Bibliography • R. Huddleston, G.K. Pullum, A student’s Introduction to English Grammar, CUP 2005• R. Huddleston, G.K. Pullum, The Cambridge grammar of the English language, CUP 2002• Noel Burton Roberts, Analyzing sentences. An introduction to English syntax, Pearson, 2010• E. Finegan, Language, its structure and use, Wadsworth, Cengage Lear1989• G. Yule, The Study of language, CUP 1991
Seminar topics1. Basic concepts in grammar, the parts of speech2. Verbs, tense, aspect, and mood3. Clause structure, complements, and adjuncts4. Nouns and noun phrases5. Adjectives, adverbs, prepositions and preposition phrases6. Negation and related phenomena7. Clause type: asking, exclaiming, and directing8. Subordination and content clauses9. Relative clauses10. Grade and comparison11. Non-finite clauses and clauses without verbs12. Coordination, information packaging in the clause13. Passive Voice14. Morphology : morphological processes
Basic concepts in grammar, the parts of speech 5 October 2012• Number of people who speak English all over the world.• Widely spread language• Language varieties/dialects• Dialects and styles
Dialects• Language varieties/dialects• Standard English-the central dialect• Other dialects, non-standard (regional, local, social)Examples:I did it myself. I done it myself.I haven’t told anybody anything. I ain’t told anybody nothing.• Differences in pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar• Grammar more stable and uniform than accent and vocabulary• What does grammar deal with? Form of sentences and smaller units: clauses, phrases and words.
Styles• Formal and informal styles, formal contexts vs casual conversations. He was the one with whom she worked. He was the one she worked with.• Informal style is not restricted to speech, common in mass media, printed books on academic subjects. Informal sentences are not non-standard.
What is the difference betweena style and a dialect?
Switching between styles within yournative dialect is easy.Switching between dialects is not.
Descriptive and prescriptive approaches to grammar• Descriptive grammar books describe the grammatical system people use when they speak and write. Show what the language is.• Prescriptive grammar books tell people how they should speak and write, give advice. Show how to avoid mistakes.Some grammar manuals do not make distinction between standard vsnon-standard dialects, formal vs informal styles. They apply the termincorrect to both non-standard dialect and informal style. Is it fair?• Do not mix non-standard or informal with incorrect.
More grammatical termsTo talk about a language we need somestandard terms dealing with3 different areaswithin the study of a language:1. Syntax2. Morphology3. Semantics 1 &2 concern the form of sentences or words
Syntax• Study of the principles governing how words can be put together to form sentences.Ex.I found an un opened bottle of wine. (admissible)I found a bottle unopened of wine. (not admissible)Some customers complained a lot about the product .Some customers about the product complained a lot .
MorphologyDeals with the internal form of words.Examples:• unopened: un + open + ed • inhabited • inadequately • preoccupied • dysfunctional • illogicality • unwillingness • unwellcoming
Semantics• is about meaning• principles by which words/sentences are associated with their literal meanings.Examples:unopened is the opposite of opened
More examples of grammatical terms• subject/object• noun, noun phrases, verb, adjective, adverb pronoun• tenses• passive/active voice• imperative• clauses
Misleading definitions of grammatical termsDefinition of the Past Tense:„The Past Tense expresses or indicates a time that is in the past.”Grammatical category vs semantic propertyDefinition works Definition fails• The seminar started one • I thought the seminar hour ago. started next week. Past tense but not past time.• If he said that, he was • If he said that, she wouldn’t wrong. believe him. Past tense but not past time.• I offended my friends. • I regret offending my friends. Not every past time reference involves a past tense.
Imperative A book definition: A form or instruction used to issue a command. Is it a satisfactory definition?• Command • Shut up!• Offer • Have a drink.• Request • Please pass the salt.• Invitation • Come to dinner.• Advice • Have a close look at it.• Instruction • To see the picture click here.
Instead of the term command we can use directive• I direct you to pass me the salt• I direct you to click here, to come to dinner. Go to bed. Sleep well.Both are imperatives .Go to bed is a directiveSleep well is not. I’m not directing you to sleep well. I’m wishing you apeaceful night. Please pass me the salt. Could you pass me the salt?Both sentences are directives but Could you pass me the salt? is not imperative.It’s a question=interrogative.Directives can be issued in other ways, not by the use of imperatives.
???????????• Imperatives• Declaratives• InterrogativesWhat’s the main difference between imperatives and declaratives in English? I am happy. Be happy. I help you. Help me.Subjects are obligatory in declaratives and omitted in imperatives.
How do words combine to form sentences in Standard English?Regularities, rules, technical terms.2 kinds of sentences:• clausual sentence ( a single clause)• compound sentence (coordinated clauses, joined by a coordinator)Ex.:She is a teacher. He is a doctor. I am a student.She is a teacher, he is a doctor and I am a student.I like coffee. He likes tea.I like coffee but he likes tea.The idea of a clause is more basic than the idea of a sentence.
More technical terms• subject (Subj) & predicate (Pred)• Noun phrase (NP), Verb phrase (VP)Ex.: Subj Pred Subj Pred Subj PredThings change. Mark studied. Students complained.All things change. Mark studied yesterday. Some students complained about it. NP VP NP VPNP: things, Mark, students, all things, some studentsPhrase= head + 0 or more dependentsNP = a noun with or without dependents
Subj + Pred• Subj =actor Pred=actionSemantics vs syntax Subject usually has the form of an NP. Its default position is before the verb.Ex.: Basic clause InterrogativeThe seminar has finished. Has the seminar finished?Mark is here. Is Mark here?The students complained. Did the students complain?Rule: the subject proceeds the verb in the basic version and follows it in the interrogative.
Words, Lexemes, InflectionEx.:My students have many books and a computer programme; one book deals withthe programme.programme & programme. books & bookbooks & book are different words but forms of the same lexeme.Different inflectional forms of the same lexeme, plural and singular.Book and books are inflectional forms of the lexeme book.Ex.:drive, drives, drove, driving, drivenfast, faster, fastestLexeme – a minimal unit (as a word or stem)
The parts of speech, 8 categoriesCategory Example Example Examplenoun The students worked That is Mark. We saw him.verb The students worked. It is clear. I have a headache.adjective He’s smart. It looks easy. I’ve got a new exam.determinative The students worked. He needs some All exams change. books.adverb The lecturer spoke She’s not very old. I almost died. clearly.preposition It’s in my schedule. I gave my notes to Here’s a list of them. him.coordinator I got up and left. Mark or Alice took It’s difficult but it. interesting.subordinator It’s suprising that my I wonder whether I don’t know if students were late. it’s true. you’re telling the truth.
Noun (N), (n)Nouns:• 37% of the words in almost any text.• Physical objects, inanimate objects, abstract nouns• Noun categories in traditional grammar: common nouns (book, man), proper nouns (Alice, Europe), pronouns (I, you, his, them)• Inflectional forms: singular, plural• Nouns function as head in NP.; have a function of a subject in a clause.
Verbs (V), (v)Verbs:• In clauses verbs point at:a) an action: I made a cake.b) some other event: The seminar started.c) a state: Students know Standard English.• Auxilary verbs: do, does, did, have, has, will, am, is, are• Lexical verbs• Verbs are head in VPs, predicate in a clause• Inflectional contrast of tense between past and present: -ed, -s, -ing.
Adjective (Adj)1. Express properties of people or things; with the verb be describestates. The long seminar. Students are happy.2. Two adjective functions: ATTRIBUTIVE PREDICATIVE ( after be, become, feel, seem etc.)The long seminar The seminar is long.An angry student He became angry.3. Adjectives are gradable. The degree is indicated by:• modifiers like - fairly big, suprisingly good, extremely polite, very cold• inflectional system, comparison- 3 grades: plain, comparative, superlative. old, older, oldest
Adverbs (Adv)1. Most are derived from adjectives by adding – ly.2. Other common adverbs: almost, always, not, often, quite, rather, soon, too, very3. Adverbs are modifiers of verbs (or VPs), adjectives, adverbs. Modififes a v or VP She spoke clearly. I often teach them. Modifies an adj. a remakably long It’s very long. seminar Modifies an adv. She spoke quite It’ll end quite soon. clearly.
Prepositions (Prep)• Prepositions express relations of space or time.across the street, at the corner,, under the bridge,after classes, before Christmas• Prepositions depend on nouns, verbs/VPs, adjectives. Dependent on I sat by the door. I met him after a verb/VP classes. Dependent on the student in the the day before that a noun room Dependent on keen on grammar superior to others an adjective
Coordinators & subordinators (Co) & (Sub)• Coordinators (and, or, but)My students need good books and more time.My students need good books. My students need more time.Coordinators serve to mark coordination between 2 or more expressions ofequal syntactic status.• Subordinators (that, whether,if)The seminar is difficult. I realise that the seminar is dififficult. main clause subordinate clause
Complements (object, predicative complement), modifiers The structure of phrases (VP, NP)NP: She regularly gives us very useful advice on grammar.advice-head, on grammar-complement, very useful-modifierVP: He kept her letters for years.;kept-head, her letters-complement, for years-modifier• The structure of VPSubtypes of complement: object & predicative complementPredicative complements occur with a limited number of verbs: be, feel, seem. Object Predicative complement I met a friend of yours. She was a friend of yours. She appointed a real idiot. I felt a real idiot. very friendly (AdjP) can’t be an They seemed very friendly. object
Canonical and Non-canonical clausesCanonical clauses (syntactically the Non-canonical clausesmost basic or elementary clauses) (more complex syntactically)• Positive: It is easy. • Negative: It isn’t easy.• Declarative: I can do it. • Interrogative: Can I do it?• Declarative: I am patient. • Imperative: Be patient.• Main: You’re great. • Subordinate: I know that you’re great.• Non-coordinate: • Coordinate: That’s Anna. I’m blind. That’s Anna or I’m blind.• Active: I finished the seminar. • Passive: The seminar is finished.