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  1. 1. Urbanization in Less-Developed Countries Chapter 23
  2. 2. Issues <ul><li>Rapid population growth in LDCs (peripheral areas of the world) </li></ul><ul><li>Advances of the 3 rd Agricultural Revolution push people off of the land </li></ul><ul><li>New international division of labor (global cores and peripheries) </li></ul><ul><li>Overurbanization—cities are growing more rapidly than their jobs and housing can sustain. </li></ul>
  3. 4. 20 largest cities in 2004
  4. 5. Historical perspective <ul><li>Sometimes cities were established where no significant urban settlement existed. The colonial imprint is pervasive. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mumbai (Bombay) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Koltata (Calcutta) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hong Kong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jakarta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nairobi </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Historical perspective <ul><li>Some had colonial functions grafted onto existing settlement. (The colonial imprint is most visible in the center of the city.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico City </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shanghai </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tunis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delhi </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Latin American Cities <ul><li>Laws of the Indies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gridiron with rectangular blocks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central plaza with Catholic church, government buildings, and shops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealthy lived close to the plaza </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle and lower income further out </li></ul></ul>San Miguel, Mexico
  7. 8. The Latin American City <ul><li>CBD includes a modern self-contained commercial district and a separate traditional mixed market area with street-oriented businesses </li></ul>
  8. 9. The Latin American City <ul><li>Commercial spine surrounded by elite residential sector </li></ul><ul><li>Best urban services and most of the high end locations outside the CBD </li></ul><ul><li>Suburban shopping center might compete with the downtown </li></ul>
  9. 10. The Latin American City <ul><li>Modern suburban industrial park at the end of a railroad or main highway. </li></ul>
  10. 11. The Latin American City <ul><li>Zone of maturity surrounding the CBD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some gentrification </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. The Latin American City <ul><li>In situ accretion with lower income neighborhoods </li></ul><ul><li>Homes are often in a state of construction (many homes have half-finished rooms or second stories </li></ul>
  12. 13. The Latin American City <ul><li>Peripheral squatter settlements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recent migrants to city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-built </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost completely without urban services </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. The Latin American City <ul><li>Disamenity sectors along polluted rivers and industrial corridors </li></ul>
  14. 15. Southeast Asian Cities <ul><li>Often established by Europeans as gateway cities to facilitate control of Asian trade. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Southeast Asian Cities <ul><li>The port zone--the center of economic activity in the colonial era--has retained its importance </li></ul>
  16. 17. Southeast Asian Cities <ul><li>Instead of a single CBD, there are separate civic commercial/retail zones </li></ul><ul><li>--a government zone </li></ul><ul><li>--a Western Commercial </li></ul><ul><li>Zone </li></ul><ul><li>--one or more high density </li></ul><ul><li>“ alien” commercial zones </li></ul><ul><li>(often dominated by </li></ul><ul><li>ethnic Chinese or Indian) </li></ul>
  17. 18. Southeast Asian Cities <ul><li>New high-income suburbs have been built to accommodate recent growth </li></ul>
  18. 19. Southeast Asian Cities <ul><li>Squatter settlements are found in zones of disamenity throughout the city (along polluted rivers and at the edge of a built-up area) </li></ul>
  19. 20. Southeast Asian Cities <ul><li>A peripheral zone of intensive market gardening supplies fresh produce to the city’s markets. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Southeast Asian Cities <ul><li>The new industrial estate (probably owned by a multinational corporation) lies on the outskirts of the city. </li></ul>
  21. 22. African Cities <ul><li>Central city consists of three CBDs: </li></ul><ul><li>--Remnant of colonial CBD </li></ul><ul><li>--informal/periodic market zone </li></ul><ul><li>--transitional business center </li></ul>
  22. 23. African Cities <ul><li>Ethnic neighborhoods radiate in sectors </li></ul>
  23. 24. African Cities <ul><li>Mining and manufacturing zones are close by. </li></ul>
  24. 25. African Cities <ul><li>Satellite townships or squatter settlements exist in the periphery. </li></ul>
  25. 26. The Developing World <ul><li>Squatter settlements are found on the edges of cities. </li></ul>Rio favela Durban, South Africa
  26. 27. The Developing World <ul><li>Money sent home by immigrants are called remittances. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2003, immigrants in the US sent $30 billion abroad. (San Francisco Chronicle) </li></ul>--29% of Nicaragua’s GDP is from remittances. --Some see remittances as a tool for development.
  27. 28. The Developing World <ul><li>Informal economy </li></ul>“ Cooking Lady” in Peru Cleaning windshields The Dominican Republic Phone services In Africa Cooking lady in Peru
  28. 30. Lagos