Chlorine Disinfection1. Chlorine in water – Chlorine in drinking water is at 3.4 to 5 mg/l to assure adequate disinfection to outlaying rural lines.3. Construction of new storage tank and feed station requires only a about 2 ppm chlorine.5. Residual chlorine is at 1.2 ppm at source, where at faucet it will be 0.2 to 0.4 ppm. During epidemic condition, residual chlorine at 1.6 to 1.8 ppm is applied.7. The proposed federal drinking water standard for chlorine is 4 parts per million (ppm). Many city water supplies are treated with chlorine to reduce the possible spread of bacterial disease. The system operators are required to maintain a detectable level of chlorine in the piping system
Hypo in Water Disinfection1. Add 16 drops of bleach per gallon of water, stir, and let stand for 30 minutes. The water should have a slight bleach odor. If it doesnt, then add additional 8 drops and let stand another 15 minutes. If it still does not smell of chlorine, discard it and find another source of water.3. EPA recommends the use of 2 drops of 5% household bleach per litre of water. If the treated water doesnt smell of bleach, 2 more drops are to be added.4. Typical is 16 drops to a gallon of water, ½ tsp for 3 to 5 gallons6. 1 ml = 20 drops, tsp = 5 ml
Hypo in Water Disinfection1. Commercial bleach production is 12 to 14% available chlorine to avoid salting out difficulties. Household bleach is usually 5.25 % available chlorine and laundry solutions is at 1%• Sanitizing food contact utensils - The recommended chlorine concentration is between 50 ppm and 100 ppm (parts per million) for sanitizing food contact surfaces like pans or clean utensils. This is about 1 teaspoon of regular bleach per gallon of water. The maximum concentration that should ever be used is 200 ppm, which is about one tablespoon of regular chlorine bleach per gallon of water.3. And remember that equipment or articles sanitized with bleach solution must be allowed to drain adequately before contact with food.
Summary - Hypo References Sanitizing food contact utensils Table 1 – Amount of chlorine bleach per gallon of water for a given chlorine concentrationAmount hypo (5.25%) per gallon Concentration (ppm)water1 teaspoon (5 ml) 651 tablespoon (15ml) 2001 fluid once (30ml) 400¼ Cup (60 ml) 800½ Cup (120ml) 16002/3 Cup (260ml) 22003/4 Cup (180 ml) 24001 Cup (240 ml) 3200
Summary - Hypo References1. From Laundry Essentials – • Household liquid bleach, identified by the words “sodium hypochlorite” in the ingredient listing is the only bleach that disinfects. It is also the most effective bleach for stain removal and whitening. This is the bleach of choice for whites and colorfast garments. • RECOMMENDED LIQUID BLEACH AMOUNTS PER WASHLOAD Extra large washing machine - 1 1/2 cups Standard large washing machine - 1 cup Medium washing machine - 3/4 cup Small washing machine - 1/2 cup Hand washing (2 gallon sudsy water) - 1/8 cup one (1) cup = approx 240 ml
Summary - Hypo ReferencesFrom Laundry Essentials (Continue) –• PRESOAK PROCEDURE – Use 1/4 cup household liquid bleach per gallon of water. – Submerge entire garment and soak for 5 minutes. – Rinse and wash according to care label.• Color-Safe Bleach is, quite simply, a bleach that is safe to use on washable, colored clothes. These bleaches, available in powder and liquids, remove stains and help keep colors bright. The powdered bleaches also have enzymes to break up tough protein stains, which is why they make an excellent presoak. A color-safe bleach is not a diluted bleach. The gentle leaching action in liquids is from hydrogen peroxide. Powders commonly use sodium perborate. These color-safe bleaches also have optical brighteners. This ingredient is like an invisible layer on fabrics. It reflects light, making colors appear brighter and whites whiter.
Summary - Hypo References1. Home Cleaning – Disinfectants - Commercial disinfectants or sanitisers, ¼ cup of laundry bleach*, with 4 litres of water – Mildew removers - Commercial mildew removers, Washing soda, tri-sodium phosphate or ¼ cup of laundry bleach* with 4 litres of water – Apply cleaner and give it time to work before you mop or sponge it up.
Summary - Hypo References1. Wells Disinfection – The water in the well is dosed to a concentration between 50 mg/L and 200 mg/L of free chlorine and leave undisturbed for 12 to 24 hours – If the test indicates the concentration of free chlorine residual in the well-water is between 50 mg/L and 200 mg/L, you must do the following - Pump the water out of the well until the concentration of free chlorine residual in well water is less than 1 mg/l. Repeat well dosing cycle the 2nd time. – Chlorine Solution Table - Well Diameter Amount of bleach per 25 feet of well depth 4 inch - 1 cup 5 inch - 1½ cups 6 inch - 2 cups Example: A 4 -inch diameter well 150 feet deep would need 6 cups of bleach to treat the well.
Summary - Hypo References1. Food processing applications – Food processing in-plant chlorination systems typically produce water for processing with residual available chlorine levels of no more than 0.5 ppm. For container cooling or general washing, residual available chlorine levels of 2 to 7 ppm are commonly used. Typical municipal water systems produce potable water with a residual available chlorine level of 0.25 to 2 ppm.
Summary - Hypo References1. HTH – Calcium Hypochlorite • As a General Rule 3/4 lb. (1 1/2 cups) of granular calcium hypochlorite mixed in 100 gallons of water will make a 500 ppm solution. • Follow the directions on the packages for disinfecting water. If the directions are not available, a rule of thumb is to use one tablet for each quart of water to be disinfected.