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Worlds Entangled, 1600–1750
Chapter 13
Economic and political effects of
global commerce
• Transoceanic trade affected mercantile
groups as well as nations, thei...
Economic and political effects of
global commerce
• Economic integration weakened some
rulers while strengthening others
•...
Economic and political effects of
global commerce
• Extracting wealth: Mercantilism
– Lucrative mining ventures in Spanish...
Economic and political effects of
global commerce
• Extracting wealth: Mercantilism
– Latecomers did not find mineral weal...
Economic and political effects of
global commerce
• Extracting wealth: Mercantilism
– Sugar transformed the European diet
...
Economic and political effects of
global commerce
• Extracting wealth: Mercantilism
– These adventures in the Americas led...
New colonies in the Americas
• Holland’s trading colonies
– In 1621, formed the Dutch West India
Company to promote commer...
New colonies in the Americas
• Holland’s trading colonies
– Never established an elaborate colonial
presence in the Americ...
New colonies in the Americas
• France’s fur-trading empire
– French explored the St. Lawrence River valley
and the Great L...
New colonies in the Americas
• France’s fur-trading empire
– French dependent on Indians for knowledge,
promoted a cultura...
New colonies in the Americas
• England’s landed empire
– Unlike the French, England’s colonists
established expansive agra...
New colonies in the Americas
• England’s landed empire
– Farther south, the Virginia Company fostered
the growth of a toba...
New colonies in the Americas
• The plantation complex in the Caribbean
– The Portuguese sugarcane plantation model
was ext...
New colonies in the Americas
• The plantation complex in the Caribbean
– Sugar was a “killing” crop
• It flourished in hot...
New colonies in the Americas
• The plantation complex in the Caribbean
– Sugar was a “killing” crop (cont’d)
– Sugar produ...
New colonies in the Americas
• The plantation complex in the Caribbean
– Sugar was a “killing” crop (cont’d)
• Slaves resi...
New colonies in the Americas
• The plantation complex in the Caribbean
– Sugar was a “killing” crop (cont’d)
• No single c...
Map 13.3 Caribbean Colonies, 1625–1763
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
The slave trade and Africa
• During the seventeenth and eighteenth
centuries, two Africans for one European
migrated to th...
Map 13.4 The African Slave Trade, 1440–1867
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Compa...
The slave trade and Africa
• Capturing and shipping slaves
– African-controlled commercial networks
responsible for the ca...
The slave trade and Africa
• Capturing and shipping slaves
– Slaves were treated horribly
• Most died before leaving Afric...
The slave trade and Africa
• Slavery’s gender imbalance
– Gender imbalance in the New World meant
little reproduction and ...
The slave trade and Africa
• Africa’s new slave-supplying polities
– African slavery practices led to changes
• Centralize...
The slave trade and Africa
• Africa’s new slave-supplying polities
– The Kongo Kingdom (cont’d)
• Some leaders resisted Eu...
The slave trade and Africa
• Africa’s new slave-supplying polities
– Oyo, Asante, and other groups
• Slave trade helped so...
The slave trade and Africa
• Africa’s new slave-supplying polities
– Oyo, Asante, and other groups (cont’d)
• Oyo Empire g...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• Europeans not as dominant in Asian trade
networks; yet by 1750 parts of...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• The Dutch in Southeast Asia
- Chartered the Dutch East India Company
(V...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• The Dutch in Southeast Asia
• VOC goal was to achieve trade monopolies
...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• The Dutch in Southeast Asia
• Since there was no demand for European
pr...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• Transformations in Islam
- The Safavid Empire
• Foundered in the eighte...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• Transformations in Islam
- The Ottoman Empire
• Slowing of territorial ...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• Transformations in Islam
- The Ottoman Empire (cont’d)
• The inflow of ...
Map 13.1 Trade in Silver and Other Commodities, 1650–1750
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. ...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• Transformations in Islam
- The Ottoman Empire (cont’d)
- Trade in silve...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• Transformations in Islam
- The Mamluks in Ottoman Egypt
• Biggest threa...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• Transformations in Islam
- The Ottoman's Koprulu reforms
• Financial re...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• Transformations in Islam
- The Ottoman's Koprulu reforms (cont’d)
• Led...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• Transformations in Islam
- The Mughal Empire
• Continued to expand its ...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• Transformations in Islam
- The Mughal Empire (cont’d)
• Encouraged fore...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• Transformations in Islam
- Local autonomy in Mughal India
• Under Auran...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• Transformations in Islam
- Local autonomy in Mughal India (cont’d)
• Af...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• Transformations in Islam
- Local autonomy in Mughal India (cont’d)
• Pr...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• From Ming to Qing in China
- Increased prosperity led to the splinterin...
Map 13.5 From Ming to Qing China, 1644–1760
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Compa...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• From Ming to Qing in China
- Administrative problems
• Quality of Ming ...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• From Ming to Qing in China
- Economic problems
• Pirates, officially la...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• From Ming to Qing in China
- Economic problems (cont’d)
- An overall si...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• From Ming to Qing in China
- The collapse of Ming authority (cont’d)
• ...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• From Ming to Qing in China
- The Qing dynasty asserts control (cont’d)
...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• From Ming to Qing in China
- The Qing dynasty asserts control (cont’d)
...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• From Ming to Qing in China
- Expansion and trade under the Qing
• The Q...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• Tokugawa Japan
- Japan tended to deal with external pressures
better th...
Map 13.6 Tokugawa Japan, 1603–1867
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• Tokugawa Japan
- Unification of Japan (cont’d)
• At the end of the cent...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• Tokugawa Japan
- Unification of Japan (cont’d)
• The Tokugawa moved the...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• Tokugawa Japan
- Foreign affairs and foreigners
• The Tokugawa banned C...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• Tokugawa Japan
- Foreign affairs and foreigners (cont’d)
• The Tokugawa...
Asia in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries
• Tokugawa Japan
- Foreign affairs and foreigners (cont’d)
• The regime t...
Transformations in Europe
• Expansion and dynastic change in Russia
– Russian Empire became the world's largest-
ever stat...
Map 13.7 Russian Expansion, 1462–1795
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Transformations in Europe
• Expansion and dynastic change in Russia
– Muscovy becomes the Russian Empire
(cont’d)
• Expans...
Transformations in Europe
• Expansion and dynastic change in Russia
– In 1613, the crown passed to the Romanov
dynasty, wh...
Transformations in Europe
• Absolutist government and serfdom
– Peasants became the serfs of nobles to
sustain the crown a...
Transformations in Europe
• Imperial expansion and migration
– Three factors key to empire building (cont’d)
• Victory in ...
Transformations in Europe
• Imperial expansion and migration
– Thousands of Russian natives immigrated into Siberia
in the...
Transformations in Europe
• Economic and political fluctuations in Western
Europe
– The Thirty Years’ War
• War between Pr...
Transformations in Europe
• Economic and political fluctuations in
Western Europe
– The Thirty Years’ War
• Cost was the l...
Transformations in Europe
• Economic and political fluctuations in
Western Europe
– The Thirty Years’ War (cont’d)
– Army ...
Transformations in Europe
• Western European economies
– Commercial expansion led to rising merchant
class willing to inve...
Transformations in Europe
• Western European economies
– England and France emerged as commercial
powerhouses in the seven...
Transformations in Europe
• Western European economies
– Economic development not limited to port
towns
• Reforms and impr...
Transformations in Europe
• Dynastic monarchies: France and England
– European monarchs tried to centralize
authority duri...
Transformations in Europe
• Dynastic monarchies: France and England
– The French Bourbon dynasty strived toward
“absolute”...
Transformations in Europe
• Dynastic monarchies: France and England
– England differed from France in that it allowed
wome...
Transformations in Europe
• Dynastic monarchies: France and England
– In England, the Stuart dynasty’s efforts to
achieve ...
Transformations in Europe
• Dynastic monarchies: France and England
– These political struggles stimulated political
writi...
Transformations in Europe
• Mercantilist wars
– The ascendance of new powers such as
France and England intensified commer...
Transformations in Europe
• Mercantilist wars
– The ascendance of new powers such as
France and England intensified commer...
Map 13.2 Colonies in North America, 1607–1763
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Com...
Conclusion
• Economic integration between 1500 and1650
unsettled the world. More and more people were
drawn into long-dist...
Conclusion
• In Afro-Eurasia, economic integration challenged
the legitimacy of the Ottoman and Mughal
Empires while contr...
WORLDS TOGETHER,
WORLDS APART
by
Robert Tignor, Jeremy Adelman, Stephen Aron,
Peter Brown, Benjamin Elman, Stephen Kotkin,...
Norton Art Slides
• Chapter 13
Worlds Entangled
1600–1750
Robert Tignor, Jeremy Adelman, Stephen Aron,
Peter Brown, Benjam...
Chapter Opener
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Coffee drinkers at an Ottoman banquet
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
An English coffee house
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Map 13.1 Trade in Silver and Other Commodities, 1650–1750
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. ...
Map 13.2 Colonies in North America, 1607–1763
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Com...
Woodlands Indians
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Map 13.3 Caribbean Colonies, 1625–1763
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
The Fur Trade
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Tobacco
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Slaves Cutting Cane
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Map 13.4 The African Slave Trade, 1440–1867
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Compa...
The Slave Trade
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
The Slave Trade
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
The Port of Loango
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Attack on Bantam
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
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Siege of Vienna
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Indian Cotton
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Aurangzeb
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Silver
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Map 13.5 From Ming to Qing China, 1644–1760
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Compa...
Qing Theater with Female Impersonators
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Canton
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
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Map 13.6 Tokugawa Japan, 1603–1867
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Edo in the Rain
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
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Portuguese Arriving in Japan
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Map 13.7 Russian Expansion, 1462–1795
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
Nenets Hunters
Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition
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Catherine the Great
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The Thirty Years’ War
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Amsterdam Stock Exchange
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Versailles
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Queen Elizabeth of England
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Chronology
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Chronology
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W. W. Norton & Company
Independent and Employee-Owned
WORLDS TOGETHER,
WORLDS APART
THIRD EDITION
This concludes the
Norto...
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Worlds3 lect ch13

  1. 1. Worlds Entangled, 1600–1750 Chapter 13
  2. 2. Economic and political effects of global commerce • Transoceanic trade affected mercantile groups as well as nations, their rulers, and their people • Increasing economic ties drew more markets into global trade
  3. 3. Economic and political effects of global commerce • Economic integration weakened some rulers while strengthening others • Interruptions of trade could destabilize economies and political systems
  4. 4. Economic and political effects of global commerce • Extracting wealth: Mercantilism – Lucrative mining ventures in Spanish and Portuguese New World colonies led other European powers to seek similar opportunities in the seventeenth century
  5. 5. Economic and political effects of global commerce • Extracting wealth: Mercantilism – Latecomers did not find mineral wealth but instead used the fertile land to raise cash crops • Crops included sugarcane, tobacco, indigo, and rice • Negotiated with Indians to establish a fur trade
  6. 6. Economic and political effects of global commerce • Extracting wealth: Mercantilism – Sugar transformed the European diet – These adventures in the Americas led Europeans to create a new economic philosophy—“mercantilism” – Presumed the world’s wealth was fixed and that one country’s wealth came at another’s expense
  7. 7. Economic and political effects of global commerce • Extracting wealth: Mercantilism – These adventures in the Americas led Europeans to create a new economic philosophy—“mercantilism” (cont’d) – Assumed that colonies existed to generate wealth for the motherland – Colonies were forbidden to trade with the motherland’s competitors
  8. 8. New colonies in the Americas • Holland’s trading colonies – In 1621, formed the Dutch West India Company to promote commerce in the Atlantic Ocean and promote participation in the slave trade – The Dutch East India Company's colony on the North American Hudson River initiated a thriving fur trade with the Iroquois Indian Confederation
  9. 9. New colonies in the Americas • Holland’s trading colonies – Never established an elaborate colonial presence in the Americas, but were able to profit from an extensive carrying trade across the Atlantic Ocean • Dutch were often referred to as “universal carriers”
  10. 10. New colonies in the Americas • France’s fur-trading empire – French explored the St. Lawrence River valley and the Great Lakes – In the early seventeenth century, Samuel de Champlain founded the colony of New France in the St. Lawrence River valley • With relatively few settlers, they established a thriving fur trade with Native Americans
  11. 11. New colonies in the Americas • France’s fur-trading empire – French dependent on Indians for knowledge, promoted a cultural sharing – This cooperative, not conquering, form of colonization was unique
  12. 12. New colonies in the Americas • England’s landed empire – Unlike the French, England’s colonists established expansive agrarian settlements along the Atlantic seaboard of North America • Relations with Indians more confrontational – Protestant dissenters colonized New England • Fought brutal wars with Indians in the 1630s and 1670s
  13. 13. New colonies in the Americas • England’s landed empire – Farther south, the Virginia Company fostered the growth of a tobacco colony in the Chesapeake Bay • English settlers battled and ultimately displaced Indians for most of the century – Colonizing style based on land ownership
  14. 14. New colonies in the Americas • The plantation complex in the Caribbean – The Portuguese sugarcane plantation model was extended into the English and French possessions in the Caribbean – Because of the earlier decimation of the Indian population, African slaves made up the vast majority of the islands' population
  15. 15. New colonies in the Americas • The plantation complex in the Caribbean – Sugar was a “killing” crop • It flourished in hot and humid climates that fostered diseases to which even Africans had no natural immunities • European plantation owners rarely lived on their plantations, leaving managers to run them – Managers tended to work slaves to death
  16. 16. New colonies in the Americas • The plantation complex in the Caribbean – Sugar was a “killing” crop (cont’d) – Sugar production included planting, harvesting, and manufacturing – Rarely were slaves afforded proper housing and nutrition – The average life expectancy for a slave who survived the Atlantic passage was three years
  17. 17. New colonies in the Americas • The plantation complex in the Caribbean – Sugar was a “killing” crop (cont’d) • Slaves resisted as they could – Few incidents of armed insurrection – More common form of resistance was flight » Slaves founded sanctuary “maroon” communities in the island highlands – Most common form of resistance was subterfuge in daily work
  18. 18. New colonies in the Americas • The plantation complex in the Caribbean – Sugar was a “killing” crop (cont’d) • No single colonial power dominated the Caribbean plantation complex – The wealthiest colony was the French Saint-Domingue
  19. 19. Map 13.3 Caribbean Colonies, 1625–1763 Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  20. 20. The slave trade and Africa • During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, two Africans for one European migrated to the Americas – Depopulated and destabilized much of Africa • Capturing and shipping slaves – Europeans grafted onto an existing slave system – Roughly 12 million slaves were shipped to Atlantic ports from the 1440s to 1867
  21. 21. Map 13.4 The African Slave Trade, 1440–1867 Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  22. 22. The slave trade and Africa • Capturing and shipping slaves – African-controlled commercial networks responsible for the capture and transportation of slaves to the African coastal entrepôts • In the Bight of Biafra, European slavers employed the traditional African practice of “pawnship” – A trader's pawns (often family members) were held until the promised delivery of slaves was secured – If deal not completed, pawns were sold into slavery as a replacement – These deals were enforced by a secret male society called "Ekpe"
  23. 23. The slave trade and Africa • Capturing and shipping slaves – Slaves were treated horribly • Most died before leaving Africa – Left for long periods in filthy holding camps – Held in port, on slave vessels, for extended periods • Slavery’s gender imbalance – Gender-ratio imbalances seen in Africa and the Americas • European traders preferred males, and African sellers desired women as domestic workers
  24. 24. The slave trade and Africa • Slavery’s gender imbalance – Gender imbalance in the New World meant little reproduction and a need for continued slave purchases to increase labor force – Polygyny reinforced in Africa because of gender-ratio imbalance – Dahomean women asserted more power and authority because of their numbers • Queen mother, or kpojito, was one of the most powerful political forces in Dahomean court
  25. 25. The slave trade and Africa • Africa’s new slave-supplying polities – African slavery practices led to changes • Centralized polities • Shifted control of wealth from families with large herds or land to families of urban slavers – The Kongo Kingdom • Feuding to control the slave trade resulted in a century of civil war after 1665 • Key to success was the presence of firearms and gunpowder
  26. 26. The slave trade and Africa • Africa’s new slave-supplying polities – The Kongo Kingdom (cont’d) • Some leaders resisted European presence and demand for slaves – Queen Nzinga held off Portuguese with diplomacy as well as guerilla warfare – Christian visionary Dona Beatriz Kimpa tried to end the civil wars and reunify the kingdom
  27. 27. The slave trade and Africa • Africa’s new slave-supplying polities – Oyo, Asante, and other groups • Slave trade helped some merchants and warlords to consolidate and extend political power • Certain mercantile groups in central and West Africa grew wealthier, especially the Asante – Asante state displaced local political organizations – Long-distance trade networks fostered the growth of strong state systems – Access to gold allowed them to acquire firearms
  28. 28. The slave trade and Africa • Africa’s new slave-supplying polities – Oyo, Asante, and other groups (cont’d) • Oyo Empire gained power through its army – Linked commercial networks in tropical rain forests to the savanna areas to the north in West Africa – Although the slave trade enriched and empowered some Africans, it cost Africa dearly • The Atlantic commercial system shifted wealth from the countryside to urban areas • Many areas suffered severe population loss
  29. 29. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • Europeans not as dominant in Asian trade networks; yet by 1750 parts of Asia were beginning to feel the power of the growing European military and economy • The Dutch in Southeast Asia
  30. 30. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • The Dutch in Southeast Asia - Chartered the Dutch East India Company (VOC) in 1602 to challenge the Portuguese and Spanish influence in the Indian Ocean system • Because of Amsterdam’s financial strength, the VOC was able to raise more capital than any of its European competitors
  31. 31. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • The Dutch in Southeast Asia • VOC goal was to achieve trade monopolies - In the 1620s, seized the Javanese city of Jakarta (renamed Batavia) and the nutmeg-producing islands known as Banda to monopolize the nutmeg trade - Capture the cities of Melaka and Banten in an effort to control the entire spice trade in Southeast Asia - Chinese and English merchants continued to compete with the VOC, so it never achieved the monopoly it sought
  32. 32. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • The Dutch in Southeast Asia • Since there was no demand for European products, the VOC became involved in inter-Asian trade such as sending textiles from India or copper from Japan to markets in Southeast Asia • Old cosmopolitan Asian cities were eclipsed by new European outposts
  33. 33. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • Transformations in Islam - The Safavid Empire • Foundered in the eighteenth century for several reasons - Weak rulers allowed chaos to emerge - Afghan warriors attacked and invaded the empire
  34. 34. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • Transformations in Islam - The Ottoman Empire • Slowing of territorial expansion in the seventeenth century concerned intellectuals who believed the empire was in decline • A succession of weak rulers created a sense of crisis
  35. 35. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • Transformations in Islam - The Ottoman Empire (cont’d) • The inflow of American silver into Ottoman commercial networks destabilized the empire - Merchants increasingly defied commercial regulations and traded commodities such as wheat, copper, and wool to Europeans for silver - Trade in silver reduced the amount of goods available in the Ottoman Empire
  36. 36. Map 13.1 Trade in Silver and Other Commodities, 1650–1750 Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  37. 37. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • Transformations in Islam - The Ottoman Empire (cont’d) - Trade in silver reduced the amount of goods available in the Ottoman Empire - Illegal trade did not enrich the imperial coffers; the government resorted to deficit spending - Deficits, shortages, and the inflow of silver sparked inflation  Breakaway regimes emerged
  38. 38. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • Transformations in Islam - The Mamluks in Ottoman Egypt • Biggest threat to Ottoman Empire was from the Mamluks in Egypt • Egypt wealthiest region of empire • Mamluks were military men who had ruled Egypt for Ottomans, gained great strength
  39. 39. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • Transformations in Islam - The Ottoman's Koprulu reforms • Financial reforms • Instigated by the Koprulu family, who controlled the office of grand vizier • Arrested financial difficulties in the middle of the seventeenth century
  40. 40. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • Transformations in Islam - The Ottoman's Koprulu reforms (cont’d) • Led to renewed zeal against European Christians, threatened central Europe - By the end of the seventeenth century, the Ottomans had lost Hungary and talk of decline began again
  41. 41. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • Transformations in Islam - The Mughal Empire • Continued to expand its territory in the Indian subcontinent • By the end of the seventeenth century, the dynasty found it increasingly difficult to rule effectively over such a large and diverse realm
  42. 42. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • Transformations in Islam - The Mughal Empire (cont’d) • Encouraged foreign commerce, but never opted to become a naval power or expand its territory overseas - In the seventeenth century, the empire prospered as European demand for Indian products, especially cotton textiles, increased dramatically - Imported silver fueled economic growth
  43. 43. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • Transformations in Islam - Local autonomy in Mughal India • Under Aurangzeb (1658–1707), the Mughals fought to expand their territory in southern India, which drained the treasury - Faced fierce resistance - Aurangzeb raised taxes and imposed additional taxes on non-Muslims
  44. 44. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • Transformations in Islam - Local autonomy in Mughal India (cont’d) • After Aurangzeb’s death a war of succession broke out - Widespread revolts against central authority - Many regions achieved their independence or autonomy
  45. 45. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • Transformations in Islam - Local autonomy in Mughal India (cont’d) • Private commercial enterprise - Local rulers welcomed European traders - The trading and banking empire Jagat Seth showed how local wealth undercut imperial authority - On local levels India prospered and traded in the international economy
  46. 46. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • From Ming to Qing in China - Increased prosperity led to the splintering of central control in Ming China during the seventeenth century • Merchants defied commercial regulations, robbing the government of the profits of long-distance trade
  47. 47. Map 13.5 From Ming to Qing China, 1644–1760 Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  48. 48. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • From Ming to Qing in China - Administrative problems • Quality of Ming leadership declined in the sixteenth century • Zhu Yijun, the Wanli emperor (1573–1620), avoided governing for years • He and other emperors had little impact on the vast bureaucracy
  49. 49. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • From Ming to Qing in China - Economic problems • Pirates, officially labeled Japanese but quite often Chinese, constantly raided coastal ports • Silver caused numerous problems - In times of influx, it caused inflation - In times of shortages, peasants scrambled to acquire silver to pay their taxes; this dislocation often led to revolts
  50. 50. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • From Ming to Qing in China - Economic problems (cont’d) - An overall silver shortage in the 1630s and 1640s led to an economic slowdown and, correspondingly, to higher taxes - The collapse of Ming authority • Economic problems hamstrung the government’s ability to cope with natural disasters and food shortages in the early sixteenth century
  51. 51. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • From Ming to Qing in China - The collapse of Ming authority (cont’d) • Several formidable rebellions appeared - One led by Li Zicheng captured Beijing and ended the Ming dynasty in 1644 - The Qing dynasty asserts control • Beneficiaries of the Ming collapse were the Manchu
  52. 52. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • From Ming to Qing in China - The Qing dynasty asserts control (cont’d) • The Manchu formed the Qing (Pure) dynasty • By the end of the seventeenth century, it had begun an impressive economic and territorial expansion
  53. 53. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • From Ming to Qing in China - The Qing dynasty asserts control (cont’d) • Flexibility and respect for local traditions allowed for early success - The Qing continued to rule under Confucian principles - Newly acquired territories in Tibet and Mongolia retained their local administrative institutions
  54. 54. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • From Ming to Qing in China - Expansion and trade under the Qing • The Qing still carefully regulated long-distance trade - The Qing revival reinforced the Chinese sense of cultural superiority
  55. 55. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • Tokugawa Japan - Japan tended to deal with external pressures better than its Asian counterparts - Unification of Japan • In the sixteenth century, Japan was racked by civil war among various feudal warlords, or daimyo
  56. 56. Map 13.6 Tokugawa Japan, 1603–1867 Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  57. 57. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • Tokugawa Japan - Unification of Japan (cont’d) • At the end of the century, Toyotomi Hideyoshi emerged as the most powerful warlord • On Hideyoshi’s death, another daimyo, Tokugawa Ieyasu, attained power - In 1603, took the title of shogun (military ruler in the emperor’s name) and passed it to his son
  58. 58. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • Tokugawa Japan - Unification of Japan (cont’d) • The Tokugawa moved the administrative capital to Edo (modern-day Tokyo) • Under Tokugawa, villages paid taxes to daimyo, who transferred resources to the shogun - Peace brought prosperity as farmers became more productive and the government improved the infrastructure • Population doubled in the seventeenth century
  59. 59. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • Tokugawa Japan - Foreign affairs and foreigners • The Tokugawa banned Christianity and expelled all missionaries • The Tokugawa limited trade to Dutch merchants, who were allowed to remain at a small island near Nagasaki and unload just one ship per year
  60. 60. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • Tokugawa Japan - Foreign affairs and foreigners (cont’d) • The Tokugawa did not completely isolate Japan - Trade flourished between China and Japan - The shoguns gathered reports and publications from Chinese and Dutch emissaries - Much of the periphery of the empire escaped close supervision
  61. 61. Asia in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries • Tokugawa Japan - Foreign affairs and foreigners (cont’d) • The regime tried to create buffer zones between Japan and other powers - Ryūkyūs in the south - Ezo in the north • This carefully regulated interaction helped build the dynasty by limiting domestic upheavals brought on by greater contact, as in the cases of Ming China and Mughal India
  62. 62. Transformations in Europe • Expansion and dynastic change in Russia – Russian Empire became the world's largest- ever state – Muscovy becomes the Russian Empire • After 1480, the Muscovy state expanded rapidly across north central and northeast Eurasia • Expanded trade networks helped consolidate a powerful political order • Named Russian Empire by Peter the Great around 1700
  63. 63. Map 13.7 Russian Expansion, 1462–1795 Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  64. 64. Transformations in Europe • Expansion and dynastic change in Russia – Muscovy becomes the Russian Empire (cont’d) • Expansion into the steppes eliminated attacks from descendants of the Mongols • Trade enhanced government coffers – Internal feuding plagued the regime in the sixteenth century
  65. 65. Transformations in Europe • Expansion and dynastic change in Russia – In 1613, the crown passed to the Romanov dynasty, which retained control into the twentieth century • Absolutist government and serfdom – Romanovs centered as much power as possible in their own hands – Nobles forced to serve as bureaucrats
  66. 66. Transformations in Europe • Absolutist government and serfdom – Peasants became the serfs of nobles to sustain the crown and the nobility’s wealth • Imperial expansion and migration – Three factors key to empire building • Conquest of Siberia • Incorporation of Ukraine
  67. 67. Transformations in Europe • Imperial expansion and migration – Three factors key to empire building (cont’d) • Victory in war with Sweden – Achieved by Peter the Great – Followed Swedish-style bureaucracy – After rule of Peter the Great, Russia continued to expand
  68. 68. Transformations in Europe • Imperial expansion and migration – Thousands of Russian natives immigrated into Siberia in the eighteenth century, helping Russia consolidate an empire that stretched from the Baltic to the Pacific • Economic and political fluctuations in western Europe – Economy of Europe continued to grow, but it was affected by developments throughout the world and the Thirty Years’ War.
  69. 69. Transformations in Europe • Economic and political fluctuations in Western Europe – The Thirty Years’ War • War between Protestant princes and the Habsburg Catholic emperor for religious predominance in central Europe • Struggle for continental control between Catholic powers, namely the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs and the French • Dutch sought independence from Spain so they could trade and worship as they liked
  70. 70. Transformations in Europe • Economic and political fluctuations in Western Europe – The Thirty Years’ War • Cost was the lives of civilians and mercenary soldiers • Ended with the Treaty of Westphalia signed in 1648 • Transformed war making in Europe – Enhanced the powers of larger, centralized states
  71. 71. Transformations in Europe • Economic and political fluctuations in Western Europe – The Thirty Years’ War (cont’d) – Army became more professional – Weapons more standardized and efficient – War cost more and led to public debt • Western European economies – Financing wars depended on taxing peasants
  72. 72. Transformations in Europe • Western European economies – Commercial expansion led to rising merchant class willing to invest in new endeavors – Some countries, such as Spain, lost ground because of rising military costs – Dutch mercantile class used advantages in shipbuilding and financial practices to prosper
  73. 73. Transformations in Europe • Western European economies – England and France emerged as commercial powerhouses in the seventeenth century • State set policies that promoted national business and drove out competition – Navigation acts
  74. 74. Transformations in Europe • Western European economies – Economic development not limited to port towns • Reforms and improvements in agriculture spurred food production • England’s agriculture became more commercial with “enclosure movement”
  75. 75. Transformations in Europe • Dynastic monarchies: France and England – European monarchs tried to centralize authority during the seventeenth century – The French Bourbon dynasty strived toward “absolute” rule, where the kings answered only to God • Versailles symbolized their goal, as it served as a place where the nobility came to seek the benefits from the king and where the king could thus keep watch over the nobility
  76. 76. Transformations in Europe • Dynastic monarchies: France and England – The French Bourbon dynasty strived toward “absolute” rule, where the kings answered only to God (cont’d) • Other dynasties—the Habsburgs and the Romanovs, for example—tried to emulate the Bourbons • No dynasty achieved “absolute” power despite their efforts
  77. 77. Transformations in Europe • Dynastic monarchies: France and England – England differed from France in that it allowed women to rule in their own right • Parliament remained important because monarchs needed commoners to raise funds
  78. 78. Transformations in Europe • Dynastic monarchies: France and England – In England, the Stuart dynasty’s efforts to achieve absolute power provoked civil war with Parliament • With the Glorious Revolution of 1688–1689, the Stuart kings agreed to rule in conjunction with Parliament, providing England’s nobility and merchant classes a permanent voice in public affairs
  79. 79. Transformations in Europe • Dynastic monarchies: France and England – These political struggles stimulated political writing such as Thomas Hobbes’s Leviathan and John Locke’s Two Treatises of Civil Government
  80. 80. Transformations in Europe • Mercantilist wars – The ascendance of new powers such as France and England intensified commercial rivalries • In the eighteenth century, new mercantilist wars to control sea lanes and colonies emerged • European powers accordingly built large navies
  81. 81. Transformations in Europe • Mercantilist wars – The ascendance of new powers such as France and England intensified commercial rivalries (cont’d) • These wars culminated in the Seven Years’ War (1756–1763), the first world conflict – Fought in Europe, the Americas, and India – The British Empire was the clear winner with the most lucrative overseas empire
  82. 82. Map 13.2 Colonies in North America, 1607–1763 Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  83. 83. Conclusion • Economic integration between 1500 and1650 unsettled the world. More and more people were drawn into long-distance commercial networks. • These networks fostered further European colonization in the Americas and an explosion in the Atlantic slave trade, with diverse repercussions in Africa.
  84. 84. Conclusion • In Afro-Eurasia, economic integration challenged the legitimacy of the Ottoman and Mughal Empires while contributing to the downfall of the Ming dynasty in China. • Newer powers in England, Russia, and Japan were able to use this process to further consolidate and/or expand their power. But even in these new regimes, the pace of change was often unsettling.
  85. 85. WORLDS TOGETHER, WORLDS APART by Robert Tignor, Jeremy Adelman, Stephen Aron, Peter Brown, Benjamin Elman, Stephen Kotkin, Xinru Liu, Suzanne Marchand, Holly Pittman, Gyan Prakash, Brent Shaw and Michael Tsin. Norton Art Slides THIRD EDITION
  86. 86. Norton Art Slides • Chapter 13 Worlds Entangled 1600–1750 Robert Tignor, Jeremy Adelman, Stephen Aron, Peter Brown, Benjamin Elman, Stephen Kotkin, Xinru Liu, Suzanne Marchand, Holly Pittman, Gyan Prakash, Brent Shaw and Michael Tsin.
  87. 87. Chapter Opener Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  88. 88. Coffee drinkers at an Ottoman banquet Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  89. 89. An English coffee house Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  90. 90. Map 13.1 Trade in Silver and Other Commodities, 1650–1750 Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  91. 91. Map 13.2 Colonies in North America, 1607–1763 Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  92. 92. Woodlands Indians Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  93. 93. Map 13.3 Caribbean Colonies, 1625–1763 Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  94. 94. The Fur Trade Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  95. 95. Tobacco Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  96. 96. Slaves Cutting Cane Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  97. 97. Map 13.4 The African Slave Trade, 1440–1867 Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  98. 98. The Slave Trade Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  99. 99. The Slave Trade Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  100. 100. The Port of Loango Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  101. 101. Attack on Bantam Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  102. 102. Siege of Vienna Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  103. 103. Indian Cotton Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  104. 104. Aurangzeb Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  105. 105. Silver Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  106. 106. Map 13.5 From Ming to Qing China, 1644–1760 Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  107. 107. Qing Theater with Female Impersonators Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  108. 108. Canton Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  109. 109. Map 13.6 Tokugawa Japan, 1603–1867 Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  110. 110. Edo in the Rain Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  111. 111. Portuguese Arriving in Japan Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  112. 112. Map 13.7 Russian Expansion, 1462–1795 Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  113. 113. Nenets Hunters Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  114. 114. Catherine the Great Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  115. 115. The Thirty Years’ War Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  116. 116. Amsterdam Stock Exchange Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  117. 117. Versailles Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  118. 118. Queen Elizabeth of England Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  119. 119. Chronology Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  120. 120. Chronology Worlds Together Worlds Apart, 3rd Edition Copyright © 2011 W.W. Norton & Company
  121. 121. W. W. Norton & Company Independent and Employee-Owned WORLDS TOGETHER, WORLDS APART THIRD EDITION This concludes the Norton Art Slides for Chapter 13 by Robert Tignor, Jeremy Adelman, Stephen Aron, Peter Brown, Benjamin Elman, Stephen Kotkin, Xinru Liu, Suzanne Marchand, Holly Pittman, Gyan Prakash, Brent Shaw and Michael Tsin.

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