1. ...learners are engaged in solving real-world
2. ...existing knowledge is activated as a
foundation for new knowledge.
3. ...new knowledge is demonstrated to the
4. ... new knowledge is applied by the learner.
5. ... new knowledge is integrated into the
Engagement in solving real world problems
Are learners engaged in finding a
solution/knowledge by providing real world
Activate existing knowledge to create new
What is the existing knowledge of the
Does the instruction try to activate prior
Actual usage of, presentation, or
experimentation of the objects, software,
information to be learned.
In Class Demonstrations
Allow Students to Make Mistakes
Does the instruction show learners what to
learn or simply tell them?
Does instruction move too fast for the
learners to absorb the material, learn to apply
it, or understand?
Smaller amounts of in depth material vs. Too many shallow lessons
Do learners have enough opportunity to learn
without feeling overwhelmed or lost?
Does the instruction end by allowing the
students to apply their newly learned skills
into their real world lives?
Do the learners have the opportunity to
demonstrate their new knowledge?
Information is not Instruction.
Without guidance, people do not learn.
Technology can be a tool of learning but needs
to be changed from being seen as simply
machines that allow software usage.
Others have added to Merrill’s 5 principles, so
theories will always be evolving and
New models of learning are developing, especially
for those for use in multinational corporations.
Instructional design needs to addressed more often
so that it can be taken into account by professionals
Instructional Technology focus more on the design
(framework) of instructional programs, courses,
lessons, etc., rather than the use and production of
David Merrill speaking about learning methods and his theory
Biographical Information on Merrill
British Journal of Educational Technology
Design criteria for work-based learning: Merrill's First Principles of Instruction expanded
Betty Collis and Anoush Margaryan
Molenda Micheal’s A New Framework for Teaching in the Cognitive Domain (ERIC