Management Fundamentals Concepts, Applications, Skills Development  Motivating 12 A
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy <ul><ul><li>Employees will live up to or down to their own expectations. </li></ul></ul>12-1
Performance Formula <ul><li>Ability  x  motivation  x  resources </li></ul><ul><li>=   Performance </li></ul>12-2
Major Motivation Theories Classification of Motivation Theories 1. Content of motivation theories 2. Process motivation th...
Self- Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological Hierarchy of Needs Theory 12-4
Acquired Needs Theory Affiliation Power Achievement 12-5
A Comparison of  Four Content Motivation Theories Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow) ERG Theory (Alderfer) Two-Factor Theory (Her...
Equity Theory = Others’ input (contributions) Others’ outcomes (rewards) 12-7 Our inputs (contributions) = Our outcomes (r...
Expectancy Theory <ul><li>Proposes that employees are motivated when they believe they can accomplish the task and the rew...
Expectancy Theory <ul><li>Expectancy  X </li></ul><ul><li>Valence =  </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul>12-9
Clear objectives Performance tied to  rewards 4 Conditions  for Expectancy Theory Rewards have value Employees believe  yo...
Reinforcement Theory <ul><li>Through the consequences for behavior, employees will be motivated to behave in predetermined...
Avoidance Extinction Positive Punishment 4 Types of Reinforcement 12-12
Giving Praise 1. Tell the employee exactly what was done correctly. Planning Leading Organizing Controlling 2. Tell the em...
1. Need (Unmet need or want to be satisfied at work) Content Motivation Theories Hierarchy of Needs Theory ERG Theory Two-...
(continued ) 3. Behavior (Employee action to satisfy need) 4. Consequence (Manager behavior and/or natural outcome of empl...
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Motivating

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Motivating

  1. 1. Management Fundamentals Concepts, Applications, Skills Development Motivating 12 A
  2. 2. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy <ul><ul><li>Employees will live up to or down to their own expectations. </li></ul></ul>12-1
  3. 3. Performance Formula <ul><li>Ability x motivation x resources </li></ul><ul><li>= Performance </li></ul>12-2
  4. 4. Major Motivation Theories Classification of Motivation Theories 1. Content of motivation theories 2. Process motivation theories 3. Reinforcement theory Specific Motivation Theory a. Hierarchy of needs theory b. ERG theory c. Two-factor theory d. Acquired needs theory a. Equity theory b. Goal-setting theory c. Expectancy theory Type of Reinforcement a. Positive b. Avoidance c . Extinction d. Punishment 12-3
  5. 5. Self- Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological Hierarchy of Needs Theory 12-4
  6. 6. Acquired Needs Theory Affiliation Power Achievement 12-5
  7. 7. A Comparison of Four Content Motivation Theories Hierarchy of Needs (Maslow) ERG Theory (Alderfer) Two-Factor Theory (Herzberg) Acquired Needs Theory (McClelland) Achievement and    Power Achievement and    Power Affiliation Not classified Not classified Motivating needs are developed through experience. Motivators Motivators Maintenance Maintenance Maintenance Maintenance factors will not motivate employees. Growth Growth Relatedness Existence Existence Unmet needs can be at any level simultaneously. Self-Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological Needs must be met in a hierarchy order. 12-6
  8. 8. Equity Theory = Others’ input (contributions) Others’ outcomes (rewards) 12-7 Our inputs (contributions) = Our outcomes (rewards)
  9. 9. Expectancy Theory <ul><li>Proposes that employees are motivated when they believe they can accomplish the task and the rewards for doing so are worth the effort. </li></ul>12-8
  10. 10. Expectancy Theory <ul><li>Expectancy X </li></ul><ul><li>Valence = </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul>12-9
  11. 11. Clear objectives Performance tied to rewards 4 Conditions for Expectancy Theory Rewards have value Employees believe you 12-10
  12. 12. Reinforcement Theory <ul><li>Through the consequences for behavior, employees will be motivated to behave in predetermined ways. </li></ul>12-11
  13. 13. Avoidance Extinction Positive Punishment 4 Types of Reinforcement 12-12
  14. 14. Giving Praise 1. Tell the employee exactly what was done correctly. Planning Leading Organizing Controlling 2. Tell the employee why the behavior  is important. 3. Stop for a moment of silence. 4. Encourage repeat performance 12-13
  15. 15. 1. Need (Unmet need or want to be satisfied at work) Content Motivation Theories Hierarchy of Needs Theory ERG Theory Two-Factor Theory Acquired Needs Theory 2. Motive (Selecting behavior to satisfy need) Process Motivation Theories Equity Theory Goal-Setting Theory Expectancy Theory The Motivation Process with the Motivation Theories 12-14
  16. 16. (continued ) 3. Behavior (Employee action to satisfy need) 4. Consequence (Manager behavior and/or natural outcome of employee action) Reinforcement Theory 5. Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction (The degree to which the need is met and for how long before dissatisfaction reoccurs, creating an unmet need) 12-15

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