><RecNum>200</RecNum><record><rec-number>200</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">200</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Taylor, C</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Walking the Talk: Building a Culture for Sucess</title></titles><section>59-107</section><dates><year>2005</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>Random House Business Books</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Rashid</Author><Year>2003</Year><RecNum>199</RecNum><record><rec-number>199</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">199</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Rashid, Z.A</author><author>Sambasivan, M</author><author>Johari, J</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The Influence of Corporate Culture &amp; organizational commitment on performance</title><secondary-title>Journal of Management Development</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Management Development</full-title></periodical><volume>22</volume><number>8</number><dates><year>2003</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Flamholtz, 2001; Rashid et al., 2003; Taylor, 2005). The concerns for considering this area are still relevant and could potentially provide potential in a number of areas or disciplines’.</li></ul>3.2Leadership & Followership <br />‘Unless followers recognise it as leadership, it isn’t leadership’<br />(Jackson & Parry, 2008, p46)<br />There is an abundance of literature regarding the role of effective leadership and what constitutes it within change management ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Flamholtz</Author><Year>1998</Year><RecNum>195</RecNum><record><rec-number>195</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">195</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Flamholtz, E</author><author>Randle, Y</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Changing the Game: Organisational Transformations of the First, Second &amp; Third Kinds</title></titles><section>149-215</section><dates><year>1998</year></dates><pub-location>New York</pub-location><publisher>Oxford University Press</publisher><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Flamholtz & Randle, 1998). There is also research to emphasise the importance of strong leadership in effective change management ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Gill</Author><Year>2003</Year><RecNum>160</RecNum><record><rec-number>160</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">160</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Gill, Roger</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Change management -or change leadership?</title><secondary-title>Journal of Change Management</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of Change Management</full-title></periodical><pages>307-318</pages><volume>3</volume><number>4</number><dates><year>2003</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Gill, 2003). Within this discipline, the use of charismatic leaders and their ability to influence change has been considered ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Weierter</Author><Year>1997</Year><RecNum>187</RecNum><record><rec-number>187</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">187</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Weierter, Stuart J. M.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Who wants to play &quot;Follow the leader?&quot; A theory of charismatic relationships based on routinized charisma and follower characteristics</title><secondary-title>The Leadership Quarterly</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>The Leadership Quarterly</full-title></periodical><pages>171-193</pages><volume>8</volume><number>2</number><dates><year>1997</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6W5N-45FYF6C-12/2/53f35d49f2d6bc57b0075f6f8bec62fe</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Weierter, 1997). Leadership scholars, while recognising that the relationship between leaders and followers is the fundamental predicator in recognising what leadership consists of, invariably place minimal emphasis on followers in the majority of leadership analysis’ ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Jackson</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>185</RecNum><record><rec-number>185</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">185</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Jackson, Brad</author><author>Parry, Ken</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A very short, fairly interesting and resonably cheap book about studying leadership</title></titles><section>42-60</section><dates><year>2008</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>SAGE Publications</publisher><urls></urls><access-date>Oct 20, 2008</access-date></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Lord</Author><Year>1999</Year><RecNum>188</RecNum><record><rec-number>188</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">188</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Lord, Robert G.</author><author>Brown, Douglas J.</author><author>Freiberg, Steven J.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Understanding the Dynamics of Leadership: The Role of Follower Self-Concepts in the Leader/Follower Relationship</title><secondary-title>Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes</full-title></periodical><pages>167-203</pages><volume>78</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>1999</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6WP2-45FCPSG-12/2/59ff6e94e224b81311f983fedbd667d2</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Jackson & Parry, 2008; Lord, Brown, & Freiberg, 1999). The “reality” of Grahame’s leadership, and true influence of it is fundamentally derived from how his followers perceive this and make sense of it. <br />Lord et al., (1999) explore further this dynamic relationship and exchange by considering the effects of self on information processing and behaviour, describing the role of leaders as ‘producing short run changes by influencing the working self concept and enduring more changes through the development of chronic schema’ (p167). Lord et al., (1999) also conceptualise that subordinates influence leaders self-schema which provides interesting consideration of Grahame’s role when analysing the different contexts in longitudinal comparison. This conceptualisation also leads to the possible understanding that followers self-schema, as a dynamic and working concept, have the possibility to be negatively influenced during or after the event of removing the driving leader from the scenario.<br /> ‘New insights into the processes of leadership can be gained by focusing attention squarely on processes connected to followers and their contexts, independently of what leaders are actually doing’ (Meindl et al., 2004: 1347 as cited in Jackson & Parry, 2008, p41)<br />By considering the perspective of ‘followers as constructors of leadership’ it is recognised that leadership is essentially in the eye of the follower ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Jackson</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>185</RecNum><Suffix>, p46</Suffix><record><rec-number>185</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">185</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Jackson, Brad</author><author>Parry, Ken</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A very short, fairly interesting and resonably cheap book about studying leadership</title></titles><section>42-60</section><dates><year>2008</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>SAGE Publications</publisher><urls></urls><access-date>Oct 20, 2008</access-date></record></Cite></EndNote>(Jackson & Parry, 2008, p46). There are three main groups of theories identified by Jackson & Parry (2008) which hold relevance and insight for the research proposed. The romance of leadership theory assists to understand followership during periods of change. Meindl et, al., (1985) states that in the absence of direct, unambiguous information about an organisation, respondents will tend to ascribe control and responsibility to leaders with events and outcomes which they could be plausibly linked (as citied in Jackson & Parry, 2008, p47). Psychoanalytical theories recognise that a leader’s style is heavily influenced by their models of leadership, especially parents, and the theory considers primarily the processes of projection and transference. This holds strong relevance considering the models exhibited in my family scenario, especially as briefly discussed earlier in reference to my Grandfather, to which I have the unique advantage of having general understanding of these highly individualised foundations for Grahame’s perspective. Social identity theory of leadership draws upon the popular saying ‘like attracts like’ stating the extent of which a leader is accepted is determined by how closely the leader represents the groups characteristics, aspirations, values and norms ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Jackson</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>185</RecNum><Suffix>, p52</Suffix><record><rec-number>185</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">185</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Jackson, Brad</author><author>Parry, Ken</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A very short, fairly interesting and resonably cheap book about studying leadership</title></titles><section>42-60</section><dates><year>2008</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>SAGE Publications</publisher><urls></urls><access-date>Oct 20, 2008</access-date></record></Cite></EndNote>(Jackson & Parry, 2008, p52). This theory also provides useful insights as to the use of values based approach which has been implemented by Grahame and how this process influences and effects the follower’s perceptions. <br />3.2International Human Resource Management: Succession Planning, Expatriation and International Talent Transfer <br />The literature revolving around succession planning provides some theoretical basis for understanding how an organisation conceptualises and plans for the replacement of a particular person from a specific role or position in the organisation. When considering the process of managing “leadership transfer” between and within positions in VF, there are potentially important implications which can be achieved through the detailed analysis of the succession process. There are numerous conceptualisations of how to select and develop talent for international transfer ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Pucik</Author><Year>1998</Year><RecNum>192</RecNum><record><rec-number>192</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">192</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Pucik, Vladimir</author><author>Saba, Tania</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Selecting and developing the global versus the expatriate manager: a review of the state-of-the-art</title><secondary-title>Human Resource Planning</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Human Resource Planning</full-title></periodical><volume>21</volume><dates><year>1998</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Pucik & Saba, 1998), there is also large amounts of literature on the process of effective management of expatriation and the organisational support necessary to ensure expatriate success ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Michailova</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>161</RecNum><record><rec-number>161</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">161</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Michailova, Snejina</author><author>Minbaeva, Dana B.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Knowledge transfer and expatriation in multinational corporations</title><secondary-title>Employee Relations</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Employee Relations</full-title></periodical><pages>663-679</pages><volume>26</volume><number>6</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.emeraldinsight.com.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/Insight/ViewContentServlet?Filename=/published/emeraldfulltextarticle/pdf/0190260605.pdf</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite><Cite><Author>Davidson</Author><Year>1996</Year><RecNum>158</RecNum><record><rec-number>158</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">158</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Davidson, Paul</author><author>Kinzel, Esther</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Supporting the Expatriate: A Survey of Australian Management Practice</title><secondary-title>Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources</full-title></periodical><pages>105-116</pages><volume>33</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>1996</year><pub-dates><date>March 1, 1996</date></pub-dates></dates><label>Bus705 Dissertation</label><urls><related-urls><url>http://apj.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/33/3/105</url></related-urls></urls><electronic-resource-num>10.1177/103841119603300309</electronic-resource-num></record></Cite></EndNote>(Davidson & Kinzel, 1996; Michailova & Minbaeva, 2004). Despite the process of expatriation being widely regarded as costly and potentially problematic ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Michailova</Author><Year>2004</Year><RecNum>161</RecNum><record><rec-number>161</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">161</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Michailova, Snejina</author><author>Minbaeva, Dana B.</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Knowledge transfer and expatriation in multinational corporations</title><secondary-title>Employee Relations</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Employee Relations</full-title></periodical><pages>663-679</pages><volume>26</volume><number>6</number><dates><year>2004</year></dates><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.emeraldinsight.com.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/Insight/ViewContentServlet?Filename=/published/emeraldfulltextarticle/pdf/0190260605.pdf</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Michailova & Minbaeva, 2004), MNCs continue to rely on the use of expatriation, even in an era where technology offers greater opportunity ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Brewster</Author><Year>1997</Year><RecNum>162</RecNum><record><rec-number>162</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">162</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Brewster, C</author><author>Scullion, H</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A review and agenda for expatriate HRM</title><secondary-title>Human Resource Management Journal</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Human Resource Management Journal</full-title></periodical><pages>32-42</pages><volume>7</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>1997</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Brewster & Scullion, 1997) and in markets where there is no shortage of skilled labour ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Boyaciggiler</Author><Year>1990</Year><RecNum>163</RecNum><record><rec-number>163</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">163</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Journal Article">17</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Boyaciggiler, N.A</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>The role of expatriates in the management of interdependence, complexity and risks in multinational corporations</title><secondary-title>Journal of International Business Studies</secondary-title></titles><periodical><full-title>Journal of International Business Studies</full-title></periodical><pages>357-382</pages><volume>21</volume><number>3</number><dates><year>1990</year></dates><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Boyaciggiler, 1990). The consideration of the use of expatriation on the domestic market is generally conceptualised at a societal level ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Solimano</Author><Year>2003</Year><RecNum>150</RecNum><record><rec-number>150</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">150</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Conference Paper">47</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Solimano, Andres</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Tungodden, Bertil</author><author>Stern, Nicholas</author><author>Kolstad, Ivar</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Globalizing Talent and Human Capital: Implications for Developing Countries</title><secondary-title>Annual World Bank Conference on Development Economics </secondary-title></titles><pages>315-333</pages><dates><year>2003</year><pub-dates><date>May 15-16, 2003</date></pub-dates></dates><pub-location>Paris</pub-location><publisher>Copublication of the World Bank and Oxford University Press</publisher><urls><related-urls><url>http://www-wds.worldbank.org.ezproxy.auckland.ac.nz/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2004/05/18/000160016_20040518162841/Rendered/PDF/289950PAPER0ABCDE020030Europe.pdf#page=325</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Solimano, 2003) considering general market conditions such as availability of highly skilled labour ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Abella</Author><Year>2006</Year><RecNum>151</RecNum><record><rec-number>151</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">151</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Report">27</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Abella, Manolo</author></authors><secondary-authors><author>Kuptsch, Christiane</author><author>Pang, Eng Fong</author></secondary-authors></contributors><titles><title>Global Competition for skilled workers and consequences </title><secondary-title>Competing for Global Talent</secondary-title></titles><pages>11-33</pages><dates><year>2006</year></dates><pub-location>Geneva</pub-location><publisher>International Labour Office </publisher><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.oit.org/public/english/bureau/inst/download/competing.pdf</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Abella, 2006), yet less concern is made for the micro-level concerns specific within a particular firm. <br />Research Question, Aims and Objectives<br />VF has followed their well developed strategy to manage this international transfer of talent, succession planning and attempts to maintain positive change within the various branches of the VF brand. The validity of these processes is somewhat assumed in their application and whilst there is no debating the strategic revolutionary change has positive effects in the short term, the attempts to sustain such performance appears to have dwindled as time progresses. Grahame’s role in VF is self proclaimed as incredibly unique and the opportunity for considering the influence of his management philosophy in a variety of contexts provides some interesting opportunities. By considering the domestic firms after the removal of Grahame as the change leader, we would be able to gain a unique perspective by considering the management philosophy from the perspective of the followers within a variety of context implemented under varying conditions. <br />By considering how the members of organisation who made up Grahame’s followers perceived his influence or impact will provide interesting insights which would not be apparent in considering VF Group or Grahame’s perception alone. The impact of comparing multiple environments will provide common themes or threads which may further highlight the importance or impact of them. Practically there are obvious effects on the ‘changed organisation’ when the leader is removed, which provides critical insight as to their impact while they are there, leading to the question; <br />Why does the long term maintenance of strategic revolutionary change fail and what effect does removing the change leader have?<br />In terms of ‘change failing’, it is important to distinguish this is not to imply that the organisation has failed in a domestic setting, but the initiatives installed by this change and the benefits gained from it initially appear to disappear in the long term. Further to this of course, the question encompasses several different components and areas of focus in order for it to be answered by the research in a complete fashion. These different components to the question have been expanded and explored in the research aims, which poses some further questions which will attempt to be answered by the research proposed. <br />4.1Research Aims & Objectives <br />It is the objective of this research to consider from a follower perspective the impact and influence of dynamic change leaders in creating and maintaining strategic change. The influence on the organisation of removing this leader is not only insightful for those completing similar processes but is also appropriate for understanding the impact of leadership and a “purposive” philosophy from a perspective which has not currently be utilised effectively. Considering the complexity and dimensions of the question posed, there are a number of key aims which have been made salient by posing some further questions which explain reasoning and approach which is explained. <br /><ul><li>Gain understanding as to why the long term maintenance of strategic change fails
  2. 2. Why have the initiatives which were established in VFNZ’s revolutionary change period failed to be maintained in current organisational structure? Was attempt made to maintain them, if so, why didn’t it work? Were all the key agents’ advocates for maintaining the change or were initiatives just dissolved slowly?
  3. 3. Provide understanding on the influence of leaders in maintaining strategic change initiatives long-term
  4. 4. Is revolutionary strategic change sustainable? Would this change have eventually failed in VFNZ despite changes in leadership? Why are results first achieved in change (especially in terms of customer perceptions & strong employee relations) not sustained long term? How “frozen” is change after it presents results that fulfil strategic requirements?
  5. 5. Provide a new perspective on the impact and influence of leaders
  6. 6. How long after change is “frozen” is a dynamic change leader required to stay in place? How does Grahame & Vodafone visualise this change process and leadership philosophy compared to how his followers perceive it? How much influence does Grahame directly have on changing the situations in which he works? Are there common perceptions or understandings of the management philosophy implemented by Grahame in different contexts despite cultural or other differences? </li></ul>Research Methodology & Design <br />An inductive approach will be taken to allow knowledge to be developed from detailed observations without the limitations of existing literature imposing or affecting the quality of observations drawn. Using a comparative case based method to approach the question posed, will allow understanding as to why events occurred in each of these specific settings ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Tharenou</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>175</RecNum><record><rec-number>175</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">175</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Tharenou, Phyllis</author><author>Donohue, Ross</author><author>Cooper, Brian</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Management research methods</title></titles><pages>x, 338 p.</pages><section>72-88, 250-270</section><keywords><keyword>Management Research.</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2007</year></dates><pub-location>Cambridge [England]</pub-location><publisher>Cambridge University Press</publisher><isbn>0521694280 (pbk.) 9780521694285 (pbk.)</isbn><call-num>GENERAL LIBRARY 658.40072; T36</call-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0710/2007005702.html</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Tharenou, Donohue, & Cooper, 2007). The case study approach also ‘acts as a vehicle to drive the incorporation of several methods in combination’ ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Bryman</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>159</RecNum><record><rec-number>159</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">159</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Bryman, Alan</author><author>Bell, Emma</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Business research methods</title></titles><pages>xxxii, 786 p.</pages><edition>2nd</edition><keywords><keyword>Business Research Methodology.</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2007</year></dates><pub-location>Oxford</pub-location><publisher>Oxford University Press</publisher><isbn>9780199284986 (pbk.) 0199284989 (pbk.)</isbn><call-num>GENERAL LIBRARY 658.0072; B91; 2007 SHORT LOAN(2 Hour) - Kate Edger Information Commons(Level 1) 658.0072; B91; 2007 SHORT LOAN(3 Day) - Kate Edger Information Commons(Level 1) 658.0072; B91; 2007; copy 2</call-num><label>Bus705 BUS705 Textbook Dissertation</label><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Bryman & Bell, 2007). This being said, the research proposed is only the initial methods to be implemented, the design of this research specifically benefits from ‘multisource data, multi-method collection’ ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Tharenou</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>175</RecNum><record><rec-number>175</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">175</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Tharenou, Phyllis</author><author>Donohue, Ross</author><author>Cooper, Brian</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Management research methods</title></titles><pages>x, 338 p.</pages><section>72-88, 250-270</section><keywords><keyword>Management Research.</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2007</year></dates><pub-location>Cambridge [England]</pub-location><publisher>Cambridge University Press</publisher><isbn>0521694280 (pbk.) 9780521694285 (pbk.)</isbn><call-num>GENERAL LIBRARY 658.40072; T36</call-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0710/2007005702.html</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Tharenou et al., 2007) and further extensions maybe required throughout this process. This design will enable me to obtain an accurate and complete view of the revolutionary change and the environment as a consequence within each of these branches. In this initial proposal, the primary source of research is the use of focus groups, followed up with semi structured qualitative interviews. <br />The initial primary method to be utilised is focus groups which will allow me to understand why followers perceive the situation the way they do and observe how they collectively make sense of such perceptions ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Bryman</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>159</RecNum><record><rec-number>159</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">159</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Bryman, Alan</author><author>Bell, Emma</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Business research methods</title></titles><pages>xxxii, 786 p.</pages><edition>2nd</edition><keywords><keyword>Business Research Methodology.</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2007</year></dates><pub-location>Oxford</pub-location><publisher>Oxford University Press</publisher><isbn>9780199284986 (pbk.) 0199284989 (pbk.)</isbn><call-num>GENERAL LIBRARY 658.0072; B91; 2007 SHORT LOAN(2 Hour) - Kate Edger Information Commons(Level 1) 658.0072; B91; 2007 SHORT LOAN(3 Day) - Kate Edger Information Commons(Level 1) 658.0072; B91; 2007; copy 2</call-num><label>Bus705 BUS705 Textbook Dissertation</label><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Bryman & Bell, 2007). This process will also assist generating retrospective thought and may assist highlighting thoughts that other respondents may have overlooked without conversation. Focus groups will also help to identify those with relative knowledge and critical insight to events which occurred and individuals identified in this process can from here form a further sample for qualitative interviewing. By using the critical incident technique in conjunction with semi structured interviews will allow the interpretation of when employees felt Grahame’s’ influence had been great and when it has not, but more importantly, allow me to ‘develop an understanding of the sequence of events and significance to individuals ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Bryman</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>159</RecNum><record><rec-number>159</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">159</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Bryman, Alan</author><author>Bell, Emma</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Business research methods</title></titles><pages>xxxii, 786 p.</pages><edition>2nd</edition><keywords><keyword>Business Research Methodology.</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2007</year></dates><pub-location>Oxford</pub-location><publisher>Oxford University Press</publisher><isbn>9780199284986 (pbk.) 0199284989 (pbk.)</isbn><call-num>GENERAL LIBRARY 658.0072; B91; 2007 SHORT LOAN(2 Hour) - Kate Edger Information Commons(Level 1) 658.0072; B91; 2007 SHORT LOAN(3 Day) - Kate Edger Information Commons(Level 1) 658.0072; B91; 2007; copy 2</call-num><label>Bus705 BUS705 Textbook Dissertation</label><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Bryman & Bell, 2007). A longitudinal data analysis of both internal and external resources will assist in developing a more complete understanding of the interpretation of this leadership and change from the perspective of those who experienced it. By using this design will enable me to ‘elucidate the unique features of the case, adopting an idiographic approach’ ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Bryman</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>159</RecNum><Suffix>, p63</Suffix><record><rec-number>159</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">159</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Bryman, Alan</author><author>Bell, Emma</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Business research methods</title></titles><pages>xxxii, 786 p.</pages><edition>2nd</edition><keywords><keyword>Business Research Methodology.</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2007</year></dates><pub-location>Oxford</pub-location><publisher>Oxford University Press</publisher><isbn>9780199284986 (pbk.) 0199284989 (pbk.)</isbn><call-num>GENERAL LIBRARY 658.0072; B91; 2007 SHORT LOAN(2 Hour) - Kate Edger Information Commons(Level 1) 658.0072; B91; 2007 SHORT LOAN(3 Day) - Kate Edger Information Commons(Level 1) 658.0072; B91; 2007; copy 2</call-num><label>Bus705 BUS705 Textbook Dissertation</label><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Bryman & Bell, 2007, p63). <br />5.2Data Sampling<br />The sample selection in terms of secondary resources will be relatively wide, in order to gain the best understanding of this situation from an internal perspective, a number of sources maybe utilised. Considering text in a longitudinal analysis which is produced internally within VFNZ will be critical to the process of attempting to establish some idea of the specific events which occurred during this process. The text developed in communication both from and between, VF Group, VF APR and the team leading the management group at various stages within VFNZ & VFAus respectively along with communications between the executive management group and the various other areas of the organisation as well as the variety of resources distributed on the intranet system and reporting documentation are all incredibly relevant. These particular areas of collection for the secondary source have been identified as they have the potential to provide valuable insight into the dissemination of leadership, structure, culture and direction during different time periods within VFNZ & VFAus. External sources of text, including media resources, industry information and press statements also provide a potentially very valuable perspective which may assist in developing understanding. <br />Once a clear understanding of the organisation structure within both VFNZ & VFAus has been constructed and compared with previous structures with information gained from these secondary sources, the specific sample groups can be identified. I have initially proposed three different groups from which samples will be obtained in the process of collecting data, initially as members of focus groups of between 4-6 people and then where appropriate further consideration with qualitative semi-structured interviews. These groups may possibly be expanded or altered as the understanding of the organisation is increased by considering the text available around these processes. <br />5.2.1Current VFNZ Management Group<br />The current management team within VFNZ & VFAus will be sampled to consider the current strategy and leadership philosophy emphasised by VF. The current management teams understanding of what constitutes the change initiatives instituted and attempted to be normalised within VFNZ & VFAus by Grahame, will provide useful insights into their understanding or perception on the change process. Comparing conceptualisations made by them of what constitutes VF in a historical setting with the makeup of VF currently will highlight differences which may assist isolating the critical incidents which lead to the change of management philosophy. Speaking to people currently involved in the management team will also highlight if this purposive leadership philosophy is still considered relevant within the planning and management at an executive level within VFNZ & VFAus in a practical sense. <br />5.2.2Current Line Managers with Marketing Function<br />I have suggested the second group for sampling consist of a group of line managers, they have been selected as they are presumed to have the best understanding of the internal dynamics, process and culture within VF without being too far removed from the front line (as executive managers may) yet not too uninvolved as to not be somewhat aware of the managerial influences from top line (as front line employees may). It is difficult to label who these people will be until the current organisational structure is considered however all individual’s identified as holding positions at this middle management level from the marketing function will be considered. This function has been selected as this was Grahame’s original functional strength, his initial area of expertise within VFAus and his entrance point in VFNZ. It is therefore assumed his influence and approach should theoretically have had the most direct impact within this function. If there is still remnants of this change installed it is safe to assume it may be found here, alternatively, this group may also provide useful insight as to the perception of this leadership and understandings of change management philosophies implemented. <br />5.2.3Key Agents from both groups in historical context <br />As this research intends to consider a critical incident/s which is expected to have occurred historically, once key agents within this process are identified, it is expected that a number of them may have since moved on from VF. The team whom shuffled the management leadership in the period since Grahame left may also provide key insights, even if they were not directly involved at the time in concern. Identifying any people whom have remained in the organisation and were present during the initial change period in which reference is drawn, may also provide insight which could have otherwise been overlooked regardless of role or function. <br />5.3Data Collection <br />Obtaining clearance to access information within VF, especially for the secondary sources of information required is expected, with reference to previous experience, to be as simple as making a few calls. However to obtain full disclosure from all levels and be able to ethically utilise and report on information collected, approval would initially be sought from a regional or global level. It is also important as to maintain creditability that support from top level is gained and VF Group’s approval is clear from the outset. The initial case study would be undertaken in VFNZ, this is for two reasons, one access is clearly easier if I am located here, but also the change being more historic in NZ, will allow me to fully see the process as a whole. When initially approaching VF, the current HR manager (Michael Stanley, VFNZ, & Wendy Lenton, VFAus) will be a valuable resource for identifying and obtaining information from the samples identified, especially when approaching interviews. Internally produced documentation on the processes and practises undertaken within the structural and executive level management within VF would also be stored within this department, along with any other potentially useful text. Such documentation is just one source of internal text which will be considered in a longitudinal analysis, particular focus will be placed on the communication between different parties within VFNZ & VFAus. <br />Some resources will be accessible relatively easily however the potential value from considering discourses within communication which is not developed for distribution as widely shouldn’t be overlooked. It will therefore be a process of approaching and explaining this area to key members, especially within the executive team, to ensure access to some personal communications can be obtained. Utilising affiliations with particular individuals may assist in this process. Asking certain agents involved in this process for any documentation or suggestions for resources they feel appropriate, will also provide some useful considerations and potentially highlight key understandings which may well be overlooked with an outside perspective. Any press releases or reporting information which has been released by VF will be collected along with any relevant media which is from a similar time period. <br />Focus groups would initially be undertaken within the different groups indicated independently in both VFNZ & VFAus, with particular individuals identified as appropriate samples for interviewing. At which point interviews would be planned throughout the three groups to delve further into the particular themes identified as important from these focus groups. Clearance and planning would be negotiated and orchestrated with close contact to appropriate members of HR team and it would be important to reiterate with any party whom I speak to, that anything said by them may be withdrawn if they feel the need but I would not provide option of providing written works for approval as it may limit the openness of respondents. Interviews and focus groups undertaken with parties whom are now external to VF would be conducted off site to ensure respondents feel they can be as open and honest as possible. <br />Data Analysis <br />Tharenou, P., Donohue, R., & Cooper, B. (2007). Management research methods. Cambridge University Press. p257Figure 1.0 | The Process of the Editing Approach to Content Analysis -63501929765By taking insights provided by the editing approach to content analysis will assist in understanding how the process of selecting various parts of relevant understanding from a variety of fields can be used in conjunction to consider findings developed. The process traditionally undertaken in this approach to analysis has been demonstrated in Figure 1.0, highlighting the application of various sources of text to interpretively determine connections ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Tharenou</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>175</RecNum><record><rec-number>175</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">175</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Tharenou, Phyllis</author><author>Donohue, Ross</author><author>Cooper, Brian</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Management research methods</title></titles><pages>x, 338 p.</pages><section>72-88, 250-270</section><keywords><keyword>Management Research.</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2007</year></dates><pub-location>Cambridge [England]</pub-location><publisher>Cambridge University Press</publisher><isbn>0521694280 (pbk.) 9780521694285 (pbk.)</isbn><call-num>GENERAL LIBRARY 658.40072; T36</call-num><urls><related-urls><url>http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/ecip0710/2007005702.html</url></related-urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Tharenou et al., 2007).The understanding of the content analysis is helpful for <br />us to consider the development of such a framework for compiling the various fields of literature in a way that is easy to comprehend. When considering the analysis of the data collected, a discourse analysis would allow me to take a constructivist approach understanding the reality for the followers through their renditions of it ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Bryman</Author><Year>2007</Year><RecNum>159</RecNum><record><rec-number>159</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">159</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Bryman, Alan</author><author>Bell, Emma</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>Business research methods</title></titles><pages>xxxii, 786 p.</pages><edition>2nd</edition><keywords><keyword>Business Research Methodology.</keyword></keywords><dates><year>2007</year></dates><pub-location>Oxford</pub-location><publisher>Oxford University Press</publisher><isbn>9780199284986 (pbk.) 0199284989 (pbk.)</isbn><call-num>GENERAL LIBRARY 658.0072; B91; 2007 SHORT LOAN(2 Hour) - Kate Edger Information Commons(Level 1) 658.0072; B91; 2007 SHORT LOAN(3 Day) - Kate Edger Information Commons(Level 1) 658.0072; B91; 2007; copy 2</call-num><label>Bus705 BUS705 Textbook Dissertation</label><urls></urls></record></Cite></EndNote>(Bryman & Bell, 2007). Using this form of analysis would allow me to identify the key discourse or themes through these periods of organisational change and identify the discourses highlighted by Grahame’s followers and how they have contributed to constructing his influence through his leadership. Considering the perspective of ‘followers as constructors of leadership’ we can use the research to identify how followers ‘construct and represent leaders in their thought systems’ ADDIN EN.CITE <EndNote><Cite><Author>Jackson</Author><Year>2008</Year><RecNum>185</RecNum><Suffix>, p46</Suffix><record><rec-number>185</rec-number><foreign-keys><key app="EN" db-id="92fvsd9r8525zxef2t15e02u0t9dxewdwdd5">185</key></foreign-keys><ref-type name="Book">6</ref-type><contributors><authors><author>Jackson, Brad</author><author>Parry, Ken</author></authors></contributors><titles><title>A very short, fairly interesting and resonably cheap book about studying leadership</title></titles><section>42-60</section><dates><year>2008</year></dates><pub-location>London</pub-location><publisher>SAGE Publications</publisher><urls></urls><access-date>Oct 20, 2008</access-date></record></Cite></EndNote>(Jackson & Parry, 2008, p46). <br />Potential issues with Research <br />There are three major potential issues within this research proposed which need to adequately be considered, my personal relationship with the subject provides not only some benefits but also some difficulties in the conceptualisation of the research. The concern of access is presented again, however the issue relates to the concern of historical analysis and the approach taken with the current employees within VF, especially the management team, has also been addressed as a potential issue if not addressed adequately. <br />7.1Relationship to Subject <br />There is the possibility that the validity of information retrieved was be questioned by the perception of this relationship from research subjects. I think however with the nature of the research not being negative towards Grahame directly but maybe questionable of VF’s procedures, with the support of VF an inquisitive investigation and the potential future benefits to strategy formation within VF can be a solid selling point for gaining an objective and honest perspective from participants. I have also considered the possible determent to the value of the research which may be perceived from the audience when understanding the research is completed by someone with the same surname as the research subject, yet as mentioned above, the purpose being clearly separate from an assessment of Grahame’s ability as a leader should minimise this. <br />Both the benefits and issues which evolve from my relationship with the subject have been explored in detail (please see Appendix Four for highlights this consideration) and one way which I propose to overcome the complications of the connection is to involve an external perspective in the research. By involving Emma Jeffery (Master Research student in Psychology & Organisational Behaviour, Massey University) within the research, she could provide an impartial perspective or third party if you like, but also the insights brought from the psychology field could further provide potential insights which may have been otherwise overlooked. The insights identified individually will still maintain value yet the potential benefit is found in the common themes identified in the discourse between us across disciplines and perspectives. <br />7.2Access: analysing a Historical Event <br />As I want to consider the events of a critical incident/s which may well have involved people whom where within VFNZ at the time of such events, but may no longer be. With particular reference to the executive team, Grahame reports that “none of the management group whom where part of this change are still within VFNZ now, some are still within VF but none in the same positions” (personal communication with Grahame Maher, October 6, 2008). Many of the management team still maintain contact with Grahame (many have moved internationally to continue to be involved in work with him), and personally I have contact with a few of these key agents remaining in the NZ setting. The potential issue of access is more prevalent when considering the line managers from the marketing function, many of these may have also moved on, but may prove more difficult to find than those whom held higher positions. I intend to utilise the connections and networks within VFNZ and utilise other contacts within the industry. Alternatively, I have also considered the use of social networking sites, especially things like Facebook, to track down any key agents whom I am unable to contact. Realistically I do not foresee there to be an issue of a lack of people with whom I can access, I believe there many in fact expect a number o

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