Immigration & Urbanization 1865-1914
Why did immigrants come to the United States? <ul><li>Economic opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Religious freedom </li></ul><...
“ New” v. “Old” <ul><li>Eastern & southern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Unskilled </li></ul><ul><li>Poor </li></ul><ul><li>Cat...
Why immigrate? <ul><li>Push factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors that compel people to leave their homes </li></ul></ul><...
Push & Pull Factors of “New” Immigrants <ul><li>PUSH FACTORS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land reform and low prices forced many ...
Ellis Island <ul><li>New York harbor </li></ul><ul><li>1 st  & 2 nd  class passengers inspected on the ship and released <...
Angel Island <ul><li>San Francisco Bay </li></ul><ul><li>Processed mostly Chinese and other Asian immigrants </li></ul><ul...
Americanization <ul><li>Settlement houses offered classes to teach immigrants to speak English and dress and eat like Amer...
Nativism <ul><li>Belief that native born Americans were better than immigrants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backed up claims with...
Immigrants Change America <ul><li>Industrial growth </li></ul><ul><li>New farming and ranching techniques </li></ul><ul><l...
What challenges did city dwellers face? <ul><li>Urbanization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the number of cities and the peopl...
Rural-to-Urban Migrants <ul><li>Move from farm to factory </li></ul><ul><li>Hard to adjust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigid wor...
Technology Improves <ul><li>Skyscrapers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in the manufacture of steel allowed very tall buildi...
Electricity <ul><li>Mass transit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public systems that could carry large numbers of people </li></ul><...
Problems <ul><li>Housing conditions become bad for people who couldn’t afford to move to the suburbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Fire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wooden buildings and gas lighting created conditions that helped fire spread quickly </...
How did American culture change? <ul><li>Consumers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People had more cash and more products were offer...
<ul><li>Advertising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New ideas to bring in consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People’s shopping pat...
Frayers: <ul><li>Melting pot </li></ul><ul><li>Nativism </li></ul><ul><li>Steerage </li></ul><ul><li>Americanization </li>...
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Immigration & Urbanization

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Immigration & Urbanization

  1. 1. Immigration & Urbanization 1865-1914
  2. 2. Why did immigrants come to the United States? <ul><li>Economic opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Religious freedom </li></ul><ul><li>“ New” immigrants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From southern and eastern Europe </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. “ New” v. “Old” <ul><li>Eastern & southern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Unskilled </li></ul><ul><li>Poor </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic or Jewish </li></ul><ul><li>Settle in cities </li></ul><ul><li>Came alone with plans to return to country of origin </li></ul><ul><li>Northern & western Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled & educated </li></ul><ul><li>Brought money from savings </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant </li></ul><ul><li>Settled in rural areas </li></ul><ul><li>Came with families </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why immigrate? <ul><li>Push factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors that compel people to leave their homes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Famine, war, persecution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pull factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors that draw people to a place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic opportunity, religious freedom </li></ul></ul>Many immigrants had both push and pull factors that helped them decide to move from one place to another.
  5. 5. Push & Pull Factors of “New” Immigrants <ul><li>PUSH FACTORS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land reform and low prices forced many farmers off their land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeated wars and political revolutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious persecution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PULL FACTORS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plentiful land & employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1862 Homestead Act made western land inexpensive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family or friends in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious and political freedom </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Ellis Island <ul><li>New York harbor </li></ul><ul><li>1 st & 2 nd class passengers inspected on the ship and released </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd class passengers went through medical and legal inspections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most immigrants left the island within hours </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Angel Island <ul><li>San Francisco Bay </li></ul><ul><li>Processed mostly Chinese and other Asian immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Most Chinese immigrants were held for weeks or even months in poor conditions </li></ul>
  8. 8. Americanization <ul><li>Settlement houses offered classes to teach immigrants to speak English and dress and eat like Americans </li></ul><ul><li>People believed that America was a “melting pot” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All cultures melted together to become one </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Nativism <ul><li>Belief that native born Americans were better than immigrants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backed up claims with “scientific” evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme prejudice against Asians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited the civil rights of Asian immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Congress passed other laws that prohibited criminals, paupers, and the handicapped </li></ul>
  10. 10. Immigrants Change America <ul><li>Industrial growth </li></ul><ul><li>New farming and ranching techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Took jobs other Americans didn’t want </li></ul><ul><li>Lobbied for laws to protect workers & the poor </li></ul><ul><li>Turn to page 137 </li></ul>
  11. 11. What challenges did city dwellers face? <ul><li>Urbanization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When the number of cities and the people who live in them increase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantages of Cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing and transportation centers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women had more job opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety, glamour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher standard of living </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Rural-to-Urban Migrants <ul><li>Move from farm to factory </li></ul><ul><li>Hard to adjust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigid work schedules, no slow season </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motivated by steady employment </li></ul>
  13. 13. Technology Improves <ul><li>Skyscrapers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in the manufacture of steel allowed very tall buildings to be built </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of a safe elevator contributed to the rise in height of buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elisha Otis, inventor </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Electricity <ul><li>Mass transit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public systems that could carry large numbers of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First system powered by animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Powered by overhead electric cables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed the layout of cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People could now live farther away from where they worked—the birth of suburbs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Problems <ul><li>Housing conditions become bad for people who couldn’t afford to move to the suburbs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tenements: low cost multifamily housing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water & Sanitation Risks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Streets were unpaved and littered with trash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared toilets were crammed between buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breeding ground for disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rivers and lakes polluted from factory run-off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To fix this, cities began to offer sewer and water systems </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Fire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wooden buildings and gas lighting created conditions that helped fire spread quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dangerous in crowded conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many cities created professional firefighting teams </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City streets were dangerous, especially at night </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many workers had to go to work at night </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities created police forces to keep order </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. How did American culture change? <ul><li>Consumers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People had more cash and more products were offered on the market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People bought more things than they would have in the past </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mass Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans became more alike in the consuming patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich & poor could wear the same style clothing, though the quality might differ </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Advertising </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New ideas to bring in consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People’s shopping patterns influenced by ads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many new forms of entertainment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amusement parks, outdoor events, vaudeville shows, sporting events </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chautauqua Circuit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Began as a summer camp for Methodist Sunday school teachers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developed into a travelling show that featured comic storytelling, bands, singing, and lectures </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Frayers: <ul><li>Melting pot </li></ul><ul><li>Nativism </li></ul><ul><li>Steerage </li></ul><ul><li>Americanization </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese Exclusion Act </li></ul>

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