Two-Dimensional Art• Drawing• Painting• Printmaking• Imaging: Photography, Film, Video, and Digital Arts
Suddenly I realized that each brushstroke is a decision … In theend I realize that whatever meaning that picture has is the accumulated meaning of ten thousandbrushstrokes, each one decided as it was painted. –Robert Motherwell
PAINT• Painting - The application of pigment to a surface – Paint can be applied to many surfaces.• Vehicle - the binding agent that holds the pigment to generate the paint• Medium - the solvent used in creating paint• Paint - a liquid material that imparts color to a surface
Fresco• Fresco - the art of painting on plaster – Was popular in the Renaissance – Was revived in Mexico after WWI• Buon fresco or true fresco - done on damp, lime plaster.• Fresco secco - painting on dry plasterProblems with fresco:• Must work fast, you can only paint what can be completed in one day. This can create visible seams• Some colors don’t work well with lime. (such as blue)
EncausticEncaustic - One of the earliest methods of applying color to a surface; uses a pigment in a wax vehicle that has been heated to a liquid state• Very old• Extremely durable• Colors remain vibrant• Surface will retain a hard luster• Used by the Egyptians and the Romans
Encaustic PaintingExamine an unusualcontemporary use of encausticpainting with a creative Native-American encausticinterpretation:
Figure 6.3, p.124 KAY WALKINGSTICK. Solstice (1982). Acrylic and wax on canvas. 48” x 48” x 3 1⁄2”.
TemperaTempera - uses ground pigments mixed with a vehicle of egg yolk or whole egg thinned with water• Popular for centuries, however the traditional composition is rarely used today• Used by the Greeks and Romans• The exclusive painting medium of artists in the Middle Ages• Fell out of favor in the 1300’s with the introduction of oil painting.
Advantages of Tempera• Extremely durable• Pure and brilliant colors• Color did not become compromised by oxidation• Consistency and fluidity allowed for precisionDisadvantages:• Dries quickly• Hard to rework• Can not provide subtle gradation of tone
Tempera Terms• Gesso - A combination of powdered chalk, plaster, and animal glue used as a ground in tempera.• Gilding - the application of thinly hammered sheets of gold to a panel surface (commonly used in conjunction with tempera)• Egg Tempera - the egg mixture traditionally used as a vehicle in tempera
Figure 6.4, p.125: GENTILE DA FABRIANO. Adoration of the Magi (1423). Tempera on wood panel.9’10 1⁄8” x 9’3”.
Figure 6.5, p.125: FRANZ GERTSCH. Silvia (1998). Tempera on unprimed canvas. 9’ 6-1⁄2” x 9’ 2-1⁄4”.
OilOil painting - consists of ground pigments combined with a linseed oil vehicle and a turpentine medium or thinner• The transition from tempera to oil was gradual.• Oil paint is naturally slow drying, but can be sped up with the addition of certain agents• The first oils were used on wood panels.Glazing - the application of multiple layers of transparent films of paint to a surface
Oil’s Advantages• Colors can be blended easily.• Slow drying lets you rework problem areas.• Can create beautiful delicate colors• The eventual use of canvas as a ground allowed paintings to get much bigger.
Figure 6.8, p.127: FOLLOWER OF REMBRANDT VAN RIJN. Head of St. Matthew (c. 1661). Oil on wood.9 7⁄8” x 7 3⁄4”.
AcrylicAcrylic - is a mixture of pigment and a plastic vehicle that can be thinned with water.Advantages of acrylic paint over oil paint:• Far less messy to use• Can be used on a larger variety of surfaces• Surfaces don’t need special preparation
WatercolorWatercolor - Originally defined as any painting medium that employs water as a solvent; today refers to a specific technique really called aquarelleAquarelle - Transparent films of paint are applied to a white absorbent surface – Egyptian artists used a form of watercolor painting. – Also used in the Middle AgesGouache - Watercolor mixed with a high concentration of vehicle and opaque ingredients such as chalk primarily used during the Byzantine and Romanesque eras of Christian art
Advantages and Disadvantages of WatercolorDisadvantages:• White does not exist, it is created by letting the paper shine through.• The artist must plan ahead.• Corrections are not possibleAdvantages:• Portable• Great for sketches and impressions• Can also be a used as a final piece
Figure 6.12, p.129: DAVID HOCKNEY. Punchinello with Block, for Ravel’s “Parade Triple Bill” (1980). Gouacheon paper. 14” x 17”.
Figure 6.14, p.131: RALPH GOINGS. Rock Ola (1992). Watercolor on paper. 14” x 20 3⁄4”.
Figure 6.15, p.131: EMIL NOLDE. Still Life, Tulips (c. 1930). Watercolor on paper. 18 1⁄2” x 13 1⁄2”.
Spray PaintIs spray painting like prehistoric cave painting?It raises similar questions:• Why do they do it?• Is it art?• Is it urban ritual?• Will is speak in history to the trails of inner- city living?
Mixed MediaCollage or papiers collés - Picasso and Braque were the first to incorporate pieces of newsprint, wallpaper, labels from wine bottles, and oilcloth into their paintings.Miriam Schapiro create what she calls “femmage”, with is a version of collage using feminine imagery and materials.