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DID YOU KNOW…
that the ears can only received 160
words per minute, while the eyes can
read up to 1000 words per miute.
The eyes can see the whole sentence in
just one glance, but the ears need to
grasp word-for-word in every sentence.
The listener should wait until the end
of the sentence to get the message.
What will happen if the listener fails to
hear a part of the news?
Radio is a mass medium, reaching
millions of people. It is still commonly
used especially in the rural areas. A
communication system based on
broadcasting electromagnetic waves.
Transmit messages via radio waves.
Radio broadcasting is a one-way wireless
transmission over radio waves intended to
reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in
radio networks to broadcast a common radio
format, either in broadcast syndication or
simulcast or both. Audio broadcasting also can
be done via cable radio, local wire television
networks, satellite radio, and internet radio via
streaming media on the Internet. The signal
types can be either analog audio or digital
ADVANTAGES OF THE RADIO
Radio is one of the media which covers huge population.
Radio can be enjoyed at home, in office, while driving car
and can be enjoyed any where.
Radio channels varies from region to region, hence you can
listen radio in your regional language.
Like other entertainment media, Radio is also favourite of
large number of population.
You can advertise your product on radio and the rate of
advertisement is usually lower than other medium of
Important information or news can be easily spread on radio.
For local market radio is one of the powerful medium
DISADVANTAGES OF THE RADIO
Only an audio medium for communication.
During bad weather you cannot listen radio
properly. Often unclear and is affected by
You need to adjust frequency properly.
Less and limited radio channels are available
compared to other communication medium.
MAJOR RADIO PRINCIPLES
ON AIR DELIVERY – THE RIGHT
We speak more slowly on air than in real life, but
we need to describe, to tell stories, to create
pictures. We need to come off as lively, not as robot.
You must find the right style, a simple one, fitting
with your character. In just a few words, a reporter
can describe an empty place, recently deserted by a
crowd – and you will picture it, just as if you were
there. Having your own style and on air presence
Our job is to give other people a voice, to let
them be heard. The general public deserves the
truth. Nevertheless, everybody is owed privacy
and respect. There are strict laws against
defamation and calumny both in Europe and in
Fact-check everything. Fact-check the information a
first source has given you by talking to a second
one. Should you have any doubt, fact-check again.
When on air, you will be talking about “known
facts”. Be precise, choose every word carefully, if
you’re quoting a politician, for example.
Commenting is judging, expressing an opinion. This
is not why you’re there. Stick to the facts.
Try to show all sides of the argument, especially
when you’re dealing with a controversy, be it social,
political or economical…
The vast majority of your audience is focused on
basic needs. Their language is simple. If your
audience can’t get what you’re saying, all the
investigating you’ve done will have been done in
PROTECT YOUR SOURCES
Informing the general public is looking for the truth.
Broadcasting some heavy news might upset some
people or organizations. Sometimes, so as to make
these news public, you will have to guarantee
anonymity to the people speaking on air. In such a
case, it’s said that a journalist must protect his
sources, that is to say guarantee to the people giving
him informations that they do so under the seal of
confidentiality. Careful : this process is reserved for
exceptional circumstances, when this technique is
the only way you have of broadcasting major news.
KEEP IN TOUCH WITH THE NEWSROOM
This is a must both in conflict areas and in peace
time. Back at the station, the anchor and the
editor need to know how you are doing so as to
properly work on the broadcast.
PRINCIPLES OF RADIO BROADCASTING
• It is spoken
WE should remember that we are not writing a
piece of written literature. So we should be
natural and use the words you know the meaning
and which are in your spoken vocabulary.
Use the spoken words of everyday speech. Do
not be afraid to use the same words twice or
thrice if it the right word. The broadcast style
must be natural.
• It is immediate
Broadcast scripts are considered to be
written in immediate format. For Radio and
Television, information is considered immediate.
Broadcast is a “NOW” medium. But in print we
can publish even history or something which is
• It is person to person
Writing for Radio and Television must be
informal. It is like YOU AND ME medium. It mean that
if you write a script to be transmitted through radio or
television, you are supposed to deliver this script in
person to person format. Though, at a time thousands of
people would be listening or watching your scripts to be
delivered from radio or television, but they should feel
that they are attached to this script or drama or any
information. These scripts develop friendship with
listeners and viewers. When we broadcast any script, we
should adopt a friendly tone. Use language normally
your audience use to speak and understand.
• It is heard once
When we write a script for Radio and Television, we
should keep in mind that the words, dialogue spoken are
heard once and they can not be referred back as in case
of print media. In the print media, we can again read the
words we do not understand or miss them. But when
words are spoken at radio and television, they can be
heard again, if slipped first time. So, always use easy,
simple short sentence and understandable language and
words. Clarity must be observed. In broadcast script
writing the biggest enemy is confusion. Do not write
confused words. Leave out superfluous information.
The idea must be grasped. Use only one idea in one
• It is sound/picture
You should know that your scripts are delivered
through sound in case of radio and sound and
picture in case of television. Your words are a bridge
between you and your audience. Do not use vague
or ambiguous language in script writing.
Punctuation is absolutely vital. When eyes see a
mark on page, the brain reacts in a certain way and
the sentences, dialogues are delivered in a right way.
Always your first sentence should be catchy and
Basic Guidelines for Radio News Scriptwriting
A. First of all, the writing of news to radio listeners
write only, NOT TO READERS
OR Audience . To better understand writing news,
please follow the following:
a. Remember that writing news focused mainly on
listeners, so the writing
should be clear and easily understood.
b. Without any words difficult to pronounce or
require more words to explain the dictionary.
B. Pre-Writing Skills (Steps before write news)
a. Create outline. Identify the elements of the story.
Ask yourself: Who? What? Where? When?
Why? And How?
b. Write teaser. Will be used to give the audience a
foretaste before airing the news. Must not longer
than sentence .
c. Write basic sentences (lead sentence). It is used to
get the attention of the listener. Be KLARO and
BEWARE the words used in your first paragraph.
d. Write the body of the story. Include ALL relevant
information, as and POINTS. In a news radio,
usually running only thirty seconds (65 words) to
one minute (130 words).
e. Write a conclusion. Where is the story? How do
you end the story ?. Must mention the essential
point of the story.
f. Must QUICK LOOK UNDERSTAND
IMMEDIATELY script and content. Especially the
right word to use APPLICABLE TO HEARING.
Show script copy-editor you can specify the wrong
g. Have Time Keeper word count:
i. 10 seconds = 25 words
ii. 15 seconds = 35 words
iii. 20 seconds = 45 words
iv. 30 seconds = 65 words
v. 60 seconds =130 words
h. Copy Editor jobs. Keep SARIWA. DO NOT
REPEAT content teaser at lead . It's usually a
i. Quick pass encoder's final report on the computer.
C. Holistic Warning Radio News Writing
a. Limit the number one news. As much as, more confusing.
b. LESS make the sentences to better stifle reporter.
c. Activating the sentence: "He climbed the roof of the house"
rather than "The roof of the house is reached by a man. "
d. Make Currently ongoing news. Containing the most recent
e. DO NOT mix of personal opinion news.
f. Do not mimic or copy the contents of each word contained in
e. Contribute a better translation
f. Do not mimic or copy the contents of each word contained in
any story news sources.
D. Setting your Word Document before encoding:
I. Under HOME Tab
1. HIGHLIGHTING Shortcut: (Ctrl + A)
2. BOLD Shortcut: (Ctrl + B)
3. FONT: Arial SIZE: 12 Shortcut: (Ctrl + Shift + F)
a. JUSTIFIED Shortcut: (Ctrl + J)
b. LINE SPACING click “2.0”; click (Ctrl + A); click “Remove
Space After Paragraph "
II. Under Page Layout Tab
1. PAGE SETUP: Margins: 1”; Paper Size: Letter (8.5” x 11”)
2. LAYOUT: click “Line Numbers”; check the “Add Line Numbering”;
3. LINE NUMBERING: From text: Increase to 0.1 "(recommended)
a. Numbering: click “Continues”
III. Additional Shortcuts (FOR FASTER ENCODING)
1. COPY AND PASTE: (Ctrl + C ; Ctrl + V)
2. PRINT: (Ctrl + P)
IV. General Guidelines for Technical Scriptwriting
1. All Character Notations are in CAPS (ex. OF. 1; OF 2;
2. All Technical (SFX and MSC) designations are also in CAPS
a. Sound Effects (SFX 1: HEADLINE STINGER)
b. Music MSC 2: ‘TITLE’ (TECH. INSTRUCTIONS)
i. Ex: MSC 2: ‘THE LAZY SONG’ (FADE IN… UP… DOWN
TO BG LEVEL)
ii. *Only Music Notations are underlined
i. Ex: MOTHER: (GENTLY)
RESUME FROM COMM. GAP
(Example: OF. 1 (LIVE FEED) had just news ...)
LEAD-IN – broadcast term for beginning part of
story news anchor reads introducing the story and/or
person reporting story.
(EX. LEAD-IN: Constan Stltyill the exchange of
missiles between North Korea at South Korea… )
LOCK-OUT (live) – usually the last thing a reporter
says in either a live or recorded news story (i.e.
PKG) indicating the piece is ending.
(OTHER – usually the “Goodbye” or end segment of a newscast
often during which news/wx/sports anchors engage in “happy
LINEUP - A chronological outline or order of stories or segments
to be used in a newscast. This is the producer's blueprint for the
[Ex. TAL.1: (READ LINEUP) Here that 's the explosive news in
the past to two hours.
RUNNING TIME - Refers either to the estimated time or the
actual time of a newscast. Producers/editors should always
estimate the running time of the newscast based on the actual
time of each recorded report and her or his best guess as to the
time of each intro and each story to be read by the anchor.
[Ex. Running Time: 5MINS.]
CLOCK schedule of a broadcast hour, with precise time in minutes and
seconds allotted for the various programming segments; for example, a clock
might begin "00:00-01:30 -- news," "01:30-02:30 -- spots," and so forth; often
represented as a pie chart resembling an analog clock.
[Ex. TAL.3: (CLOCK: “02:30 – 03:30 "-NEWS) Reaching flood knee ...]
FOLLOW smooth transition from one scene or topic to another.
[Ex. FOLLOW S: MSC 1: (CROSS FADE )– MSC 2: ‘INT’L NEWS BED’
(FADE IN..UP…DOWN…UNDER BG LEVEL)]
STD INTRO - Standard Intro found at the very first line numbering of a news
script. Cue as the broadcast
program starts. [Ex. STD INTRO: MSC 1: PROGRAM ID BEDDING (FADE
IN…UP…DOWN…UNDER BG LEVEL)]
STD EXTRO - Standard Extro found at the very LAST line numbering of a
news script. Cue as the broadcast program ends. [Ex. STD EXTRO: MSC 7:
PROGRAM ID BEDDING (FADE UP…EST…DOWN…AND OUT)]
1.Length and Schedule of Newscast for Radio
2. News Sources
3. Commentaries and Analysis
5. Coverage of News and Public Events
6. Placements and Advertising
B. PUBLIC AFFAIRS, ISSUES AND
FIVE TRENDS FOR THE FURURE OF RADIO
The radio industry finds itself in a familiar yet
precarious position entering 2011 — traditional
revenues are sustainable enough to continue with
decent returns, but there’s not enough money to
invest in the digital transition without re-
evaluating some fundamentals of the business.
The result is that the emerging trends will not be
revolutionary so much as evolutionary, and the
key will be finding those points where traditional
methodologies and digital extensions converge
1. Gathering and organizing listener data becomes
While radio has historically been about broadcast, at
the center of current digital development, from
mobile to social media to streaming to advertising,
is the unique user. That disconnect will start to be
addressed by broadcasters in 2011. Gathering,
identifying, and communicating with radio listeners
at a one-to-one level will be the centerpiece of
radio’s — indeed, all of media’s — future.
2. Local advertisers start to demand digital accountability
More than anything, this will focus radio’s attention on digital.
John Wanamaker’s famous quote “Half the money I spend on
advertising is wasted. The trouble is I don’t know which half”
will start to haunt radio in 2011. Why? Because digital publishers
and ad networks are saying you don’t need to guess anymore —
and local advertisers are listening. They’ll only pay for the half
which works. Radio’s shotgun approach to advertising will look
more and more inefficient and not worthy of premium rates.
For radio, this will require working with their digital assets. This
will entail everything from targeted advertising in audio streams
to coupon deals presented in similar fashion to Groupon.
3. User-level ad targeting starts to redefine the value of
This is closely related to trends number one and two.
Digital agencies have completely ignored streaming
through 2010 and traditional agencies offered marginal
CPMs (cost per thousand impressions). The addition of
user-level ad targeting will take CPMs to compelling
levels thanks in part to digital agencies, who will finally
be seeing a similar ad environment to what they see in
display — ads targeted to specific users based not only on
demographics, but their actual interests and behavior.
4. Digital agencies finally notice radio
As radio embraces more digital strategies to remain
relevant to their existing advertisers, a positive side
effect will be that digital agencies will turn their
attention to radio. This will be a huge boon for the
industry as ad revenue continues to erode from
traditional agencies and move to digital. Key drivers
will be the continued growth of streaming, local
digital initiatives like daily deals, improved user-
level targeting, and direct digital marketing via
things like email and texting.
5. Radio starts to significantly embrace location-based
Radio somehow got left behind when services like
Foursquare and Gowalla were out looking for media
partners, but that will change in a big way in 2011. The
ability for radio to go to an advertiser and utilize a digital
platform to send their huge reach into stores is a huge
Jim Kerr is vice president of strategy for Triton Digital
Media, which provides digital tools to traditional media
STEPS IN SCRIPWRITING for RADIO
When you plan a script, you have to decide what
gets priority. You simply can not cover every story. You
must do the following:
Monitor the broad environment in which you work. What
are the emerging issues?
It is important to look at the people who will use the
Prepare a “case” proceeding after identifying the script
You might also include monitoring and evaluation plan.
Know your intended audience to help narrow the focus.
Understanding your target audience is the major focus of
this research stage in planning the radio scripts.
B. Preparing for a Newshole
Planning a radio newscast actually begins earlier
long before the actual airtime. Its other contents like a
special reports, features, commercials, infomercials,
bumpers, teasers, station ID and others are prepared ahead
of time. Breaking news will just come in before the
In preparing the contents of a newscast, the
newshole is used. All prepared contents before the airtime
are filled with corresponding time allotment. The
remaining space will be filled up by the news stories of
C. Timing the Newscast Program
Every minute or second in radio broadcasting
counts. Each program should begin and end with the exact
time allotment. If the time frame for a newscast is for five
minutes only, then all the contents therein should be for
that time allotment only, no more or less.
D. Selecting Topics for Writing a Radio Broadcast Script
There are several considerations in selecting topics
for radio broadcasting. The mandate of the scriptwriter is
to develop scripts that will have a practical application in
the field. That means that he must select topics that can be
covered a radio in such a way that a listener can take the
lesson and actually go and something with what they’ve
E. Writing Script for Radio Broadcast
When the scriptwriter writes for radio, he follows
“The Six Cs ”.
• Write in a simple, understandable style.
• Write to express an idea, not to impress your
• Basically limit sentences to one main thought.
• Broadcast copy is short.
• Get to the main point.
• Use only essential words.
• Eliminate wordiness.
• Make your point and move on.
• We basically “converse” using simple, common
• Write a story much the same way you’d tell it to
• Your copy must answer the five Ws (who, what,
when, where, and why), except, perhaps, “why”.
That maybe unknown at airtime.
• But don’t raise new questions or leave old
• Current copy is timely copy-both in content and the
way it sounds.
• One way you can make your copy sound much more
timely is by using (but not forcing) one of the present
verb tenses whenever it’s possible (and correct)
• The most important “C.”
• One mistake could potentially ruin a career
• Your copy must be free of factual errors. Double check
for correct names, dates, times, etc
• Correct copy also means correct use of spelling and
• Use a dictionary.
F. Editing the Script
Writing for the ear is different than writing for the
eye.Listeners can’t skim ahead to see what’s coming, like they
can printed materials. They can’t speed up or slow down the
presentation. The material has to be presented in such a way
that it can be easily followed and understood on the hearing.
G. Final Step in Writing a Radio Broadcast Script
The final step in writing a script is preparing it for
A well-written script can be ruined by poor delivery at
the microphone. Lay it out so that you can read it easily and
confidently in the studio.
Three Stages in Radio Broadcast Scriptwriting
This is to get the attention of the listeners and
could be a word, a phrase or a short sentence which
may not be gramatical.
2.Body Message Stage.
This putting up of the substance in
installment. The answers of the
who,what,where,why, the how are broken up into
It repeats and affirms the message.
Structure of the radio broadcast script
1. Date of the report.