Three Landmark Court CasesName and Date of the Case Facts of the Case Summary of the Decision Significance of the Decision • William Marbury, appointed to a • The Court struck down as • Established the principle of federal judgeship by outgoing unconstitutional the law on which judicial review.Marbury v. Madison, 1803 president Adams, was denied his Marbury had based his case. commission by incoming President Jefferson. Marbury argued that the Supreme Court could force Secretary of State Madison to perform his official duty to deliver Marbury his commission. • After Congress created a Second • The Court held that the power to • Asserted a broad expansion of the Bank of the U.S., several states, create a national bank was powers of Congress and that including Maryland (which supported by the Elastic Clause, federal law trumps state lawMcCulloch v. Maryland, 1819 opposed the creation of a but that states did not have the national bank), charged a tax on power to tax a national bank as the bank’s branches. James that would put state law above McCulloch, cashier of the federal law. Maryland branch, refused to pay the tax. • Senate discovers that President • The Court decided against Nixon, • Reinforced the principle of rule of Nixon secretly recorded saying that executive privilege law—that even presidents areUnited States v. Nixon, 1974 conversations in the Oval Office. must be considered in light of the subject to the law President Nixon claimed executive circumstances. privilege after the Senate asked him to hand over the recordings.