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Lecture sept13


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A review of some of the concepts discussed in Hist 220 on the Enlightenment.

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Lecture sept13

  1. 1. Today’s Agenda (9/13)<br />1/ Go over shifts in scientific worldview, and place in the political context of Absolutism<br />2/ 18th-Century life and thought (lecture)<br />3/ Montesquieu Persian Letters (discussion)<br />4/ Kant “What is Enlightenment?” (Alexandra)<br />5/ Paper assignment handout<br />
  2. 2. ScalaNatura<br />(1579)<br />
  3. 3. Scientific Worldview (16th and 17th Centuries)<br />Galileo Galilei (1608) built a telescope and supported heliocentrism with his observations<br />
  4. 4. Chart of Heavens engraved by Andreas Cellarius in 1660. Portrays heliocentric universe described by Copernicus & Gallileo.<br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6. Hand out galileo’s forgiveness<br />
  7. 7. Changes in the 18th Century:Enlightenment and Beyond<br />September 13 & 15, 2011<br />
  8. 8. Changes in the 17th and 18th Century<br />Scientific Worldview<br />New questions about authority in religion<br />Emergence of a new secular public sphere<br />Wealth shifted and became more accessible<br />Transformation in relationships between men and women, and between couples and children<br />Extreme population spike<br />
  9. 9. Shifts in Values<br />Population Boom (from 1740)First time population growth was un-checked by a demographic crisis<br />Political Doubt<br />De-authorize religion<br />
  10. 10. Population Increase<br />Long been a population increase, but this one (circa 1740) was left unchecked by a demographic crisis<br />1700 = European Population estimate at 120 million<br />1800 = >180 million <br />
  11. 11. Thomas Malthus (1766–1834)<br />An Essay on the Principles of Population<br />Observed that population grew (and then shrunk) in a cyclical pattern<br />A trauma (famine, war, disease) would diminish a population to keep it from growing too much<br />Approved of celibacy, late marriage; but equally prominent were abortion, infanticide, contraception<br />
  12. 12. Increased fertility / decreased mortality<br />Trained doctors and midwives<br />Children surviving birth and first ten years<br />Sexual activity outside marriage (prostitution, etc.)<br />
  13. 13. Popular Culture<br />Growth of cities– public sphere and high population<br />
  14. 14. Transformation in Family Life<br />
  15. 15. Greuze, the Father’s Curse / The Ungrateful Son (1777)<br />
  16. 16. Reading Culture<br />Salons made reading communal<br />Reading was *fun*<br />Circulation of new ideas about democracy and freedom <br />
  17. 17. Montesquieu, Persian Letters (1721)<br />Letters #8, 9, 24, 26, 51, 60, 62<br /><br />Letter 8, the deference to a king<br />Letter 9, sexuality as a metaphor, but more than a metaphor too. <br />
  18. 18. Enlightened Despotism<br />
  19. 19. Enlightenment thought<br />Philosophes<br />Locke<br />Rousseau<br />Diderot<br />Montesquieu<br />Kant<br />
  20. 20. Jean Jacques Rousseau’s Émile, or an Éducation (1762) put forth new ways to bring up children <br />
  21. 21. Encyclopédie, Diderot (1763)<br />
  22. 22. <ul><li>Agricultural techniques are illustrated in this plate from Diderot's Encylopedia. In the foreground, a man steers a high-wheeled horse-drawn plow while a woman operates a hopper device to sow seeds.</li></li></ul><li>Voltaire, On Universal Toleration<br />It does not require any great art or studied elocution to prove that Christians ought to tolerate one another. Nay, I shall go still farther and say that we ought to look upon all men as our brethren. How! Call a Turk, a Jew, and a Siamese, my brother? Yes, doubtless; for are we not all children of the same parent, and the creatures of the same Creator?<br />
  23. 23. Emmanuel Kant<br />Enlightenment is….<br />
  24. 24. Religious Changes<br />Skepticism (David Hume: We cannot be certain of anything)<br />Deism: God as the “Great Clock-winder”<br />
  25. 25. Jean-Jacques Rousseau<br />The social contract is…<br />
  26. 26. Enlightenment Works<br />