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Assignment 7


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Assignment 7

  1. 1. Assignment 7 Modern Latin America History 141 Jessica Migdal
  2. 2. Britain and Latin America <ul><li>George Canning, the British Foreign Secretary, had success in advancing Britain's economic interests during the period of Latin American independence. </li></ul><ul><li>This marked the culmination of more than two hundred years of attempts by privateers, merchants and ministers to break into the monopoly of the Spanish and Portuguese empires. </li></ul><ul><li>The first real concessions came in 1810, when the British government negotiated preferential trading privileges in Brazil in return for its support for the Portuguese royal family during the Napoleonic Wars. </li></ul><ul><li>British and continental European markets grew rapidly and the costs of shipping began to fall, and they began to export bulkier products such as wheat. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing numbers of British firms offered commercial services to Latin American producers and consumers, expanding the supply of credit, insurance, transport and marketing facilities. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Britain and Latin America <ul><li>The outcomes of the political struggles varied. Mexico, Peru and Bolivia all provided extreme examples of political instability. </li></ul><ul><li>In such countries the central government's inability to obtain revenues, and the bitterness of ideological and economic conflicts within the elite, made it impossible for anyone leader to create a coalition powerful enough to preserve order for any length of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil gradually developed a political structure dependent on the ability of bureaucrats and politicians to mediate between the landowners of the provinces and the imperial government in Rio de Janeiro. </li></ul><ul><li>The other exception was Chile, where a leading conservative merchant, Diego Portales, established an authoritarian constitution at the beginning of the 1830s </li></ul>
  4. 4. Latin America's Wars of the 19th Century <ul><li>Within colonial Latin America a class system existed which exalted the Europeans, gave lesser privileges to the American-born, pure-blooded whites, and repressed all others. </li></ul><ul><li>Mercantilism, an economic system which held that colonies existed for the benefit of the motherland, stagnated economic development throughout the New World. </li></ul><ul><li>Not all wars for independence within Latin America were against the European monarch. Some were caused by the heterogeneity within the vast governments, competition had been successfully suppressed by mercantilism during most of the colonial era. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Latin America's Wars of the 19th Century <ul><li>Strong-willed individuals, known as caudillos, routinely used force to achieve their personal ends, throughout the nineteenth century hundreds of caudillos existed in Latin America. </li></ul><ul><li>Although caudillos generally professed political ideologies, many willingly sacrificed these when they conflicted with their quests for power. </li></ul><ul><li>The power of a caudillo was his ability to deliver his followers to the cause of his choice. Their loyalty was to him personally and could be lost if the caudillo were defeated in battle. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Second World Mexico <ul><li>NAFTA, the North American Free Trade Act, had high hope to bring Mexico up from the second world but the country can not help itself. Mexico lie under America strategic umbrella. </li></ul><ul><li>Globalization has caused harsh adjustments to international competition with in Mexico. Since NAFTA and Mexico’s launch in 1994 foreign investments in Mexico has almost quadrupled. </li></ul><ul><li>Manufactured goods account for almost 80% of exports through assembly plants known as maquiladoras. </li></ul><ul><li>Inequality and instability are a major part of Mexico’s internal problem. The four major regions that make up Mexico, the American boarder areas, central Mexico, the indigenous isthmus area, and the Yucatan, are all unevenly modernized and poor. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Second World Mexico <ul><li>Mexicans are the only immigrant group historically with a claim to the United States territory, and the southwest of the United States is tremendously economically integrated with Mexico and Mexicans. </li></ul><ul><li>Within the United States immigrant influence is seen through national politics, Spanish is becoming the 2 nd largest language and millions of illegal immigrants are taking advantage of the American social system. </li></ul><ul><li>The pathway between Mexico and the United States has become a significant corridor of intercontinental globalization. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Second World Colombia <ul><li>Colombia sits strategically as the only South American country with both Pacific and Caribbean coasts. It represents the possibility that South America might profit from the northern countries and from other around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>The country is split by 3 Andean mountain ranges, the Pacific coast and the Amazonian Llanos are the greatest deprived economically. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the land is under control of feudal oligarchs, there are 3 political pole power struggling for control, the government and army, drug traffickers, and paramilitary groups. </li></ul><ul><li>The lack of territorial control by the government, armed groups, elitists, and privatized security are symbols facing the internal threats of Colombia. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Second World Colombia <ul><li>The lack of territorial control by the government, armed groups, elitists, and privatized security are symbols facing the internal threats of Colombia. </li></ul><ul><li>In the early 1990’s Colombia’s coca leaf and cocaine production propelled it into the international market. Colombia remains the source of almost all of the cocaine and half of the heroin sold in the US which are more lucrative than all other agricultural exports and a source of political power </li></ul><ul><li>Bogota today is a growing metropolis and Colombia as a whole seems to be succeeding in reversing the damage done from the drug boom just a few short years ago because building the state and winning the war on drugs go hand and hand. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater exports of coffee has provided a sustainable livelihood for the many people who were once involved in the coca production. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Felipe Calderón Mexico’s President calls for a debate on legalization. <ul><li>Mr. Calderón called for a debate on whether to legalize drugs, became the first incumbent president to call for open discussion of the merits of legalizing a trade he has opposed with such determination. </li></ul><ul><li>Some 28,000 people have been killed in the past 4 years, since the President took office. </li></ul><ul><li>The announcement made by Mr. Calderón has provoked stinging turf battles, increasing the body count. </li></ul><ul><li>Since marijuana provides the gangs with up to half their income, taking that business out of their hands would change the balance of financial power in the drug war. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Felipe Calderón Mexico’s President calls for a debate on legalization. <ul><li>Under Mr. Calderón’s proposal, Mexican authorities would not prosecute people found to be carrying small amounts of drugs if they declared they were addicts and submitted to a treatment program. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who are not addicts could avoid prosecution by entering a prevention program. Fines could be imposed for those who declined to enter such programs. </li></ul><ul><li>The new legislation caps the quantities that would not be subject to prosecution at 50 milligrams of heroin, 2 grams of marijuana, 500 milligrams of cocaine and 40 milligrams of methamphetamine. </li></ul><ul><li>The Mexican attorney general’s office has said that it is so overwhelmed with prosecuting organized crime that it cannot handle the large number of small-time drug cases. </li></ul>