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Social reciprocity presentation

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Social reciprocity presentation

  1. 1. Social Reciprocity Fruition Academy of Social Imagination and Action October 19, 2012
  2. 2. Welcome Agenda  Define and explore reciprocity  Introduce Ideal Reciprocity  Practical application in organizations
  3. 3. Goals Understand how and why we engage in reciprocal relationships and the purpose this serves for us individually and collectively Identify factors that influence reciprocity Discuss the outcomes of reciprocity Discover how reciprocity influences fundraising, community organizing, leadership, and advocacy What are your goals?
  4. 4. Defining Reciprocity “the practice of exchanging things with others for mutual benefit” Oxford English Dictionary “behaviour in which two people or groups of people give each other help and advantages” Cambridge Dictionary “means of social exchange that uses economic and/or symbolic currency to maintain social equilibrium” (Dreistadt, 2012, p. 2) “where altruistic and egotistical needs combine” (Kets de Vries, 2011, p. 268)
  5. 5. Defining Reciprocity What: resources, feelings When: spontaneous or intentional Who: individuals, groups, organizations, communities, countries Why:  Equilibrium (Leifer, 1988)  Social capital (Glanville & Bienenstock, 2009)  Meet needs: individual, interpersonal, communal  Social change (Dreistadt, 2012; Shuman, 2000)
  6. 6. “Every action has an equaland opposite reaction”Newton’s Third Law of Physics
  7. 7. Karmic Yoga(Madhu & Krishnan, 2005)
  8. 8. ComparisonNewtonian Physics Karmic YogaScientific SpiritualControl FreedomTransactional TransformationalFunction Purpose  There is order to the universe  We can influence outcomes through our actions
  9. 9. Multidisciplinary Perspectives
  10. 10. Political Science and Economics Opportunities and choices influence decisions (Binmore, 2004) Game theory (Befu, 1977; Dubreuil, 2008; Keysar, Converse, Wang, & Epley, 2008; Leon, 2012)
  11. 11. Psychology and Neurology  Decision making (Emerson, 1976; Engelsen, 2008)  Emotions (Engelsen, 2008)  Empathy (Piliavan & Charng, 1990)  Mirror neurons (Adenzato & Garbarini, 2006; Casile, Caggiano, & Ferrari, 2011; Decety, 2010; Gallesse, 2006; Hollan, 2012; LaFasto & Larson, 2012; Shmuelof & Zohary, 2007; Vivona, 2009)  Mind-Emotion-World connections (Adenzato & Garbarini, 2006; Neiworth, 2009)
  12. 12. Philosophy and Sociology/Anthropology  Social norms (Engelsen, 2008; Ghezzi & Mingione, 2007)  Duty (Engelsen, 2008; Quong, 2007)  Culture (Befu, 1977; Hollan, 2012)  Political and economic structure (Hollan, 2012)  Social status (Hollan, 2012)  Neighborhood (Phan, Blumer, & Demaiter, 2009; Segall, 2005)
  13. 13. Giving Why do we give?  Self-image  Positive emotions  Anticipated return(Bekkers, & Wiepking, 2011; DiDomenico, Tracey, &Hough, 2009)
  14. 14. Receiving“One has to help people to be moregenerous. By receiving from others, byletting them help you, you really aid them tobecome bigger, more generous, moremagnanimous. You do them a service.”Henry Miller in The Diary of Anais Nin, vol. 3
  15. 15. Sharing
  16. 16. Social Reciprocity A+B=A+B+C Zero Sum Positive SumCynicism or Realism IdealismCommensal symbiosis Mutual symbiosisPaternalism or dependency Generative creativityIndividual or competitive ProsocialSocial maintenance Social changeSelf-preservation or advancement Personal and communal advancementHierarchical, dyadic, exchange, Egalitarian relationships, creativeexpectations generation, becoming
  17. 17. Social Reciprocity Communal social reciprocity  Self-understanding: collective or cosmos  Goal: Transcendence  Social norms and intentions externally defined Existential social reciprocity  Self-understanding: Intersubjective  Goal: Becoming  Social norms and intentions co-created (Bianchin, 2003)
  18. 18. Doing Reciprocity: Fundraising(Andreoni, 1990; Bekkers & Wiepking, 2011; Michalski, 2003; Moody, 2006; Piliavan & Charng, 1990; Segall, 2005; Sobel, 2005; Van Slyke & Brooks, 2005)
  19. 19. Doing Reciprocity: Organizing (Michalski, 2003; Quong, 2007)
  20. 20. Doing Reciprocity: Leadership (Glanville & Bienenstock, 2009)
  21. 21. Doing Reciprocity: Advocacy (Andreoni, Harbaugh, & Vesterlund, 2003; Parks & Rumble, 2001)
  22. 22. Robert’s Story
  23. 23. Gail’s Story
  24. 24. A Model of Social Reciprocity1. Piliavan & Charng, 1990; 2. Engelsen, 2008; 3. Sobel, 2005; 4. Glanville & Bienenstock, 2009; 5. Binmore, 2004; 6. Michalski, 2003; 7. Engelsen, 2008; 8.Bichierei, Xiao, & Muldoon, 2011; Eckstein, 2001; 9. Glanville & Bienenstock, 2009; 10. Engelen, 2008; 11. Leifer, 1988; 12. Dreistadt, 2012; Shuman, 2000)
  25. 25. Social Capital and Sharing
  26. 26. Summary Reciprocity serves individual, relational, and social functions Reciprocity can be understood through the lens of political science, economics, neurology, psychology, sociology, anthropology, and philosophy Understanding reciprocity can help us be more effective fundraisers, leaders, organizers, and advocates Reciprocity can have a generative impact
  27. 27. Next Steps…

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