Map of Spanish exploration and colonization activities
In 1536 Cabeza de Vaca reached Culiacan, Mexico.
Cabeza de Vaca <ul><li>After being shipwrecked and imprisoned by Indians, he and three other men cross through what is now southern New Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>They began rumors of the Seven Cities of Cibola. </li></ul><ul><li>These four men were the first non-Indians to travel through the interior of North America. </li></ul>
1539-1583 <ul><li>Over the next fifty years, four different expeditions traveled through New Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>This included the well known explorer Francisco Vasquez de Coronado. </li></ul><ul><li>Along with 300 soldiers and 800 Indian allies from New Spain, he passed through the Rio Grande Valley while looking for the fabled Seven Cities of Gold. Instead he found villages inhabited by prosperous native people near present day Bernalillo. </li></ul>
<ul><li>1598 </li></ul><ul><li>Juan de Oñate led a colonizing expedition of 500 settlers from Mexico to the new province of New Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>He established the capital near the Tewa village of Ohke (by present day Espanola). </li></ul><ul><li>He also founded El Camino Real, the communication and trade link between Mexico City and Santa Fe. </li></ul>
1599 <ul><li>Battle at Acoma between natives and Spaniards. Juan de Onate becomes infamous for his brutality during this battle. </li></ul>
<ul><li>BATTLE OF ACOMA (CONTINUED) </li></ul><ul><li>One of Onate’s soldiers stopped at Acoma for provisions. While there, the Acomas accused them of stealing, and violating an Acoma woman, and killed thirteen of the soldiers for this. </li></ul><ul><li>Onate sent more men to Acoma in retaliation, resulting in a three-day battle. </li></ul><ul><li>When the fighting ended, several hundred Indians were dead, and hundreds of surviving Acomas were and taken to Santa Domingo Pueblo to stand trial. Onate severely punished the people of Acoma. </li></ul><ul><li>Men over twenty-five had one foot cut off and were sentenced to twenty years of personal servitude to the Spanish colonists </li></ul><ul><li>Young men between the ages of twelve and twenty-five received twenty years of personal servitude </li></ul><ul><li>Young women over twelve years of age were given twenty years of servitude </li></ul><ul><li>Sixty young girls were sent to Mexico City to serve in the convents there, never to see their homeland again </li></ul><ul><li>Two Hopi men caught at the Acoma battle had their right hand cut off and were set free to spread the news of Spanish retribution. </li></ul>
Statue of Juan de Oñate located a few miles north of Española, New Mexico. In January of 1998, it was damaged by vandals.
<ul><li>1608 </li></ul><ul><li>Onate removed as governor and sent to Mexico City to be tried for mistreatment of the Indians and abuse of power. </li></ul><ul><li>Decision made by Spanish Crown to continue settlement of New Mexico as a royal province. </li></ul>
1609-1610 <ul><li>Gov. Pedro de Peralta establishes a new capital at Santa Fe. Construction begins on the Palace of the Governors. </li></ul>
1626 - Spanish Inquisition established in New Mexico. <ul><li>Thousands of Jews fleeing the Inquisition in Spain and Portugal had drifted to the Americas for a century. Many were now in New Mexico and in 1626 the sanctuary of the northern provinces ended for them. </li></ul>
1680 - Pueblo Indian Revolt Santa Fe, NM It was the only successful Native American revolt against the Spanish in all of the Americas. The Spanish withdraw from present day New Mexico for twelve years.
1692-1693 <ul><li>Twelve years after the Pueblo Revolt, Don Diego de Vargas re-colonizes Santa Fe. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish rule returns to New Mexico. </li></ul>
1821 Mexico declares independence from Spain. Mexico is now its own country. Anglos begin to trade with the Mexicans in New Mexico. When Mexico was a part of Spain, Spain did not permit much trade from occurring between its colonies and other countries. Spain did not want other countries and cultural groups to influence its colonies.
1846 Mexican-American War begins. Stephen Watts Kearny annexes New Mexico to the United States.
1847 Taos Rebellion against the U.S. military. <ul><li>Governor Charles Bent is the first Anglo governor of New Mexico and is killed in the rebellion. </li></ul>
1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ends Mexican-American War.
1850 -New Mexico (which included present-day Arizona, southern Colorado, southern Utah, and southern Nevada) is designated a territory but denied statehood. The struggle for state hood will be long battle for New Mexico.
1863 - New Mexico is partitioned in half & the Territory of Arizona is created.
1863-1868 " The Long Walk" <ul><li>Led by Colonel Kit Carson </li></ul><ul><li>Navajos and Apaches are relocated to Bosque Redondo. </li></ul><ul><li>About 8,000 Navajos were rounded up and forced to walk 300 miles across the desert of New Mexico. </li></ul>
1878 <ul><li>The railroad arrives in New Mexico, opening full-scale trade and migration from the east and Midwest of the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Lincoln County War erupts in southeast New Mexico </li></ul>
1881 Billy the Kid shot by Sheriff Pat Garrett in Fort Sumner N.M.
1910 - New Mexico Constitution drafted in preparation for statehood.
1912 <ul><li>New Mexico admitted to the Union as the 47th state. </li></ul><ul><li>It took sixty years for New Mexico to attain statehood. </li></ul>
1916 - Pancho Villa raids Columbus, N.M. Villa attacked Columbus, NM Columbus, NM after the raid
1920 - Adoption of the l9th Amendment gives women the right to vote. Nina Otero-Warren leads successful lobbying campaign to win New Mexico ratification of 19th Amendment.
1930-1943 - Great Depression Federal New Deal funds provide employment for many and causes numerous public buildings to be constructed. "Walking 30 miles to visit family in Santa Fe"; Chomita, New Mexico (Circa May 1935) A displaced family looking for work in 1935
<ul><li>New Mexico soldiers serving in the 200th Coast Artillery during World War II are captured by the Japanese and forced to endure the Bataan Death March. </li></ul><ul><li>Navajo "Code Talkers" are influential in helping end the war. </li></ul><ul><li>Secret atomic laboratories established at Los Alamos. </li></ul>1942 -1945
1945- World's first atomic bomb detonated at Trinity Site in southern New Mexico after its development at Los Alamos.
1948 - Native Americans win the right to vote in state elections only.
New Mexico History <ul><li>What surprised you about our state’s history? </li></ul><ul><li>What about New Mexico’s history are you interested in learning more about? </li></ul>