According to Seyfarth(1991), some authors extend theexplanation of in-service training and staff development bydistinguishing between training and development. For them,training typically refers to teaching technical employees and nonteaching staff how to perform their present jobs effectively andefficiently. This perspective is based on the defect or deficiencyorientation that seems to pervade in-service education. Incontrast, staff development refers to teaching professionals andadministrators the necessary skills for present and futurepositions in the organization which is a growth-oriented view.The defect view inhibits the development of the human potentialas it is basically a linear process, and only addresses very limitedspecific concerns. On the contrary, the growth approach impliesthat the teaching-learning process is complex, and involves manyinteracting and interlocking elements.
The defect perspective assumes that school personnelare out-of-date, and whatever problem can be fixed likeany ordinary machine. In contrast, the growth approachrecognizes that school personnel are continuous learners;acknowledges personnel in a humanistic rather thanmechanistic perspective; considers that staff or personneldevelopment is not a single event. Lunenberg and Ornstein(2000) provide a compromiseview about learning and development. They do not makea distinction, and refer to both types of intervention(training and development) collectively as training. Theyargue that both terms have the same objective which isto help all people in the organization, whether teaching ornon-teaching, to develop their potential by learning newknowledge and skills, as well as enhancing previouslylearned ones. To them, training and development are twosides of the same coin, or currency directed to the samegoal: effective instruction in school.
The limited view of in-service education for teachersis reflected in the scope of the in-service training programof the Department of education, Culture and sportsspecified in the Congressional Commission on Education,or EDCOM (1993). In the report, in-service training refersto any planned school activity intended to enhance theknowledge, skills, and competencies of teachers whichmay take the form of any or a combination of workshops,seminars, conferences, conventions, summer institutes,and meetings. Specifically, the various types of in-servicetraining programs are designed to provide teachers theopportunity to upgrade and update knowledge andcompetencies directly related only to curriculum andinstruction as indicated by the following concerns (theCongressional Commission on education, 1993, p. 17:
1. Orientation to new concepts, objectives, values, curricular innovations, and educational policies2. Upgrading of skills and competence in methodology and content in different areas3. Evolvement of models, strategies, methods, guidelines, and instruments4. Monitoring and evaluation of projects and curriculum innovations5. Planning and programming in curriculum development, instructional evaluation, and action research6. Enrichment, production, and utilization of materials7. Problem identification and evolving proposal for possible solutions8. Sharing and enriching knowledge and experiences, and information dissemination9. Strengthening of inter-agency cooperation and collaboration
This focus on correcting deficiencies is a responseto the findings by EDCOM that basic educationteachers still exhibit poor academic preparation ingeneral. For instance , based on the evaluationconducted in connection with the Secondary EducationDevelopment Program(SEDP) in 1991, secondary schoolteachers were not competent in the subject that theywere teaching. They could answer correctly five out of10 questions in English and in Filipino, and six out of 10questions in science and in math which underscoredthe urgent need to improve the mastery level ofteachers in these subjects. The premise is that throughin-service training, this defect could be corrected, andbetter performance would ensue.
Even the specific proposal by the PresidentCommission on Educational reform (PCER, 2000) tostrengthen teacher competencies at the basiceducation level is primarily a deficiency orientation.PCER proposed the implementation of Project TEACHor Teacher Empowerment to achieve Competence andHumaneness. The objectives of the project, whichimply lack of certain skills, and competencies (i.e., useof technology, reading, critical thinking) that need tobe addressed, illustrate the deficiency view.
These are to develop the teacher as (p. 55):1. an IT teacher who is adept at using new learning technologies as means of enhancing the teaching- learning process;2. a reading teacher;3. a critical and creative teacher; and4. a values education teacher imbued with the ideals of integrity, honesty, patriotism, and work ethics.
On the other hand, the Professional andOrganizational Development Network in Higher Education(n.d.) explains that faculty development has a three-fold-focus —the faculty as a teacher, the faculty as a scholar andprofessional, and the faculty as a person which varies theformer. When the emphasis is on the faculty as a teacher, theprogram offered is geared toward the instructional supervision.When it is on the teacher as a scholar and professional, theprogram assists in career planning and professionaldevelopment is scholarly pursuits such as writing grants,publishing, committee work, administrative work, andsupervisory skills, among others. When the stress is on thefaculty as a person, the program provides training in wellnessmanagement, interpersonal skills, stress and time management,assertiveness development, and other concerns which addressthe individual’s well-being.
In some schools in the Philippines, the holisticapproach to faculty development includes activities gearednot only toward physical, emotional, and mentaldevelopment, but also toward spiritual development.Thus. In many Catholic schools, the annual activitiesinclude recollections or retreats for the faculty members’spiritual growth. This orientation can be gleaned from thefollowing activities clustered into five major areasformulated by a group of educators from various memberschools of the Catholic Education Association of thePhilippines (CEAP). These activities have been identifiedwhen this group attended a graduate summer program(April-May, 2004) at the College of Education of De LaSalle University (see Table 17).
What is not open to questionis the idea that whatever thefocus is, the underlyingphilosophy of facultydevelopment is the recognitionthat faculty members are thedriving force behind theinstitution. As such, all teachersdeserve every assistance theyneed. They must be asproductive as possible to ensurethe optimum effectiveness andproductivity of the institutionwhich is measured by the qualityof its delivery of services(instruction, research, andoutreach) to its clientele.
Objectives ActivitiesProfessional Development1.To update and upgrade the 1.Enrolment in graduateknowledge of the faculty programsmembers in their respective 2.In-house and off-campusfields of specialization. seminar-workshops2.T o enhance the teaching 3.Demonstration lessonsskills of the faculty members. 4.Orientation for new teachers 5.Action research
Social-Cultural Development1.To expose teacher to “low-stress 1.Field tripsand “non stress” activities. 2.Recreational activities such as2.To promote healthy working ballroom dancing and partiesrelationships in the organization. 3.Sports festival (Volleyball,3.To deepen community awareness bowling, basketball, etc.)and involvement. 4.Community Day4. To enhance home school 5.Family Day Celebrationrelationship. 6.Team-building Activities5. To develop appreciation of the 7.Cultural shows (folk dancing,richness of the Philippines culture. musical concerts, etc.)
Personality Development4.To help teachers develop 1.Seminar workshop onself-confidence in dealing public speaking, powerwith students, peers, dressing, social graces, art ofadministrators, and parents. listening, proper diet, and2.To develop health nutrition, good grooming,consciousness among the and coping with stressfaculty. 2.Group dynamic sessions on3.To help teachers recognize self-awarenesstheir strengths and 3.Aerobicsweaknesses, and deal withthem appropriately
Curriculum Development1.To enhance skills in 1.Seminar-workshops onsyllabus-making, lesson syllabus-making, lessonplanning, and test planning, test construction.construction. 2.Demonstration lessons on2.To enhance the skill in how to integrate differentintegration of different concepts.concepts.
Spiritual Development1.To deepen the Christian 1.Retreats and recollectionsspiritually of the faculty. 2.Pilgrimage2.To strengthen relationship 3.Involvement in Basicwith the lord. Ecclesial Community(BEC)3.To have a sense of renewal, 4.Bible sharingand view teaching as a calling 5.Living rosaryfrom God. 6.Colloquium on teaching4.To deepen the knowledge ministryand devotion to Mary.