Managing Invasive Plants  Kickapoo Valley Reserve       June 11, 2011   John Exo, UW-Extension   John.exo@ces.uwex.edu
Outline History of invasive establishment Why species are invasive Strategies Some problem species
Early Vegetation                       From John T. Curtis,                   Vegetation of Wisconsin, 1959
Early Landscape “Our waters filled with fish, and the air with game birds, and the rock ledges with rattlesnakes, and the ...
Invasive Beginnings                Wisconsin Historical Society
New People, New Pests“Ever since the settlement of the country, there  has been a tendency for certain plants and  animals...
Definitions“Invasive” definitions differ depending on  the goal.   “…causes economic harm to….”   “interferes with land ...
What makes a plant invasive? Tolerate wide range of soil, light, other  conditions Longer growing period Alter soil che...
What do we do?   Get educated: inventory, map, make a    plan   Learn to ID and know plants’ biology   Create a plan  ...
Take inventory   Aerial photo or scaled lot layout   Plant I.D. books/websites   Estimate species present & density   ...
Know thy enemy   Learn to identify the plants      Seedling      Adult      Dormancy   Learn plants’ biology      An...
Know thy enemyAnnuals     Live one growing season as a plant     Survive through seed     If they don’t produce seed, ...
AnnualsLive one year, survive by seedGiant, common ragweedFoxtail grass
Know thy enemyBiennials     Live TWO growing seasons     Survive through seed     Produce a lot of seed
BiennialsLive two years, survive by seed     Garlic mustard     Wild parsnip     Bull, musk, plumeless thistle     Sw...
Biennials:Garlic mustard                 WI DNR photos
Biennials:Wild Parsnip*(a monocarpic perennial)
Wild parsnip burns!•   Phyto-Photo-Dermatitis:•   Juice-skin-sunlight•   Blister scars can last years.
Biennials: Bull thistle
Know thy enemyPerennials     Live many growing seasons     Survive through stored energy     Reproduce via seeds, suck...
Perennial: Canada thistle            •Primary reproduction: creeping            horizontal lateral roots            •dense...
Perennial: Multiflora Rose(Rosa multiflora)
Multiflora Rose                    Identifying                   characteristic:                  bristles at base of     ...
Perennial: Common buckthorn
Unfair competition. . .
Perennials: Bush     Honeysuckles         (Lonicera spp.)Habitat: upland, especiallyunder roost treesBlooms: May to June...
Perennials: Autumn oliveHabitat: dry uplandBlooms: May to JuneFlowers are white and fragrantReproduces mostly by root ...
Autumn olive
Problem Ornamental Species   Japanese knotweed   Japanese barberry   buckthorns   Asian honeysuckles   Amur maple   ...
Some watch list species   Japanese hedge    parsley   Wild chervil   Hill’s mustard   Japanese knotweed   Teasels
Prioritization   Importance of habitat   Size of population   Rate of spread   interfere with land use?   Resources a...
Management strategies   Monitor year-round,    especially along    trails, roads   Look beyond    property lines   Prio...
Management methods   Ounce of prevention…   Pull   Cut/Mow   Girdle   Cut stem   Graze   Prescribed fire   Herbici...
Prevention Encourage competition Proactively establish competition
Pull !!!!   Good for young    people, small    infestations, small    plants.
Mow/Cut   Timing is critical—best when in flower.   Repeated mowings likely needed   Slows, but may not kill plants.  ...
Mowing/Cutting Equipment
GirdleGood for clonal treespecies Labor intensive Very effective if done  correctly                Photo courtesy of Tom...
Girdling – Step 1   Girdling – Step 2
Cut-Stem Treatment         Good winter                                      Photo courtesy of Tom Brock          option  ...
Basic Woody ShrubCut-stem Control MethodTarget:   Small to medium invasive shrubs, e.g. buckthorn,    honeysuckle, Autumn...
Basic Woody ShrubCut-stem Control MethodTiming:   Summer, Fall or Winter are preferred.   Avoid early spring and heavy s...
Basic Woody ShrubCut-stem Control Method  Technique:     Cut stems at no higher than 6”     Work in pairs, if possible, ...
Grazing Timing Palatability Goats can be “trained” tosome speciesRepeated treatmentsnecessary
Prescribed Fire   Requires training   Experience   Specialized equipment   Good Public relations   Good neighbor rela...
Using Fire for ManagementRequires: Special training Specialized equipment Good Public relations Good neighbor relation...
Foliar herbicide   Safety first   Timing is critical   better for larger    infestations   Good in combination with   ...
Basal bark herbicide   Small; smooth bark   Generally, single-stem    shrubs & trees   Limited herbicide    choices   ...
Integrated Methods   Most successful    control efforts involve    an integrated    approach that include    monitoring &...
Other Precautions Clean shoes to prevent seed spread Minimize soil disturbance Consider wildlife & water role in spread...
Develop a management plan            •Garlic mustard presence shown.            •Goal is to …                             ...
Garlic mustard biology   Biennial   Seedling/rosette yr 1   Flower, then die yr 2   Spread by seed only       Vehicle...
Develop a management plan               1. satellites: goal to eradicate               Combine methods to prevent         ...
Example Plan   Satellite populations:      Pull 2nd year plants before flowering      Spray in 1st year plants in fall ...
Example Plan Large patch along road/trail    Mow, pull, spray along road before     seed set.    Work perimeter inward ...
Calling All Volunteers! Kickapoo Valley Woods Cooperative The Prairie Enthusiasts The Nature Conservancy Kickapoo Vall...
Other ResourcesMembership, links, and    information  http://www.ipaw.org
Summary Invasives are already here Early detection & prevention are critical Introduction of new species mostly  depend...
Questions?
Invasive Plant Management
Invasive Plant Management
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Invasive Plant Management

  1. 1. Managing Invasive Plants Kickapoo Valley Reserve June 11, 2011 John Exo, UW-Extension John.exo@ces.uwex.edu
  2. 2. Outline History of invasive establishment Why species are invasive Strategies Some problem species
  3. 3. Early Vegetation From John T. Curtis, Vegetation of Wisconsin, 1959
  4. 4. Early Landscape “Our waters filled with fish, and the air with game birds, and the rock ledges with rattlesnakes, and the woods with large game…We have no Canada thistles or mean men.” Wm. H Canfield, 1842 Sauk County Surveyor
  5. 5. Invasive Beginnings Wisconsin Historical Society
  6. 6. New People, New Pests“Ever since the settlement of the country, there has been a tendency for certain plants and animals to get out of hand…Usually these runaways have been foreigners (like the carp, Norway rat…) but native species…are clearly also capable of pest behavior.” Aldo Leopold, 1945
  7. 7. Definitions“Invasive” definitions differ depending on the goal. “…causes economic harm to….” “interferes with land management goals…” “kills or displaces populations of native species…”
  8. 8. What makes a plant invasive? Tolerate wide range of soil, light, other conditions Longer growing period Alter soil chemistry Prolific seed production Few or no natural controls
  9. 9. What do we do? Get educated: inventory, map, make a plan Learn to ID and know plants’ biology Create a plan Learn & use control methods Monitor & adapt
  10. 10. Take inventory Aerial photo or scaled lot layout Plant I.D. books/websites Estimate species present & density I.D. land use – past, present & future Look beyond your property lines
  11. 11. Know thy enemy Learn to identify the plants  Seedling  Adult  Dormancy Learn plants’ biology  Annual  Biennial  Perennial
  12. 12. Know thy enemyAnnuals  Live one growing season as a plant  Survive through seed  If they don’t produce seed, they can’t reproduce
  13. 13. AnnualsLive one year, survive by seedGiant, common ragweedFoxtail grass
  14. 14. Know thy enemyBiennials  Live TWO growing seasons  Survive through seed  Produce a lot of seed
  15. 15. BiennialsLive two years, survive by seed  Garlic mustard  Wild parsnip  Bull, musk, plumeless thistle  Sweet clover  Spotted knapweed
  16. 16. Biennials:Garlic mustard WI DNR photos
  17. 17. Biennials:Wild Parsnip*(a monocarpic perennial)
  18. 18. Wild parsnip burns!• Phyto-Photo-Dermatitis:• Juice-skin-sunlight• Blister scars can last years.
  19. 19. Biennials: Bull thistle
  20. 20. Know thy enemyPerennials  Live many growing seasons  Survive through stored energy  Reproduce via seeds, suckers, roots  Important to know if:  Simple roots (honeysuckle)  Creeping roots (Can. thistle)
  21. 21. Perennial: Canada thistle •Primary reproduction: creeping horizontal lateral roots •dense clonal growth
  22. 22. Perennial: Multiflora Rose(Rosa multiflora)
  23. 23. Multiflora Rose Identifying characteristic: bristles at base of petiole
  24. 24. Perennial: Common buckthorn
  25. 25. Unfair competition. . .
  26. 26. Perennials: Bush Honeysuckles (Lonicera spp.)Habitat: upland, especiallyunder roost treesBlooms: May to June,produces orange or redberriesFlowers are white, yellow,orange, or pinkEarly spring leaf-out, late fallleaf drop
  27. 27. Perennials: Autumn oliveHabitat: dry uplandBlooms: May to JuneFlowers are white and fragrantReproduces mostly by root suckering
  28. 28. Autumn olive
  29. 29. Problem Ornamental Species Japanese knotweed Japanese barberry buckthorns Asian honeysuckles Amur maple Common tansy Oriental, or Round- leaved bittersweet
  30. 30. Some watch list species Japanese hedge parsley Wild chervil Hill’s mustard Japanese knotweed Teasels
  31. 31. Prioritization Importance of habitat Size of population Rate of spread interfere with land use? Resources available
  32. 32. Management strategies Monitor year-round, especially along trails, roads Look beyond property lines Prioritize species; areas Timing is everything
  33. 33. Management methods Ounce of prevention… Pull Cut/Mow Girdle Cut stem Graze Prescribed fire Herbicide (foliar, basal bark) Integrated methods are most successful
  34. 34. Prevention Encourage competition Proactively establish competition
  35. 35. Pull !!!! Good for young people, small infestations, small plants.
  36. 36. Mow/Cut Timing is critical—best when in flower. Repeated mowings likely needed Slows, but may not kill plants. Can be combined with herbicide methods.
  37. 37. Mowing/Cutting Equipment
  38. 38. GirdleGood for clonal treespecies Labor intensive Very effective if done correctly Photo courtesy of Tom Brock Timing: June best 1 or 2 step method
  39. 39. Girdling – Step 1 Girdling – Step 2
  40. 40. Cut-Stem Treatment  Good winter Photo courtesy of Tom Brock option  Very targeted use of herbicidesPhoto: Savanna Oaks Foundation, Inc
  41. 41. Basic Woody ShrubCut-stem Control MethodTarget: Small to medium invasive shrubs, e.g. buckthorn, honeysuckle, Autumn olive, prickly ash, etc.Herbicides: systemic herbicide such as glyphosate (Roundup or generic) or Triclopyr (Garlon 4 or generic)
  42. 42. Basic Woody ShrubCut-stem Control MethodTiming: Summer, Fall or Winter are preferred. Avoid early spring and heavy snow periods. Above-freezing temps when using water-soluble herbicides such as glyphosate. Apply water-soluble herbicides within minutes of cutting. Triclopyr can be applied at any temp
  43. 43. Basic Woody ShrubCut-stem Control Method Technique:  Cut stems at no higher than 6”  Work in pairs, if possible, to avoid “escapes”  Work in a pattern  Treat only outer edge Photo courtesy: Tom Brock
  44. 44. Grazing Timing Palatability Goats can be “trained” tosome speciesRepeated treatmentsnecessary
  45. 45. Prescribed Fire Requires training Experience Specialized equipment Good Public relations Good neighbor relations Photo courtesy of Tom Brock Timing! Usually integrated with other methods
  46. 46. Using Fire for ManagementRequires: Special training Specialized equipment Good Public relations Good neighbor relations Experience Timing! Integrated with other methods
  47. 47. Foliar herbicide Safety first Timing is critical better for larger infestations Good in combination with mowing Selective vs non-selective herbicides Pre- vs post-emergence application
  48. 48. Basal bark herbicide Small; smooth bark Generally, single-stem shrubs & trees Limited herbicide choices Treat all clone stems Photos courtesy of Tom Brock
  49. 49. Integrated Methods Most successful control efforts involve an integrated approach that include monitoring & early detection. Photo courtesy Tom Brock
  50. 50. Other Precautions Clean shoes to prevent seed spread Minimize soil disturbance Consider wildlife & water role in spread Monitor imported materials (gravel, mulch, etc)
  51. 51. Develop a management plan •Garlic mustard presence shown. •Goal is to … Road
  52. 52. Garlic mustard biology Biennial Seedling/rosette yr 1 Flower, then die yr 2 Spread by seed only  Vehicles  Shoes  Animals  Water
  53. 53. Develop a management plan 1. satellites: goal to eradicate Combine methods to prevent any seed production. 2. Patch along road: goal to prevent spread. Road Focus efforts on outer edges and roadside
  54. 54. Example Plan Satellite populations:  Pull 2nd year plants before flowering  Spray in 1st year plants in fall or very early spring
  55. 55. Example Plan Large patch along road/trail  Mow, pull, spray along road before seed set.  Work perimeter inward  Spray rosettes fall/early spring  Pull escapes in between Repeat, monitor, re-map ? years.
  56. 56. Calling All Volunteers! Kickapoo Valley Woods Cooperative The Prairie Enthusiasts The Nature Conservancy Kickapoo Valley Reserve?
  57. 57. Other ResourcesMembership, links, and information http://www.ipaw.org
  58. 58. Summary Invasives are already here Early detection & prevention are critical Introduction of new species mostly dependent on our behavior Set realistic goals Make a plan, then adapt
  59. 59. Questions?

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