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  1. 1. The Changing Nature of the Civic Experience Chapter 28
  2. 2. Ethnic Diversity in Europe <ul><li>European immigration--most often from periphery--former colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>In Europe, new immigrants have settled in the “zone in transition,” and locals have moved out. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic segregation is less problematic in Amsterdam where immigrants are assigned public housing on a sequential basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Asylum seekers are seeking to stay in the host country to escape war or persecution. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Multiculturalism in US Cities <ul><li>Chinatown, San Francisco </li></ul>The French Quarter Are these authentic landscapes?
  4. 4. New York City Immigrant Enclaves 1990
  5. 5. Life in Urban America <ul><li>The changing nature of inner cities </li></ul>Harlem --Cities lose tax base when areas become blighted. It can be difficult to reverse the down- ward spiral --Some establishments stay because it is too difficult for them to move. (museums research libraries, universities, recreational facilities.)
  6. 6. Life in Urban America <ul><li>Revitalization of downtown through commercialization efforts (“theme” areas). </li></ul><ul><li>There is a vested interest on the part of those establishments that remain in the CBD. </li></ul>Baltimore’s Inner Harbor Houston’s Museum District
  7. 7. Life in Urban America <ul><li>Gentrification rehabilitation of deteriorated or run-down properties. </li></ul><ul><li>YUPPIES and DINKS </li></ul>Commercial gentrification Homes are refurbished.
  8. 10. The Urban Cycle
  9. 11. You are where you live <ul><li> </li></ul>
  10. 12. The Canadian City <ul><li>Canadian cities are much less dispersed than American cities. (Use of “smart growth” strategies which limit the extent of the urban area.) </li></ul><ul><li>More multiple family dwellings close to CBD = stronger tax base and better services. </li></ul><ul><li>Amenities remain close to CBD. </li></ul><ul><li>Stark contrasts in wealth are not as evident. (Less “economic” segregation) </li></ul>
  11. 13. The European City <ul><li>Cities in Europe tend to be much more compact. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Metropolitan Greenbelts (which average more than 20 miles) to preserve separation between urban and rural landscapes. </li></ul><ul><li>Suburbanization has had to occur beyond the greenbelt. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of commuting is high, so people have more of a tendency to live in high-density housing in the city. </li></ul>
  12. 15. Paris <ul><li>Urban planners in Paris want to manage growth while protecting greenbelt areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Cities situated almost 200 km from Paris are only an hour away by high speed train. </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>This is a landscape plan for a village outside of Paris. </li></ul><ul><li>The Greenbelt is evident in this plan. </li></ul>
  14. 17. The Randstad “ring city” <ul><li>Includes Amsterdam(top), Rotterdam (lower-right) and the Hague (lower left). </li></ul><ul><li>There has been an attempt to maintain the “Green Heart” in this urban agglomeration of 7.1 people. </li></ul>
  15. 18. Different views of the Randstad
  16. 19. Former Communist Landscapes
  17. 20. Baikal <ul><li>Self-sufficient microdistricts. Note the lack of CBD. </li></ul>