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  1. 1. Arguing A Point Using Logic Relationship
  2. 2. Murder Mystery <ul><li>When a detective discovered that a bodybuilder was strangled to death, he wondered who the killer was. </li></ul>->
  3. 3. Cause and Effect <ul><li>Argument based on a cause and the effect of that cause </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Cause must be capable of producing effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Which cause produced the effect? </li></ul>Adequate Cause
  5. 5. Murder Mystery <ul><li>The detective immediately ruled out his 12 year old son, and the elderly grandmother. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Pros <ul><li>Every effect has a cause </li></ul><ul><li>Most arguments are cause and effect </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cons <ul><li>Many options for valid causes </li></ul><ul><li>More than one cause per effect </li></ul><ul><li>More than one effect per cause </li></ul>
  8. 8. Antecedent and Consequence <ul><li>Similar to cause and effect </li></ul><ul><li>Consequence may naturally flow from earlier conditions (antecedent) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Murder Mystery <ul><li>Because the bodybuilder was killed, the muscle competition was cancelled. </li></ul><ul><li>Whoever killed the bodybuilder is going to jail. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pros <ul><li>Simple, real life situations </li></ul><ul><li>All antecedents have consequences </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cons <ul><li>Generalizations/assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Any consequence can be proposed, but it may be illogical </li></ul>
  12. 12. Contraries <ul><li>Involves opposite or incompatible things of the same kind. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Murder Mystery <ul><li>If he died from strangulation, he was not shot. </li></ul><ul><li>If it’s proven that he died of strangulation, it doesn’t have to be proven that he was not shot. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Pros <ul><li>Simple conclusions made using relationship </li></ul><ul><li>If one thing is true, the other is false </li></ul><ul><li>If I prove that it’s red, I don’t have to prove it’s not green </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cons <ul><li>If one is false, the other isn’t necessarily true </li></ul><ul><li>If I prove it’s not green, I still have to prove that it’s red </li></ul>
  16. 16. Contradictions <ul><li>Similar to contraries, but using denial, not opposition. </li></ul><ul><li>Two premises cannot be true; one must be true, and one must be false. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Murder Mystery <ul><li>The chef has a motive, but also an alibi. Either the chef killed the body builder, or he did not. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Pros <ul><li>If one premise is true, the other is false. </li></ul><ul><li>Very strong form of argument (no definitely-maybe) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Cons <ul><li>Sometimes, there is a middle ground, but middle ground isn’t an option. </li></ul><ul><li>Not used to prove an argument, usually just to disprove it’s contradiction </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Detective’s Argument The chef killed the bodybuilder. It couldn’t have been the grandmother or his son, because they aren’t strong enough. The cause of death was proven to be strangulation, not gunshot wounds. Thus, someone strong had to kill the bodybuilder. The chef must go to jail for what he’s done; it is illegal and he has committed a gruesome act. Either the chef will go to jail, or not. But this menacing criminal should not be walking the streets in our town after what he’s done. ← Cause and Effect ← Contrary ← Antecedent and Consequence ← Contradiction