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Introduction to Localisation


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The world is now becoming a global market for an ever-increasing and varied number of companies with a common aim: to sell their products to as many consumers as possible. However, the globalization of the market also means that companies nowadays are addressing an incredibly varied target, with many different languages and, more importantly, cultures.

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Introduction to Localisation

  1. 1. Cross-Cross-cultural Digital Marketing in the do Algarve GlobalizationUniversidade Age of Faro, Portugal
  2. 2. Today we are going to talk about...• Software localisation & internationalisation• Website localisation• Advertising localisation Bem-vindos! Introduction to Localisation 2Jesús Maroto
  3. 3. AN INTRODUCTION TO SOFTWARE LOCALISATIONIntroduction to Localisation 3Jesús Maroto
  4. 4. Key Concepts• Software Localisation: – Linguistic and cultural adaptation of a software product to a specific local market. – Part of the process which involves carrying out the modifications for that specific local version.• MS Windows-based Software Product: – Product designed to be run on a machine that uses MS Windows as the operating system. Introduction to Localisation 4 Jesús Maroto
  5. 5. Elements: Text  Text in the menus, dialog boxes and strings needs to be translated into the local language (or language variant).Introduction to Localisation 5Jesús Maroto
  6. 6. Elements: Text  Translation should be complete.  The software should support all the characters of the target language.  Dialog boxes and buttons should be large enough for the translated text.Introduction to Localisation 6Jesús Maroto
  7. 7. Elements: Images  Same icons for all versions  Avoid text in icons or images  Avoid cultural metaphors in icons or imagesIntroduction to Localisation 7Jesús Maroto
  8. 8. Functional Elements  Some functions of the program may need to be adapted to local cultural standards  Local date and time formats  Local currency  Local paper standard size (for printing options)  Control and hotkeys  Etc.Introduction to Localisation 8Jesús Maroto
  9. 9. Money Format  Currency Symbols  Before ($40.74)  After (40,74$)  Mixed (40$74)Introduction to Localisation 9Jesús Maroto
  10. 10. Data Formats • Percentage Format –10% –10 % • Measurements / Units • Telephone Number Format –Area Codes –International Country Calling Codes –International Call PrefixIntroduction to Localisation 10Jesús Maroto
  11. 11. Data Formats  Address Formats  Street Address  Street Name + House/Building Number  House/Building Number + Street Name  City and Postal Code  Postal Code + City Name  City Name + Province Abbreviation + Postal Code  Personal Names  John Smith  Suzuki Ichiro  Personal Titles  Mr. Smith  Sato-sanIntroduction to Localisation 11Jesús Maroto
  12. 12. Online Help• Text, screenshots, Table Of Contents and index, training videos, animations, etc.• Symmetry between localised software and online help item names• Technical similarities with website localisation projects Introduction to Localisation 12 Jesús Maroto
  13. 13. Collateral Material Localisation does not just involve the software product, packaging and manuals will often need to be adapted alsoIntroduction to Localisation 13Jesús Maroto
  14. 14. Summary• In each localised version of a software application there is work from engineers, language professionals, cultural consultants, lawyers, marketing specialists and many others.• Software applications are complex products. Localising them requires a multi-perspective approach.• Failure to foresee the differences between the source and target locales may have catastrophic consequences.Introduction to Localisation 14Jesús Maroto
  15. 15. STEPS IN A SOFTWARE LOCALISATION PROJECTIntroduction to Localisation 15Jesús Maroto
  16. 16. Contents• Localisation for Windows-based applications – Development / Internationalisation – Localising GUI (Graphical User Interface) • Terminology • Integrating translation memory tools (Translating) • Localising icons and functionality – Localising Online Help – Testing• Localisation in other platforms Introduction to Localisation 16 Jesús Maroto
  17. 17. Development/ Internationalisation• Internationalisation (I18N)• Aims: – Keep a smooth workflow by foreseeing the problems of localisation – Save time and money in the localisation process Introduction to Localisation 17 Jesús Maroto
  18. 18. Localisation (L10N)• Fixing terminology for the target language – One-to-one correspondence – Bilingual glossaries – To be used by technical writers and translators – Included in the localisation kits Introduction to Localisation 18 Jesús Maroto
  19. 19. L10N of the Graphical User Interface (GUI)• Carrying out the localisation tasks planned during the Internationalisation stage • Translation of the GUI – Menus, dialog boxes, strings • Adapting to local formats – Currency, date and time formats, etc. • Localising the functionality – Hotkeys, specific features, etc. • Localising the Online HelpIntroduction to Localisation 19Jesús Maroto
  20. 20. Translation Tools in L10N – Advantages of using professional Translation tools: • Reuse of previous translations • Filters and word counters • Language-management features (spellcheckers, search and replace, etc.) • Integrate terminology in translation workflow • Etc.Introduction to Localisation 20Jesús Maroto
  21. 21. TM Tools in L10N Suggestion by TM Tool DLL in string view Translation environmentIntroduction to Localisation 21Jesús Maroto
  22. 22. Online Help  Localising the Online Help  After localising the GUI  Exact references to the GUI  Screenshots  Mirroring in bidirectional languagesIntroduction to Localisation 22Jesús Maroto
  23. 23. Testing• Localisation as testing• Functional testing – Hotkeys, common and local functions, etc.• Linguistic testing – Text quality, terminology, completion, etc. (Spellcheckers, terminology checkers, comparison tools, etc.)• Cosmetic testing – Clipped text, menu length, window size, etc. (Catalyst, Passolo, etc.) Introduction to Localisation 23 Jesús Maroto
  24. 24. Other Platforms  Localisation for other platforms  Mac OS (AppleGlot)  Unix (PO editors)  JavaIntroduction to Localisation 24Jesús Maroto
  25. 25. PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF SOFTWARE LOCALISATIONIntroduction to Localisation 25Jesús Maroto
  26. 26. Contents• Practical Aspects of Software Localisation• Linguistic challenges – Language categories – TM tools – Concatenated strings and special characters• Accelerators – Hotkeys – Function/Controll keys• Minimising problems – Query sheets – Testing toolsIntroduction to Localisation 26Jesús Maroto
  27. 27. Linguistic Challenges Language Categories  “Open” • “Test port” • Verb (“abrir”) • Verb + Noun (“comprobar puerto”) • Adjective (“abierto”) • Noun + Noun (“puerto de  “View” comprobación”) • Verb (“ver”) • TM Tools • Noun (“vista”) • Check contextIntroduction to Localisation 27Jesús Maroto
  28. 28. Linguistic Challenges Special Characters and Concatenations …  t  n  %1Introduction to Localisation 28Jesús Maroto
  29. 29. Accelerators Hotkeys  Ampersand  Submenu / dialog boxIntroduction to Localisation 29Jesús Maroto
  30. 30. Minimising Problems Communication - Query sheets  Quality of the original software  Professional, experienced translators  Communication (query sheets)Introduction to Localisation 30Jesús Maroto
  31. 31. Minimising Problems Testing Tools Linguistic testing • Spellcheckers • Terminology checkers QA checkers • Validate ExpertIntroduction to Localisation 31Jesús Maroto
  32. 32. LOCALISATION OF TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATIONIntroduction to Localisation 32Jesús Maroto
  33. 33. Contents • Documentation • Introduction to the localisation of content • Help Systems – Types of Help files – Elements of Help files • Multimedia in documentation – Flash animations, movies, wizards, images – OthersIntroduction to Localisation 33Jesús Maroto
  34. 34. Content Localisation pre-requisites• Localised software must be available• Language of source document must be standard and consistent• All regional references should be removed• Images used must be culturally neutral Introduction to Localisation 34 Jesús Maroto
  35. 35. Help Systems• Types of Help Files – WinHelp – HTML Help – Web-based help files – Other formats (PDF, etc..) Introduction to Localisation 35 Jesús Maroto
  36. 36. Help Systems • Online HelpIntroduction to Localisation 36Jesús Maroto
  37. 37. Elements of Help Files Contents: Index: Search: List of topics, List of keywords Allows user defined description of contained in the help searches of help processes etc. file. systemIntroduction to Localisation 37Jesús Maroto
  38. 38. Multimedia in Documentation• Tutorials, Computer Based Training, demos, etc • Flash animations • Retrieve text from external files • Movies • Avoid dubbing • Images • Use layers Introduction to Localisation 38 Jesús Maroto
  39. 39. Other Support Materials• Quick Start Guide• Quick Installation Guide• Printed manuals Introduction to Localisation 39 Jesús Maroto
  40. 40. SummarySoftware documentation – Help for localised software – Technical challenges due to languages • Character representation, sorting, directionality – Target cultures Introduction to Localisation 40 Jesús Maroto
  41. 41. Introduction to Localisation 41Jesús Maroto
  42. 42. INTRODUCTION TO WEBSITE LOCALISATIONIntroduction to Localisation 42Jesús Maroto
  43. 43. Contents1. Why localise websites ?2. Some basic concepts3. Structure of multilingual websites Introduction to Localisation 43 Jesús Maroto
  44. 44. Why Localise Websites? (I)• Website localisation: Process of adapting it to the requirements (linguistic, functional and cultural) of the target market. – One of the main ways of communicating with the target audience – Key element to enter new markets – Users more likely to purchase from a site in their language (IDC) Introduction to Localisation 44 Jesús Maroto
  45. 45. Why Localise Websites?(II)• Level of localisation: Total vs. partial localisation• Global vs. local content• Language tiers• Return on investment (ROI) – Cost savings – Increased revenue opportunities – User satisfaction – Other benefits: brand consistency, trust in local markets Introduction to Localisation 45 Jesús Maroto
  46. 46. Some Basic Concepts  Server-client architecture Requests Data Transfer  URL and domains:   Internationalised domain names (IDN): http://www.公表.com http://www.schrö  Website vs. webpage  Static vs. dynamicIntroduction to Localisation 46Jesús Maroto
  47. 47. Structure of Multilingual Websites• Files• Folders• Content Management Systems• Structure – Central core – Local markets• Storing of localised versions: – All in same location – Certain languages locally – All locally• Access to localised versions: – Link in form of a flag or language locale on the main webpage – Different URLs for different locale pages – Web gateway to configure a language and country profile that will be stored as a cookie – Operating System language settings Introduction to Localisation 47 Jesús Maroto
  48. 48. LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL ASPECTS OF WEBSITE LOCALISATIONIntroduction to Localisation 48Jesús Maroto
  49. 49. Contents 1. Linguistic issues a. Terminology Management b. Style Guidelines 2. Localisation Issues a. Technicalities – Layout – Date Format – Time Format – Address Format – Forms b. Cultural Aspects 1. Legal Aspects 2. Tradition 3. Cultural Issues and Symbols 4. Local Content 5. Other AspectsIntroduction to Localisation 49Jesús Maroto
  50. 50. Linguistic Issues 1. Translations and revisions by native speakers 2. Terminology Management 3. LocalesIntroduction to Localisation 50Jesús Maroto
  51. 51. Introduction to Localisation 51Jesús Maroto
  52. 52. Linguistic Issues 4. Style guidelines: slang, jargon, idioms, colloquialisms 5. Appropriate style 6. Country-specific contentIntroduction to Localisation 52Jesús Maroto
  53. 53. Appropriate Formats  Appropriate formats for:  Number, time, currency and measurements  Rendering, sorting, spelling, hyphenationIntroduction to Localisation 53Jesús Maroto
  54. 54. Localisation Issues layout political Date, time, number address correctness formats traditions gestures habits values humour sounds symbols political fashion forms gestures correctness coloursIntroduction to Localisation 54Jesús Maroto
  55. 55. Technicalities• Layout and Format Introduction to Localisation 55 Jesús Maroto
  56. 56. Forms • Time and Calendar Formats • Date Formats • Address Formats • Number Formats • Currency and MeasurementsIntroduction to Localisation 56Jesús Maroto
  57. 57. Cultural Issues  References and Symbols  Legal aspects  Tradition and Habits  Values  Folklore  Humour  Religion  Fashion  History  Gestures  Images  Sounds and Songs  Colours  Political Correctness  etc.Introduction to Localisation 57Jesús Maroto
  58. 58. TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF WEBSITE LOCALISATIONIntroduction to Localisation 58Jesús Maroto
  59. 59. Files for Localisation• Static websites: – Html – Static and dynamic graphics: jpg, gif, tif, swf – Linked files: pdf, doc, exe etc.• Dynamic websites: – Elements of a static website plus: • Database • Embedded scripts: php, asp, hsw, java, js, xsl… • Display languages: html, xml Introduction to Localisation 59 Jesús Maroto
  60. 60. HTML (I)• Html: Hypertext Markup Language• Current version: Html 4.01 (• Css: Cascading Style Sheet• Html Components: – Tags • There are opening tags and closing tags – Opening tag: – Symbol < – Name of the tag, for instance html – Symbol > – <html> – Closing tag: – Symbol < – Slash / – Name of the tag, for instance html – Symbol > – </html> Introduction to Localisation 60 Jesús Maroto
  61. 61. HTML (II)• Tags are used to: – Describe contents, for instance titles, paragraphs, tables: opening and closing tag – <title>…</title> – Add elements: to add graphics, links, new lines: a unique opening tag – <img>• Elements: formed by predefined tags – <title>…</title>• Attributes: establish the additional characteristics of an element. Always between “”. – <img src=“tilp.jpg">• Entities: for characters not included in ASCII – &, €, Ü  &amp; &euro; &Uuml; Introduction to Localisation 61 Jesús Maroto
  62. 62. HTML (III)<html> <head> <title>My first web page </title> </head> <body> This is my first web page. How will all this end up? </body></html> Introduction to Localisation 62 Jesús Maroto
  63. 63. Special Localisation Issues (I)• Head and Body – External Tags <p> </p> – Internal Tags <br> <b></b> – Tags with translatable attributes • <img src="/image" alt="This text should be translated"> • Metadata: <meta> – <META name="Author" content=“Christopher Columbus"> – <META name=“keywords” lang=“en-us” content=“website localisation, tags, code”> – <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html;charset=iso-8859-1">• Tag protectionIntroduction to Localisation 63Jesús Maroto
  64. 64. Special Localisation Issues (II)• Text in graphics – Static graphics: Layered Solutions – Moving graphics • Animated GIF Files • Flash graphics: FLA Files vs. EXE or SFW files – Text expansion• Multimedia – Audio – Video and Audio Introduction to Localisation 64 Jesús Maroto
  65. 65. Special Localisation Issues (III) – Hard-coded text – Hard-coded fonts – Character encoding • <META HTTP-EQUIV="Content-Type" CONTENT="text/html;CHARSET=ISO 8859-1">. – Double-byte enablement and bi-directional languages – Text expansion – Sort orderIntroduction to Localisation 65Jesús Maroto
  66. 66. Special Localisation Issues (IV)• Local-specific content – Specified by user environment: • Date and time formats: calendar settings, clock settings • Currency formats: number formats and names of currencies • Number formats: use of different separators • Fonts and page orientation: name and size – Non specified by user environment • Address formats: postal codes, states • Name formats: Salutations, order of given name • Telephone number formats: Number of digits, Area codes • Units of measure: Imperial versus Metric • Paper sizes: letter and A4/A3Introduction to Localisation 66Jesús Maroto
  67. 67. TOOLS FOR WEBSITE LOCALISATIONIntroduction to Localisation 67Jesús Maroto
  68. 68. Contents1. Basic Tools2. Authoring Tools3. Translation Tools and Integrated Terminology Management Tools4. Web Localisation Tools5. Globalization Management Systems6. Budgeting and Invoicing Introduction to Localisation 68 Jesús Maroto
  69. 69. Basic Tools• Text editors + Cheap + Useful for small changes if familiar with HTML code – Layout – HTML code corruption – Translatable text is overlooked – Non-translatable text is – translated – Spell checking – Named entitiesIntroduction to Localisation 69Jesús Maroto
  70. 70. Authoring Tools• WYSIWYG editors + Preview of the site + No corruption of code – Modification, deletion or addition of new codeIntroduction to Localisation 70Jesús Maroto
  71. 71. Authoring Tools• Non-visual HTML editors+ Both HTML code and WYSIWYG views available+ Highlighting of HTML tags+ Navigation panel with files and folders+ Named and number entities are converted automatically+ Additional functionalities such as spell checkers, search and replace, link validation etc. Introduction to Localisation 71 Jesús Maroto
  72. 72. Translation Memory Tools with TerminologyManagement• TM Tools + Text can be leveraged after translation (TM function) + Tag protection + Integration of Terminology Management + Tag verification + Word counting – Filters do not support all HTML tags – Embedded code and scripts – TMX compatibilityIntroduction to Localisation 72Jesús Maroto
  73. 73. Introduction to Localisation 73Jesús Maroto
  74. 74. Web Localisation Tools • Web Localisation Tools + Designed specifically for translating web sites – May have some – limitations – PriceIntroduction to Localisation 74Jesús Maroto
  75. 75. Globalisation Content Management Tools• Management and localisation of multilingual websites• Extracts new Content• Automation of the process Introduction to Localisation 75 Jesús Maroto
  76. 76. Budgeting and Invoicing• Counting words – Words – Words in tags – Words in embedded scripts Introduction to Localisation 76 Jesús Maroto
  77. 77. Introduction to Localisation 77Jesús Maroto
  78. 78. LOCALISATION OF ADVERTISINGIntroduction to Localisation 78Jesús Maroto
  79. 79. The new current global advertising environment• Brands are marketed and distributed globally• Atomised and intertwined media (TV, Press, Internet, Satellite, Mobile)• Continuous two-way communication• Multitasking prosumers• Travelling consumers• Shrinking budgets However, consumers in different markets are different Introduction to Localisation 79 Jesús Maroto
  80. 80. Podcasts Posters Advertorials Internet Digital TV Merchandising Advertising Print Radio (DAB, traditional and message online) POS Satellite TV Interactive Traditional TV TV Direct marketing Mobile telephonesIntroduction to Localisation 80Jesús Maroto
  81. 81. Strategies in international advertising• Standardization vs. adaptation of the original strategy• Centralization vs. Decentralization of the production of the marketing campaign.Introduction to Localisation 81Jesús Maroto
  82. 82. Glocal = Think global + Act Local A glocal approach is one that presents a unified global theme and message but adapts the delivery of that message to the local environment. Global Brand Local Glocal Essence Nuances Branding The challenge is to retain the “brand essence” and the campaign global consistency and yet be recognised as having local appeal and relevance.Introduction to Localisation 82Jesús Maroto
  83. 83. Limitations according to mediaIntroduction to Localisation 83Jesús Maroto
  84. 84. Webvertising • It is all about driving traffic to websites and increasing brand awareness. • Cultural factors such as colour, symbology, lay out and content perception are basis for effectiveness. • Different formats bring new challenges for localisation.Introduction to Localisation 84Jesús Maroto
  85. 85. WebvertisingSkyscrapers Great for Chinese and Japanese, very difficult for German, Dutch or Turkish languages.Video banners Dubbing and subtitling a bannerIntroduction to Localisation 85Jesús Maroto
  86. 86. Google AdwordsHeadline Description 1 Description 2 Display URL{Keyword:%name Flights} Book a %geo Flight Now and Save On Flights to %geo!{Keyword:%geo Flights} Travelling To %geo? Compare %geo Flights & Save! Holiday Travelling soon? Find low prices from your favourite airlines.{KeyWord:%geo Hotels} Visiting %geo? Find Deals & Read Hotel Reviews!{KeyWord:Hotel Reviews and Deals} Know Before You Go. Read Reviews from Real Travelers.{KeyWord:Hotel Ratings and Reviews} Advice from Travellers Who Know %name{KeyWord:Hotel Reviews and Deals} Visiting %geo? Research Hotels and Attractions!{KeyWord:Hotels}%med_name %name, %geo. No Reservation Costs. Great Rates! %med_name, %geo. h{KeyWord:Visiting %geo?} Book Now and Save On %name!{KeyWord:Hotel Ratings & Prices} Read Reviews, Check Rates, and Book %name Now! www.TripAdvisor.esHeadline Description 1 Description 2 Display URL{Keyword:Vuelos a %name} Reserva un vuelo a %geo y ahorra en tu viaje a %geo{Keyword: Avión a %geo} ¿Viajas a %geo? Compara precios de vuelos a %geo y ahorra %geo.TripAdvisor.esVacaciones en %geo Encuentra las mejores gangas de tus aerolíneas favoritas{KeyWord:Hoteles en %geo} ¿De viaje a %geo? Lee ofertas y opiniones de hoteles{KeyWord:Hoteles en oferta} Conoce la verdad antes de ir. Lee opiniones de viajeros reales.{KeyWord:Opiniones de hoteles} Consejos de viajeros hospedados en %name{KeyWord:Hoteles en oferta} ¿De visita a %geo? Infórmate de hoteles y atracciones{KeyWord:Hoteles}%med_name %name, %geo. Fantásticas tarifas y sin comisión %med_name, %geo. Fantásticas tarifas y sin comisión{KeyWord:¿De viaje a %geo?} ¡Ahorra en tu reserva en %name!{KeyWord:Información de hoteles} Lee tarifas, opiniones y reserva en %name ahora www.TripAdvisor.esIntroduction to Localisation 86Jesús Maroto
  87. 87. Digital TVIntroduction to Localisation 87Jesús Maroto
  88. 88. Mobiles & PDAs• SMS, MMS, 3G Strategic issues: some markets better than others Italy and Spain – outdoor living, chatters. Technical issues: character limit (160), complex technology.• WAP, PDA, iPhone Technical issues: small screens, different models (manufacturers, resolutions), different OS.Introduction to Localisation 88Jesús Maroto
  89. 89. Translation Strategies According to ProductTypology• Tradition-free (global) products can be identified with technological, scientific or financial products, whose main selling points are based on performance.• Culture-bound (local) products are those deeply rooted in national, local or sub-cultural traditions. Food, entertainment, lifestyle some sports, travel, etc.Introduction to Localisation 89Jesús Maroto
  90. 90. Tradition-free products communication• Requires less cross-cultural adaptation• More cross-media co-ordination• Allows for greater content sharing through modern technology Introduction to Localisation 90 Jesús Maroto
  91. 91. Culture-bound products communication• More glocal approach• Addresses the local traditions or exploits local perception of foreign products (tourism, coffee, beer)• Imaginative ways to position a product as a new tradition which fits in the local culture (Nescafe Brunch)• Clear divide between the global brand values and their local declination (Coca- Cola, McDonald’s, Lavazza calendar) Introduction to Localisation 91 Jesús Maroto
  92. 92. Introduction to Localisation 92Jesús Maroto
  93. 93. Peroni ItalyIntroduction to Localisation 93Jesús Maroto
  94. 94. Introduction to Localisation 94Jesús Maroto
  95. 95. Peroni World WideIntroduction to Localisation 95Jesús Maroto
  96. 96. Introduction to Localisation 96Jesús Maroto
  97. 97. Introduction to Localisation 97Jesús Maroto
  98. 98. Problems….• Sharing creativity, texts and translations across media and markets is not easy• CMS and GMS• Personalisation• Technology going quicker than translation scholars and localisation tool developers• New role for the translator, transcreator?• Who does the culture bit? How to teach it?• Many more…. Introduction to Localisation 98 Jesús Maroto
  99. 99. Introduction to Localisation 99Jesús Maroto