Aural Comprehension Instruction: Principles and Practices by Joan Morley
Aural ComprehensionInstruction:Principles and Practicesby Joan MorleyPrepared by:Codas, Katherine AineMadrid, Johannah
Four Perspectives—Four Models of Listening InstructionModel #1 Listening and RepeatingLearner Goals: To pattern-match; to listen and imitate; to memorizeModel #2 Listening and Answering Comprehension QuestionsLearner Goals: To process discrete-point information; to listen andanswer comprehension questions.Model #3 Task ListeningLearner Goals: To process spoken discourse for functional purposes; tolisten and do something with the information, that is, carry out real tasks usingthe information received.Model #4 Interactive ListeningLearner Goals: To develop aural-oral skills in semiformal interactiveacademic communication; to develop critical listening, critical thinking, andeffective speaking abilities.
Some Psychosocial Dimensionsof Language and the Listening Act
The Dynamic Process of Communicative Listening:Active, not PassiveAnderson and Lynch (1988) reject a conceptualization of listenings a passive act, calling it a “listener-as-tape-recorder” explanation.
Listening in Three Modes:Bidirectional, Unidirectional, and Autodirectional1. Bidirectional Listening Mode2. Unidirectional Listening Mode3. Autodirectional Listening Mode
Psychosocial Functions of Listening:Transactional Listening and Interactional Listening1. Transactional Language Function- “business-type talk”2. Interactional Language Function- “social-type talk”
Psychosocial Processes:Bottom-Up and Top-Down Listening Schemata1. Bottom-Up Processing-refers to that part of the aural comprehension process in whichthe understanding of the “heard” language is worked outproceeding from sounds to words to grammatical relationshipsto lexical meanings.2. Top-Down Processing-involves the listener’s ability to bring prior information tobear on the task of understanding the “heard” language.
Richards’s Functions/Processes Chart1 23 4INTERACTIONALTRANSACTIONALTOP-DOWNBOTTOM-UPCell #1: Listening closely to a joke in order to know when to laugh.Cell #2: Listening casually to cocktail party talk.Cell #3: Listening closely to instructions during a first driving lesson.Cell #4: Experienced air traveler listening casually to verbal air safety instructionswhich have been heard many times before.
Affect and AttitudesLinguistic and Nonlinguistic Cues to Affect-Linguistic Messages-Paralinguistic Messages-Extralinguistic Messages
Intellectual, Emotional, and Moral Attitudesby Van Ek (1976)Intellectual Attitudes (agreement/disagreement;confirming/denying; accepting/declining; etc.)Emotional Attitudes (pleasure/displeasure; interest/lack of interest;surprise/hope; etc.)Moral Attitudes (language of apologizing; expressingapproval/disapproval; appreciation; etc.)