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Civilization and Urbanization
Urban Geography <ul><li>Studies the functions of cities and their economic role in organizing territory. </li></ul><ul><li...
Ancient Cities and Civilizations <ul><li>Egalitarian societies persisted long after agriculture was introduced.  </li></ul...
Locational factors for early cities: <ul><li>A long growing season and dependable supply of water </li></ul><ul><li>An ass...
Hydraulic civilizations <ul><li>Large-scale irrigation systems as the inpetus for early urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Pow...
Religion as a motivating factor <ul><li>Knowledge of meterological and climatic conditions was within domain of religion <...
Multiple factors <ul><li>Distinction between economic, religious, and political functions are not always clear </li></ul><...
 
Mesopotamia -- cities protected by walls,  temples dominated landscape,  poorest on outskirts,  no waste disposal,  diseas...
Greek Cities Have had worldwide influence. Best structures built on high point of city.  Public spaces for trade and disco...
<ul><li>Trade networks connected Greek city-states. </li></ul>
Roman Cities Transportation networks--urban places linked by road, river, and sea. <ul><li>Diffused city life across the E...
<ul><li>Adopted rectangular grid pattern, open public space (Forum), and entertainment venue (Colosseum) from Greeks. </li...
Collapse of Rome coincided with disintegration of urban system and transportation networks. <ul><li>Fortress for defense. ...
Urban growth outside of Europe
The Medieval Optimum <ul><li>An unusually warm period that lasted from the 10th to the 14th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Coi...
Primate Cities <ul><li>A primate city is a country’s leading city, disproportionately larger and more functionally complex...
Global spread of urbanization <ul><li>By 1200 AD, the “urban banana” extended from England to Japan.” </li></ul>
The Islamic City <ul><li>Mosque and suq (market) were centrally located. </li></ul><ul><li>Citadel (Casbah) fortified pala...
<ul><li>Tehran </li></ul>
With the discovery of the New World, coastal cities had the advantage.  This change in “situation” meant that those cities...
The Mercantile City <ul><li>Renaissance (1500-1600) </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque (1600-1800) </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of monarc...
 
The Manufacturing City <ul><li>In the capitalist city, land is viewed as a source of income. </li></ul><ul><li>Segregation...
 
The Modern City <ul><li>Suburbanization and urban sprawl </li></ul>
Postmodern Urban Landscapes New York  or Tokyo?
Where are you??
 
Evolution of the Shopping Center <ul><li>Garden City </li></ul>
Evolution of the Shopping Center <ul><li>Automobile Center </li></ul>
Evolution of the Shopping Center <ul><li>Suburban Center </li></ul>
<ul><li>Festival Marketplace </li></ul>
Evolution of the Shopping Center <ul><li>Entertainment Center </li></ul>
Evolution of the Shopping Center
Evolution of the Shopping Center
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Ch21

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Ch21

  1. 1. Civilization and Urbanization
  2. 2. Urban Geography <ul><li>Studies the functions of cities and their economic role in organizing territory. </li></ul><ul><li>Compares urbanization as it has occurred historically and in different parts of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzes the internal geography of cities—the distribution of housing, industry, commerce, etc. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ancient Cities and Civilizations <ul><li>Egalitarian societies persisted long after agriculture was introduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased functional specialization led to emergence of cities and states. </li></ul><ul><li>Formative Era-- 7000 to 5000 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Stratified societies w/ urban elite that controlled resources. </li></ul><ul><li>City functions--centers of power, religion, trade, education. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Locational factors for early cities: <ul><li>A long growing season and dependable supply of water </li></ul><ul><li>An assemblage of domesticated crops and animals that could provide a dependable, balanced food supply </li></ul><ul><li>An accessible location relative to travel and trade routes </li></ul><ul><li>Plentiful building materials </li></ul><ul><li>Defensability </li></ul>Major river valleys in warm climates
  5. 5. Hydraulic civilizations <ul><li>Large-scale irrigation systems as the inpetus for early urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Power and authority derived from control of water </li></ul><ul><li>Need for a centralized authority to ensure continued operation of irrigation system. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Religion as a motivating factor <ul><li>Knowledge of meterological and climatic conditions was within domain of religion </li></ul><ul><li>Religious leaders decided how and when to plant crops </li></ul><ul><li>Priestly class exercised political and social control </li></ul><ul><li>Cities are religious spaces functioning as ceremonial centers </li></ul>
  7. 7. Multiple factors <ul><li>Distinction between economic, religious, and political functions are not always clear </li></ul><ul><li>Secular and spiritual power fused as technical, religious, and political factors were interlinked </li></ul>
  8. 9. Mesopotamia -- cities protected by walls, temples dominated landscape, poorest on outskirts, no waste disposal, disease kept them small--10-15,000
  9. 10. Greek Cities Have had worldwide influence. Best structures built on high point of city. Public spaces for trade and discourse. A network of cities connected by trade.
  10. 11. <ul><li>Trade networks connected Greek city-states. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Roman Cities Transportation networks--urban places linked by road, river, and sea. <ul><li>Diffused city life across the Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Military camp=castra (-chester or-caster suffix) </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Adopted rectangular grid pattern, open public space (Forum), and entertainment venue (Colosseum) from Greeks. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Collapse of Rome coincided with disintegration of urban system and transportation networks. <ul><li>Fortress for defense. </li></ul><ul><li>Marketplace </li></ul><ul><li>Cathedral </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into districts--similar occupations </li></ul><ul><li>Some by ethnicity--Jewish ghettos </li></ul>
  14. 15. Urban growth outside of Europe
  15. 16. The Medieval Optimum <ul><li>An unusually warm period that lasted from the 10th to the 14th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Coincided with the resurgence of Western Europe </li></ul>
  16. 17. Primate Cities <ul><li>A primate city is a country’s leading city, disproportionately larger and more functionally complex than any other; a city dominating an urban hierarchy composed of a base of small towns and an absence of intermediate-sized cities. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Global spread of urbanization <ul><li>By 1200 AD, the “urban banana” extended from England to Japan.” </li></ul>
  18. 19. The Islamic City <ul><li>Mosque and suq (market) were centrally located. </li></ul><ul><li>Citadel (Casbah) fortified palace of governor--high part of town near the wall. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Islamic cities reflect a concern for visual privacy. Houses are “introverted,” and the height of a wall had to be above the height of a camel-rider. </li></ul><ul><li>Religious law prescribed that streets should be wide enough for two camels to pass, but they were narrow to provide shade and shelter from desert winds. </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of public and private domains. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Quarters” to group ethnic and kin groups. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Tehran </li></ul>
  20. 21. With the discovery of the New World, coastal cities had the advantage. This change in “situation” meant that those cities grew while those along the Silk Road declined.
  21. 22. The Mercantile City <ul><li>Renaissance (1500-1600) </li></ul><ul><li>Baroque (1600-1800) </li></ul><ul><li>Rise of monarchs who presided over unified countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased city size </li></ul><ul><li>One national capital rose to prominence </li></ul><ul><li>New concern for city planning (wide boulevards, large open square, palaces and public buildings with statues. </li></ul>
  22. 24. The Manufacturing City <ul><li>In the capitalist city, land is viewed as a source of income. </li></ul><ul><li>Segregation by economic class. Your ability to pay determines where you live. </li></ul><ul><li>Work places are separated from homes. </li></ul><ul><li>Central business district emerges </li></ul><ul><li>Upper classes began to seek land on the outskirts of the city. </li></ul>
  23. 26. The Modern City <ul><li>Suburbanization and urban sprawl </li></ul>
  24. 27. Postmodern Urban Landscapes New York or Tokyo?
  25. 28. Where are you??
  26. 30. Evolution of the Shopping Center <ul><li>Garden City </li></ul>
  27. 31. Evolution of the Shopping Center <ul><li>Automobile Center </li></ul>
  28. 32. Evolution of the Shopping Center <ul><li>Suburban Center </li></ul>
  29. 33. <ul><li>Festival Marketplace </li></ul>
  30. 34. Evolution of the Shopping Center <ul><li>Entertainment Center </li></ul>
  31. 35. Evolution of the Shopping Center
  32. 36. Evolution of the Shopping Center

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