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Radio Broadcasting and Scriptwriting

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Radio Broadcasting and Scriptwriting

  1. 1. RADIO BROADCASTING and scriptwriting
  2. 2. FUN FACTS DID YOU KNOW… that the ears can only received 160 words per minute, while the eyes can read up to 1000 words per miute.
  3. 3. FUN FACTS The eyes can see the whole sentence in just one glance, but the ears need to grasp word-for-word in every sentence. The listener should wait until the end of the sentence to get the message. What will happen if the listener fails to hear a part of the news?
  4. 4. RADIO Radio is a mass medium, reaching millions of people. It is still commonly used especially in the rural areas. A communication system based on broadcasting electromagnetic waves. Transmit messages via radio waves.
  5. 5. RADIO BROADCASTING Radio broadcasting is a one-way wireless transmission over radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format, either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both. Audio broadcasting also can be done via cable radio, local wire television networks, satellite radio, and internet radio via streaming media on the Internet. The signal types can be either analog audio or digital audio.
  6. 6. ADVANTAGES OF THE RADIO  Radio is one of the media which covers huge population.  Radio can be enjoyed at home, in office, while driving car and can be enjoyed any where.  Radio channels varies from region to region, hence you can listen radio in your regional language.  Like other entertainment media, Radio is also favourite of large number of population.  You can advertise your product on radio and the rate of advertisement is usually lower than other medium of communication.  Important information or news can be easily spread on radio.  For local market radio is one of the powerful medium of communication.
  7. 7. DISADVANTAGES OF THE RADIO Only an audio medium for communication. During bad weather you cannot listen radio properly. Often unclear and is affected by weather. You need to adjust frequency properly. Less and limited radio channels are available compared to other communication medium.
  8. 8. MAJOR RADIO PRINCIPLES ON AIR DELIVERY – THE RIGHT TONE We speak more slowly on air than in real life, but we need to describe, to tell stories, to create pictures. We need to come off as lively, not as robot. You must find the right style, a simple one, fitting with your character. In just a few words, a reporter can describe an empty place, recently deserted by a crowd – and you will picture it, just as if you were there. Having your own style and on air presence
  9. 9. RESPECTING OTHERS Our job is to give other people a voice, to let them be heard. The general public deserves the truth. Nevertheless, everybody is owed privacy and respect. There are strict laws against defamation and calumny both in Europe and in the USA.
  10. 10. ACCURACY Fact-check everything. Fact-check the information a first source has given you by talking to a second one. Should you have any doubt, fact-check again. When on air, you will be talking about “known facts”. Be precise, choose every word carefully, if you’re quoting a politician, for example. NO COMMENTING Commenting is judging, expressing an opinion. This is not why you’re there. Stick to the facts.
  11. 11. BALANCE Try to show all sides of the argument, especially when you’re dealing with a controversy, be it social, political or economical… CLARITY The vast majority of your audience is focused on basic needs. Their language is simple. If your audience can’t get what you’re saying, all the investigating you’ve done will have been done in vain.
  12. 12. PROTECT YOUR SOURCES Informing the general public is looking for the truth. Broadcasting some heavy news might upset some people or organizations. Sometimes, so as to make these news public, you will have to guarantee anonymity to the people speaking on air. In such a case, it’s said that a journalist must protect his sources, that is to say guarantee to the people giving him informations that they do so under the seal of confidentiality. Careful : this process is reserved for exceptional circumstances, when this technique is the only way you have of broadcasting major news.
  13. 13. KEEP IN TOUCH WITH THE NEWSROOM This is a must both in conflict areas and in peace time. Back at the station, the anchor and the editor need to know how you are doing so as to properly work on the broadcast.
  14. 14. PRINCIPLES OF RADIO BROADCASTING • It is spoken WE should remember that we are not writing a piece of written literature. So we should be natural and use the words you know the meaning and which are in your spoken vocabulary. Use the spoken words of everyday speech. Do not be afraid to use the same words twice or thrice if it the right word. The broadcast style must be natural.
  15. 15. • It is immediate Broadcast scripts are considered to be written in immediate format. For Radio and Television, information is considered immediate. Broadcast is a “NOW” medium. But in print we can publish even history or something which is not immediate.
  16. 16. • It is person to person Writing for Radio and Television must be informal. It is like YOU AND ME medium. It mean that if you write a script to be transmitted through radio or television, you are supposed to deliver this script in person to person format. Though, at a time thousands of people would be listening or watching your scripts to be delivered from radio or television, but they should feel that they are attached to this script or drama or any information. These scripts develop friendship with listeners and viewers. When we broadcast any script, we should adopt a friendly tone. Use language normally your audience use to speak and understand.
  17. 17. • It is heard once When we write a script for Radio and Television, we should keep in mind that the words, dialogue spoken are heard once and they can not be referred back as in case of print media. In the print media, we can again read the words we do not understand or miss them. But when words are spoken at radio and television, they can be heard again, if slipped first time. So, always use easy, simple short sentence and understandable language and words. Clarity must be observed. In broadcast script writing the biggest enemy is confusion. Do not write confused words. Leave out superfluous information. The idea must be grasped. Use only one idea in one sentence.
  18. 18. • It is sound/picture You should know that your scripts are delivered through sound in case of radio and sound and picture in case of television. Your words are a bridge between you and your audience. Do not use vague or ambiguous language in script writing. Punctuation is absolutely vital. When eyes see a mark on page, the brain reacts in a certain way and the sentences, dialogues are delivered in a right way. Always your first sentence should be catchy and attractive.
  19. 19. Basic Guidelines for Radio News Scriptwriting A. First of all, the writing of news to radio listeners write only, NOT TO READERS OR Audience . To better understand writing news, please follow the following: a. Remember that writing news focused mainly on listeners, so the writing should be clear and easily understood. b. Without any words difficult to pronounce or require more words to explain the dictionary.
  20. 20. B. Pre-Writing Skills (Steps before write news) a. Create outline. Identify the elements of the story. Ask yourself: Who? What? Where? When? Why? And How? b. Write teaser. Will be used to give the audience a foretaste before airing the news. Must not longer than sentence . c. Write basic sentences (lead sentence). It is used to get the attention of the listener. Be KLARO and BEWARE the words used in your first paragraph.
  21. 21. NEWS VALUES: 1. Prominence 2. Proximity 3. Currency 4. Timeliness 5. Consequence 6. Oddity 7. Human Interest 8. Change 9. Drama 10. Conflict
  22. 22. d. Write the body of the story. Include ALL relevant information, as and POINTS. In a news radio, usually running only thirty seconds (65 words) to one minute (130 words). e. Write a conclusion. Where is the story? How do you end the story ?. Must mention the essential point of the story. f. Must QUICK LOOK UNDERSTAND IMMEDIATELY script and content. Especially the right word to use APPLICABLE TO HEARING. Show script copy-editor you can specify the wrong stories.
  23. 23. g. Have Time Keeper word count: i. 10 seconds = 25 words ii. 15 seconds = 35 words iii. 20 seconds = 45 words iv. 30 seconds = 65 words v. 60 seconds =130 words h. Copy Editor jobs. Keep SARIWA. DO NOT REPEAT content teaser at lead . It's usually a mistake news. i. Quick pass encoder's final report on the computer.
  24. 24. C. Holistic Warning Radio News Writing a. Limit the number one news. As much as, more confusing. b. LESS make the sentences to better stifle reporter. c. Activating the sentence: "He climbed the roof of the house" rather than "The roof of the house is reached by a man. " d. Make Currently ongoing news. Containing the most recent event. e. DO NOT mix of personal opinion news. f. Do not mimic or copy the contents of each word contained in any story e. Contribute a better translation f. Do not mimic or copy the contents of each word contained in any story news sources.
  25. 25. D. Setting your Word Document before encoding: I. Under HOME Tab 1. HIGHLIGHTING Shortcut: (Ctrl + A) 2. BOLD Shortcut: (Ctrl + B) 3. FONT: Arial SIZE: 12 Shortcut: (Ctrl + Shift + F) 4. PARAGRAPH: a. JUSTIFIED Shortcut: (Ctrl + J) b. LINE SPACING click “2.0”; click (Ctrl + A); click “Remove Space After Paragraph " II. Under Page Layout Tab 1. PAGE SETUP: Margins: 1”; Paper Size: Letter (8.5” x 11”) 2. LAYOUT: click “Line Numbers”; check the “Add Line Numbering”; 3. LINE NUMBERING: From text: Increase to 0.1 "(recommended) a. Numbering: click “Continues”
  26. 26. III. Additional Shortcuts (FOR FASTER ENCODING) 1. COPY AND PASTE: (Ctrl + C ; Ctrl + V) 2. PRINT: (Ctrl + P) IV. General Guidelines for Technical Scriptwriting 1. All Character Notations are in CAPS (ex. OF. 1; OF 2; MOTHER; CHILD) 2. All Technical (SFX and MSC) designations are also in CAPS a. Sound Effects (SFX 1: HEADLINE STINGER) b. Music MSC 2: ‘TITLE’ (TECH. INSTRUCTIONS) i. Ex: MSC 2: ‘THE LAZY SONG’ (FADE IN… UP… DOWN TO BG LEVEL) ii. *Only Music Notations are underlined c. Talents i. Ex: MOTHER: (GENTLY)
  27. 27. RESUME FROM COMM. GAP (Example: OF. 1 (LIVE FEED) had just news ...) LEAD-IN – broadcast term for beginning part of story news anchor reads introducing the story and/or person reporting story. (EX. LEAD-IN: Constan Stltyill the exchange of missiles between North Korea at South Korea… ) LOCK-OUT (live) – usually the last thing a reporter says in either a live or recorded news story (i.e. PKG) indicating the piece is ending.
  28. 28. (OTHER – usually the “Goodbye” or end segment of a newscast often during which news/wx/sports anchors engage in “happy talk.” LINEUP - A chronological outline or order of stories or segments to be used in a newscast. This is the producer's blueprint for the newscast. [Ex. TAL.1: (READ LINEUP) Here that 's the explosive news in the past to two hours. RUNNING TIME - Refers either to the estimated time or the actual time of a newscast. Producers/editors should always estimate the running time of the newscast based on the actual time of each recorded report and her or his best guess as to the time of each intro and each story to be read by the anchor. [Ex. Running Time: 5MINS.]
  29. 29. CLOCK schedule of a broadcast hour, with precise time in minutes and seconds allotted for the various programming segments; for example, a clock might begin "00:00-01:30 -- news," "01:30-02:30 -- spots," and so forth; often represented as a pie chart resembling an analog clock. [Ex. TAL.3: (CLOCK: “02:30 – 03:30 "-NEWS) Reaching flood knee ...] FOLLOW smooth transition from one scene or topic to another. [Ex. FOLLOW S: MSC 1: (CROSS FADE )– MSC 2: ‘INT’L NEWS BED’ (FADE IN..UP…DOWN…UNDER BG LEVEL)] STD INTRO - Standard Intro found at the very first line numbering of a news script. Cue as the broadcast program starts. [Ex. STD INTRO: MSC 1: PROGRAM ID BEDDING (FADE IN…UP…DOWN…UNDER BG LEVEL)] STD EXTRO - Standard Extro found at the very LAST line numbering of a news script. Cue as the broadcast program ends. [Ex. STD EXTRO: MSC 7: PROGRAM ID BEDDING (FADE UP…EST…DOWN…AND OUT)]
  30. 30. PROGRAM STANDARDS A. NEWS 1.Length and Schedule of Newscast for Radio 2. News Sources 3. Commentaries and Analysis 4. Editorials 5. Coverage of News and Public Events 6. Placements and Advertising B. PUBLIC AFFAIRS, ISSUES AND COMMENTARIES
  31. 31. FIVE TRENDS FOR THE FURURE OF RADIO The radio industry finds itself in a familiar yet precarious position entering 2011 — traditional revenues are sustainable enough to continue with decent returns, but there’s not enough money to invest in the digital transition without re- evaluating some fundamentals of the business. The result is that the emerging trends will not be revolutionary so much as evolutionary, and the key will be finding those points where traditional methodologies and digital extensions converge most effectively.
  32. 32. 1. Gathering and organizing listener data becomes priority one While radio has historically been about broadcast, at the center of current digital development, from mobile to social media to streaming to advertising, is the unique user. That disconnect will start to be addressed by broadcasters in 2011. Gathering, identifying, and communicating with radio listeners at a one-to-one level will be the centerpiece of radio’s — indeed, all of media’s — future.
  33. 33. 2. Local advertisers start to demand digital accountability More than anything, this will focus radio’s attention on digital. John Wanamaker’s famous quote “Half the money I spend on advertising is wasted. The trouble is I don’t know which half” will start to haunt radio in 2011. Why? Because digital publishers and ad networks are saying you don’t need to guess anymore — and local advertisers are listening. They’ll only pay for the half which works. Radio’s shotgun approach to advertising will look more and more inefficient and not worthy of premium rates. For radio, this will require working with their digital assets. This will entail everything from targeted advertising in audio streams to coupon deals presented in similar fashion to Groupon.
  34. 34. 3. User-level ad targeting starts to redefine the value of streaming This is closely related to trends number one and two. Digital agencies have completely ignored streaming through 2010 and traditional agencies offered marginal CPMs (cost per thousand impressions). The addition of user-level ad targeting will take CPMs to compelling levels thanks in part to digital agencies, who will finally be seeing a similar ad environment to what they see in display — ads targeted to specific users based not only on demographics, but their actual interests and behavior.
  35. 35. 4. Digital agencies finally notice radio As radio embraces more digital strategies to remain relevant to their existing advertisers, a positive side effect will be that digital agencies will turn their attention to radio. This will be a huge boon for the industry as ad revenue continues to erode from traditional agencies and move to digital. Key drivers will be the continued growth of streaming, local digital initiatives like daily deals, improved user- level targeting, and direct digital marketing via things like email and texting.
  36. 36. 5. Radio starts to significantly embrace location-based mobile services Radio somehow got left behind when services like Foursquare and Gowalla were out looking for media partners, but that will change in a big way in 2011. The ability for radio to go to an advertiser and utilize a digital platform to send their huge reach into stores is a huge opportunity. Jim Kerr is vice president of strategy for Triton Digital Media, which provides digital tools to traditional media companies.
  37. 37. STEPS IN SCRIPWRITING for RADIO BROADCAST SCRIPT Proper Planning When you plan a script, you have to decide what gets priority. You simply can not cover every story. You must do the following: Monitor the broad environment in which you work. What are the emerging issues? It is important to look at the people who will use the information. Prepare a “case” proceeding after identifying the script You might also include monitoring and evaluation plan. Know your intended audience to help narrow the focus. Understanding your target audience is the major focus of this research stage in planning the radio scripts.
  38. 38. B. Preparing for a Newshole Planning a radio newscast actually begins earlier long before the actual airtime. Its other contents like a special reports, features, commercials, infomercials, bumpers, teasers, station ID and others are prepared ahead of time. Breaking news will just come in before the airtime. In preparing the contents of a newscast, the newshole is used. All prepared contents before the airtime are filled with corresponding time allotment. The remaining space will be filled up by the news stories of the day.
  39. 39. C. Timing the Newscast Program Every minute or second in radio broadcasting counts. Each program should begin and end with the exact time allotment. If the time frame for a newscast is for five minutes only, then all the contents therein should be for that time allotment only, no more or less. D. Selecting Topics for Writing a Radio Broadcast Script There are several considerations in selecting topics for radio broadcasting. The mandate of the scriptwriter is to develop scripts that will have a practical application in the field. That means that he must select topics that can be covered a radio in such a way that a listener can take the lesson and actually go and something with what they’ve learned.
  40. 40. E. Writing Script for Radio Broadcast When the scriptwriter writes for radio, he follows “The Six Cs ”. 1. CLEAR 2. CONCISE 3. CONVERSATIONAL 4. COMPLETE 5. CURRENT 6. CORRECT
  41. 41. 1. CLEAR • Write in a simple, understandable style. • Write to express an idea, not to impress your audience. • Basically limit sentences to one main thought. 2.Concise • Broadcast copy is short. • Get to the main point. • Use only essential words. • Eliminate wordiness. • Make your point and move on.
  42. 42. 3. Conversational • We basically “converse” using simple, common language • Write a story much the same way you’d tell it to a friend. 4. Complete • Your copy must answer the five Ws (who, what, when, where, and why), except, perhaps, “why”. That maybe unknown at airtime. • But don’t raise new questions or leave old questions unanswered.
  43. 43. 5. CURRENT • Current copy is timely copy-both in content and the way it sounds. • One way you can make your copy sound much more timely is by using (but not forcing) one of the present verb tenses whenever it’s possible (and correct) 6. CORRECT • The most important “C.” • One mistake could potentially ruin a career • Your copy must be free of factual errors. Double check for correct names, dates, times, etc • Correct copy also means correct use of spelling and grammar. • Use a dictionary.
  44. 44. F. Editing the Script Writing for the ear is different than writing for the eye.Listeners can’t skim ahead to see what’s coming, like they can printed materials. They can’t speed up or slow down the presentation. The material has to be presented in such a way that it can be easily followed and understood on the hearing. G. Final Step in Writing a Radio Broadcast Script The final step in writing a script is preparing it for microphone presentation. A well-written script can be ruined by poor delivery at the microphone. Lay it out so that you can read it easily and confidently in the studio.
  45. 45. Three Stages in Radio Broadcast Scriptwriting Introductory stage. This is to get the attention of the listeners and could be a word, a phrase or a short sentence which may not be gramatical. 2.Body Message Stage. This putting up of the substance in installment. The answers of the who,what,where,why, the how are broken up into short sentence. 3.Summation Stage. It repeats and affirms the message.
  46. 46. Structure of the radio broadcast script 1. Date of the report. 2. Slug 3. Time 4. Body 5. Source
  47. 47. THE END THANK YOU!

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