Today’s Outcomes•   Know why species are invasive•   Determine management goals•   Understand range of management methods•...
Early Vegetation                   From John T. Curtis,              Vegetation of Wisconsin, 1959
Early Invasives?“Our waters filled with fish, and the air with gamebirds, and the rock ledges with rattlesnakes, andthe wo...
Invasive Beginnings           Wisconsin Historical Society
Invasives Follow Us
Definitions“Invasive” definitions differ depending on the  goal. “…causes economic harm to….” “interferes with land mana...
What makes a plant invasive?• Tolerate wide range of soil, light, other  conditions• Enjoy longer growing period• Ability ...
What do we do?   Learn to ID and know plants’ biology   Take inventory, map   Create a plan   Learn & use control meth...
Know thy enemy Learn to identify the plants   Seedling   Adult   Dormancy Learn plants’ biology   Annual   Biennial...
Know thy enemyAnnuals  Live one growing  season  Survive through  seed  Ragweed, foxtails
Know Thy Enemy: biennialsLive TWO growing seasonsSurvive through, and produce a lot of, seed  Garlic mustard*  Wild pa...
Biennial biology• Seedling/rosette yr 1• Flower, then die yr 2• Spread by seed only   –   Vehicles   –   Shoes   –   Anima...
Garlic Mustard Effects• Release soil toxins.• Disrupt soil-fungi  associations.• Reduce/prevent tree  regeneration.
Biennials: Bull, musk, plumeless             thistle
Know Thy Enemy: PerennialsGreater threat to woodland goalsLive many growing seasonsSurvive through stored root energyR...
Perennial: Multiflora Rose
Perennial: Multiflora Rose                 Identifying characteristic:                 bristles at base of petiole
Perennial: Common buckthorn• Male & female plants.• Visible late into fall.• Use these features to  your advantage.
Unfair competition. . .
Perennials: Bush     HoneysucklesHabitat: upland, especiallyunder roost treesBlooms: May to June; white,yellow, orange o...
Perennials: Autumn oliveHabitat: dry uplandBlooms: May to JuneFlowers white and fragrantReproduces mostly by root suck...
Autumn olive
Perennial vine: Oriental bittersweet• Woody vine that climbs  other vegetation• Thrives in a wide range  of conditions• Gr...
Human vectored dispersalUrtica/Flickr creative commons
Highly invasive and damaging           Vines strangle trees,           reduce available light;           added vine weight...
Distinguishing bittersweetsFruitcapsulecolorFruitposition            American       Oriental
Problem Ornamental Species•   Japanese knotweed•   Japanese barberry•   buckthorns•   Asian honeysuckles•   Amur maple•   ...
Take inventory   Aerial photo or scaled lot layout   Estimate species present & density   Identify land use – past, pre...
Take Inventory
Prioritize!   Importance of habitat?   Size of population?   Rate of spread?   Interfere with land use?   Resources a...
General Management Strategies• Monitor, especially  along trails, roads• Look beyond property  lines• Prioritize species; ...
Management methods•   Ounce of prevention…•   Pull•   Cut/Mow•   Girdle•   Cut stem•   Graze•   Prescribed fire•   Herbici...
Prevention• Encourage competition• Early detection & removal of new species• Consider steps to prevent introduction during...
Pull• Good for young people,  small infestations, small  plants.• *Flowers can still set  seed after pulling.
Mow/Cut•   Goal: weaken plant; prevent seed set.•   Timing is critical—best when in flower.•   Repeated mowing often neede...
Mowing/Cutting Equipment
Grazing Principles   similar tomowingGoats can be “trained”to some speciesRepeated treatmentsnecessaryContractors avai...
Girdle• Goal: starve roots• Good for clonal tree  species.                             Photo courtesy of Tom Brock• Labor ...
Girdling – Step 1   Girdling – Step 2
Cut-Stem Treatment    • Goal: kill plant                                               Photo courtesy of Tom Brock    • Go...
Cut-stem Control MethodTarget:• Shrubs/trees• buckthorn, honeysuckle, autumn olive, prickly ash,  multi-flora rose, undesi...
Cut-stem Control MethodTiming:•   Summer, Fall or Winter preferred•   Avoid early spring and deep snow periods•   Above-fr...
Cut-stem Control MethodTechnique:• Cut stems at no higher than 6”.• Work in pairs, if possible, to  avoid “escapes”.• Work...
Prescribed Fire   Requires training,    experience   Specialized equipment   Good public relations   Good neighbor rel...
Foliar herbicide• Safety first• Better for larger infestations• Selective vs. non-selective  herbicides• Pre- vs. post-eme...
Foliar herbicideTiming• Rosette stage best for  biennials.• Before flowering, in  general.• Combine with  fire/mow.
Basal bark herbicide• Small; smooth bark• Generally, single-stem  shrubs & trees• Treat all clone stems• Oil-based chemica...
Integrated Methods• Successful control  efforts include:   – Integrated approach   – monitoring   – early detection.      ...
Other Precautions• Clean boots to prevent seed spread (wheeled  vehicles, too?).• Minimize soil disturbance.• Consider spr...
Develop a management plan            •Garlic mustard detected            •Goal is to …                                    ...
Develop a management plan               Garlic mustard control               1. Develop a map               2. Satellite p...
Example Plan• Satellite populations:  – Pull 2nd year plants before flowering  – Spray 1st year plants in fall or very ear...
Example Plan• Large patch along road/trail:  – Mow, pull, spray along road before seed set.  – Work perimeter inward     •...
Volunteer OpportunitiesLearn while doing• Kickapoo Valley Woods Cooperative• The Prairie Enthusiasts• The Nature Conservancy
Other Resources• County Extension office  – fyi.uwex.edu/weedsci• County DNR foresters  – dnr.wi.gov/topic/ForestHealth/• ...
Summary• Early detection & prevention are critical• New species introduction & spread mostly  dependent on our behavior• S...
Questions?john.exo@ces.uwex.edu    (608) 355-3554
Managing Invasive Woodland Plants
Managing Invasive Woodland Plants
Managing Invasive Woodland Plants
Managing Invasive Woodland Plants
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Managing Invasive Woodland Plants

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Comprehensive presentation on managing invasive woodland plants. Please respect author acknowledgement protocol.

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  • Historically before settlement, we had a mosaic of plant communities in Wisconsin, each represented by myriad native species that evolved to be adapted to our climate, soils, topography, wetness and other site characteristics.
  • Hmmmm. Canada thistles and mean men the first invasives?
  • Early settlers unwittingly brought invasive plant seed, but also the means to expose soil to those invaders.
  • Point: some native species become/became invasive due to shifting influences of disturbances. For example, fire was often suppressed, which gave a competitive advantage to less or non-fire adapted species. i.e. prickly ash, which flourishes in old pastures, especially where fire is not allowed.
  • Habitat includes:ForestsField and forest marginsMeadows and prairieRight-of-waysFence rowsAlong waterwaysResidential landscapesOriental bittersweet is native to China, Japan, Korea, Mongolia, and the Russian Federation. It was introduced to the eastern US in the 1800s.Image of Oriental bittersweet climbing into the trees on the right and has pulled down the tree in front.
  • Both sexual (seed) and asexual (rhizome = root that sends up new shoots and stolon = root-like stem that sends up new shoots) reproduction. It can be difficult to identify individual plants due to clonal propagation.Oriental bittersweet is functionally diecious with separate male and female plants. Both male and female plants flower. Male flowers produce pollen that is received by female flowers. Pollinated by insects (bees) and wind.Birds aid the dissemination of seed by eating the fruit containing seed. The seed passes through the bird and can moved to uninfested areas. The seed germination rate is higher after the seed has passed through a bird.Seed viability in soil is not long (generally 1-3 years). A short-lived seedbank is helpful for long-term infestation control.Image of rhizome sending up new shootsImage of summer leaves and fruit.
  • People use the colorful fruiting vines for arrangements. Seed can be inadvertently dispersed when collecting, transporting, and disposing of the fruiting branches.
  • Although Oriental bittersweet is newly reported in MN, we can use assessments from the eastern and southern regions to prompt us into action before Oriental bittersweet is widespread. For example, Forest Service ranked Oriental bittersweet #5 of the top 10 invasive plant priorities for the Northeastern Area. Images: Oriental bittersweet vine girdling a tree (left) and a downed tree overwhelmed by bittersweet vines.
  • This mass of Oriental bittersweet vines climbed into the trees and is beginning to down trees.
  • When leafed out, Oriental bittersweet shades and smothers other vegetation. The images shows a Colorado blue spruce and fence engulfed by Oriental bittersweet.Infestation along Hwy 36 in the metro. Mn/DOT has controlled this infestation.
  • Identifying Oriental bittersweetTop left: Leaves are glossy green and leaf shape is highly variable Top right: Raised white bumps (lenticels) on the stemBottom left: Fruits are positioned at where the leaves attach to the stem (at the leaf axils). Green summer fruits are shown in this picture.Bottom right: Fall fruit with a bright yellow capsule.
  • Both American and Oriental bittersweet occur in the same habitat. Unfortunately, Oriental outcompetes American because it germinates better in the shade, has a longer period for photosynthesis because it leafs out early in the spring and holds its leaves late in the fall, and Oriental bittersweet can smother American bittersweet.Hybrids were created for a lab study demonstrating that the species can hybridize. Few viable progeny were produced from hybrids and hybrid pollen had a much lower viability compared to the species. Bittersweets with indeterminate characteristics (indicating hybrids) have been observed in the field.The nursery industry developed beautiful cultivars of American bittersweet that are a good choice for landscape use.
  • The easiest way to distinguish American and Oriental bittersweets is by the fruit capsule color (orange for American and yellow for Oriental) and fruit placement (at the terminal ends for American and at the leaf axils for Oriental).
  • Managing Invasive Woodland Plants

    1. 1. Today’s Outcomes• Know why species are invasive• Determine management goals• Understand range of management methods• Know integrated strategies
    2. 2. Early Vegetation From John T. Curtis, Vegetation of Wisconsin, 1959
    3. 3. Early Invasives?“Our waters filled with fish, and the air with gamebirds, and the rock ledges with rattlesnakes, andthe woods with large game…We have no Canadathistles or mean men.” Wm. H Canfield, 1842 Sauk County Surveyor
    4. 4. Invasive Beginnings Wisconsin Historical Society
    5. 5. Invasives Follow Us
    6. 6. Definitions“Invasive” definitions differ depending on the goal. “…causes economic harm to….” “interferes with land management goals…” “kills or displaces populations of native species…”
    7. 7. What makes a plant invasive?• Tolerate wide range of soil, light, other conditions• Enjoy longer growing period• Ability to alter soil chemistry• Prolific seed production• Have few or no natural controls
    8. 8. What do we do? Learn to ID and know plants’ biology Take inventory, map Create a plan Learn & use control methods Monitor & adapt
    9. 9. Know thy enemy Learn to identify the plants  Seedling  Adult  Dormancy Learn plants’ biology  Annual  Biennial  Perennial
    10. 10. Know thy enemyAnnuals Live one growing season Survive through seed Ragweed, foxtails
    11. 11. Know Thy Enemy: biennialsLive TWO growing seasonsSurvive through, and produce a lot of, seed Garlic mustard* Wild parsnip Bull, musk, plumeless thistle Sweet clover Spotted knapweed
    12. 12. Biennial biology• Seedling/rosette yr 1• Flower, then die yr 2• Spread by seed only – Vehicles – Shoes – Animals – Water
    13. 13. Garlic Mustard Effects• Release soil toxins.• Disrupt soil-fungi associations.• Reduce/prevent tree regeneration.
    14. 14. Biennials: Bull, musk, plumeless thistle
    15. 15. Know Thy Enemy: PerennialsGreater threat to woodland goalsLive many growing seasonsSurvive through stored root energyReproduce via seeds, suckers, rootsImportant to know if: Simple roots (honeysuckle) Creeping or clonal roots (Canada thistle)
    16. 16. Perennial: Multiflora Rose
    17. 17. Perennial: Multiflora Rose Identifying characteristic: bristles at base of petiole
    18. 18. Perennial: Common buckthorn• Male & female plants.• Visible late into fall.• Use these features to your advantage.
    19. 19. Unfair competition. . .
    20. 20. Perennials: Bush HoneysucklesHabitat: upland, especiallyunder roost treesBlooms: May to June; white,yellow, orange or pinkBerries: orange or redEarly leaf-out, late leaf drop
    21. 21. Perennials: Autumn oliveHabitat: dry uplandBlooms: May to JuneFlowers white and fragrantReproduces mostly by root suckering
    22. 22. Autumn olive
    23. 23. Perennial vine: Oriental bittersweet• Woody vine that climbs other vegetation• Thrives in a wide range of conditions• Grows to 60+’ in length• Introduced as an ornamental
    24. 24. Human vectored dispersalUrtica/Flickr creative commons
    25. 25. Highly invasive and damaging Vines strangle trees, reduce available light; added vine weight can break trees
    26. 26. Distinguishing bittersweetsFruitcapsulecolorFruitposition American Oriental
    27. 27. Problem Ornamental Species• Japanese knotweed• Japanese barberry• buckthorns• Asian honeysuckles• Amur maple• Common tansy• Oriental, or Round- leaved bittersweet
    28. 28. Take inventory Aerial photo or scaled lot layout Estimate species present & density Identify land use – past, present & future Look beyond your property lines
    29. 29. Take Inventory
    30. 30. Prioritize! Importance of habitat? Size of population? Rate of spread? Interfere with land use? Resources available? Other priorities?
    31. 31. General Management Strategies• Monitor, especially along trails, roads• Look beyond property lines• Prioritize species; areas• Timing is critical• Attack outer edges first
    32. 32. Management methods• Ounce of prevention…• Pull• Cut/Mow• Girdle• Cut stem• Graze• Prescribed fire• Herbicide (foliar, basal bark)• Integrated methods
    33. 33. Prevention• Encourage competition• Early detection & removal of new species• Consider steps to prevent introduction during timber management
    34. 34. Pull• Good for young people, small infestations, small plants.• *Flowers can still set seed after pulling.
    35. 35. Mow/Cut• Goal: weaken plant; prevent seed set.• Timing is critical—best when in flower.• Repeated mowing often needed• Weakens, but may not kill plants.• Can be combined with herbicide methods.
    36. 36. Mowing/Cutting Equipment
    37. 37. Grazing Principles similar tomowingGoats can be “trained”to some speciesRepeated treatmentsnecessaryContractors available
    38. 38. Girdle• Goal: starve roots• Good for clonal tree species. Photo courtesy of Tom Brock• Labor intensive. Photo courtesy: Tom Brock• Very effective if done correctly.• Timing: June-July best.• 1 or 2 step method.
    39. 39. Girdling – Step 1 Girdling – Step 2
    40. 40. Cut-Stem Treatment • Goal: kill plant Photo courtesy of Tom Brock • Good winter option • Very targeted use of herbicidesPhoto: Savanna Oaks Foundation, Inc
    41. 41. Cut-stem Control MethodTarget:• Shrubs/trees• buckthorn, honeysuckle, autumn olive, prickly ash, multi-flora rose, undesirable trees, etc.Herbicides:• Systemic• Active ingredients glyphosate (Roundup/generic) or triclopyr (Garlon 4/Element 4)
    42. 42. Cut-stem Control MethodTiming:• Summer, Fall or Winter preferred• Avoid early spring and deep snow periods• Above-freezing temps with glyphosate• Triclopyr (Garlon) at any temperature• Apply glyphosate within minutes of cutting.
    43. 43. Cut-stem Control MethodTechnique:• Cut stems at no higher than 6”.• Work in pairs, if possible, to avoid “escapes”.• Work in a pattern.• Treat only outer edge of larger stumps. Photo courtesy: Tom Brock
    44. 44. Prescribed Fire Requires training, experience Specialized equipment Good public relations Good neighbor relations Photo courtesy of Tom Brock Timing! Effective when integrated with other methods
    45. 45. Foliar herbicide• Safety first• Better for larger infestations• Selective vs. non-selective herbicides• Pre- vs. post-emergence application
    46. 46. Foliar herbicideTiming• Rosette stage best for biennials.• Before flowering, in general.• Combine with fire/mow.
    47. 47. Basal bark herbicide• Small; smooth bark• Generally, single-stem shrubs & trees• Treat all clone stems• Oil-based chemicals (triclopyr: Garlon 4 or Element 4) Photos courtesy of Tom Brock
    48. 48. Integrated Methods• Successful control efforts include: – Integrated approach – monitoring – early detection. Photos courtesy Tom Brock
    49. 49. Other Precautions• Clean boots to prevent seed spread (wheeled vehicles, too?).• Minimize soil disturbance.• Consider spread by wildlife & water.• Monitor imported materials (gravel, topsoil, mulch, etc).
    50. 50. Develop a management plan •Garlic mustard detected •Goal is to … Road
    51. 51. Develop a management plan Garlic mustard control 1. Develop a map 2. Satellite plants--goal to eradicate. 3. Extensive patch along road--goal to prevent further spread. Road
    52. 52. Example Plan• Satellite populations: – Pull 2nd year plants before flowering – Spray 1st year plants in fall or very early spring
    53. 53. Example Plan• Large patch along road/trail: – Mow, pull, spray along road before seed set. – Work perimeter inward • Spray rosettes fall/early spring • Pull escapes in between• Repeat, monitor, re-map subsequent years.
    54. 54. Volunteer OpportunitiesLearn while doing• Kickapoo Valley Woods Cooperative• The Prairie Enthusiasts• The Nature Conservancy
    55. 55. Other Resources• County Extension office – fyi.uwex.edu/weedsci• County DNR foresters – dnr.wi.gov/topic/ForestHealth/• Oaksavannas.org• www.ipaw.org
    56. 56. Summary• Early detection & prevention are critical• New species introduction & spread mostly dependent on our behavior• Set realistic goals• Make a plan, then adapt, using…• Integrated methods
    57. 57. Questions?john.exo@ces.uwex.edu (608) 355-3554

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