Theories and Methods of Teaching Mr. Jerome M. dela CruzKohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral DevelopmentIntroduction: Morality – is the ethicalaspect of human behavior. It isintimately bound to thedevelopment of an awareness ofacceptable and unacceptablebehaviors. It is therefore linkedto what is often calledconscience. Morality has to do withhuman interactions that giverise to questions of ethics, ofvalues, of trust and of rights.
Four Steps involved in Behaving Morally 2. The person must1. The need to make a judgement recognize the about what ought to moral problem. be done, what is right or wrong. 4. A plan of 3. The need to action must decide what to be put into do. effect.
In this view, behaving morally orimmorally is largely a matter of decisionmaking and also involves acting ondecisions. In other words, morality is notsimply a matter of innate goodness orbadness as some sort of deep-seatedpersonality trait. In the view of manytheorists like Kohlberg, moralitydevelops even as do language andintellect.
I. Objective: Evaluate pupil’s level of moralityIII.Stages of Moral Development (Kohlberg) Preconventional Conventional PostconventionalIII. Strategies: Debate
IV. Presentation of the Problem Kohlberg’s Level of Morality Kohlberg identified levels of moral judgment inchildren by describing to them situations involving amoral dilemma. One example is the story of Heinz,whose wife is dying. One special drug, discovered bya local druggist, might save her, but the druggist isselling it at an exorbitant price. So Heinz, afterfalling to borrow the money he needs, pleads withthe druggist to sell the drug cheaper or let him paylater. But the druggist refuses. Should Heinz stealthe drug for his wife? Why? Why not?
Level I: Stage 1: “If he steals the drug,Preconventional Punishment and he might go to jail.” Obedience (punishment) Orientation Stage 2: “He can steal the drug Naïve and save his wife, and Instrumental he’ll be with her when Hedonism he gets out of jail." act motivated by its hedonistic consequences for the actor)
Level II: Stage 3: “People will understand ifConventional “Good Boy, Nice you steal the drug to save Girl" Morality your wife, but they’ll think you’re cruel and a coward if you don’t.” (reactions of others and the effects of the act on social relationships become important) Stage 4: “It is the husbands duty to Law-and-Order save his wife even if he Orientation feels guilty afterward for stealing the drug” (institutions, law , duty, honor, and guilt motivate behavior)
Level III: Stage 5: “The Husband has a right toPostconventional Morality of the drug even if he can’t pay Social Contract now. If the druggist won’t charge it, the government should look after it.” (democratic laws guarantee individual rights: contracts are mutually beneficial) Stage 6: “Although it is legally wrong Universal to steal, the husband would Ethical be morally wrong not to principles steal to save his wife. A life is more precious than financial gain.” (conscience is individual; laws are socially useful but not sacrosanct
VII. Evaluation/ Recommendation As teachers, we have to equip the pupils with the necessary knowledge and intellectual skills to enable them to solve moral issues and evaluate them effectively. They should be taught how to think and communicate clearly; tell what is right from wrong, know why something is right; how to argue correctly and evaluate one’s own or another person’s reasoning correctly. Let us develop our pupils to become highly rational problem solvers in the values area. Teachers should be models to others as they teach about responsibility, honesty, integrity, creativity, respect and the like. One should practice what one teaches for living a good and genuine human life.