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  1. 1. Definition of Culture <ul><li>Culture is a group’s way of life, including the shared system of social meanings, values, and relations that is transmitted between generations. </li></ul><ul><li>Culture can be seen as “learned behavior.” </li></ul>
  2. 2. Cultural Geography is concerned with… <ul><li>… how place affects culture. </li></ul><ul><li>… how culture affects place. </li></ul><ul><li>… the distributions of culture </li></ul><ul><li>groups and reasons for those distributions. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Culture Traits <ul><li>… are single elements of normal practice in culture. </li></ul><ul><li>… include beliefs, institutions, language, and technology. </li></ul>
  4. 4. A culture complex is a group of interrelated culture traits related to one aspect of a culture or society.
  5. 5. A Culture Region <ul><li>…is an area that shares common culture traits. </li></ul>
  6. 7. A Culture Realm… <ul><li>…is a group of culture regions that share a common culture system. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Cultural landscape refers to the distinct imprint of a culture on the land. <ul><li>. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Each group of inhabitants leaves their distinctive imprint on the landscape in a process of “sequent occupance.”
  9. 11. Sequent occupance--imprint of communism in Germany .
  10. 12. Indian imprint on New Mexico landscape
  11. 13. Spanish influence in New Mexico
  12. 14. Territorial Influence In New Mexico
  13. 15. A culture hearth is a region where cultural traits such as religion and agriculture develop.
  14. 16. Cultural Diffusion <ul><li>…is the process of spreading an idea or an innovation from one area to another </li></ul>
  15. 18. Expansion Diffusion… <ul><li>…occurs where contact causes cultural traits to be adopted (often through conquest or trade). </li></ul>
  16. 19. Expansion diffusion example: <ul><li>The Spanish converted the Indians of Middle America to Roman Catholicism in the 16th and 17th Centuries. </li></ul>
  17. 20. Expansion diffusion example: <ul><li>McDonald’s restaurants can be found in many locations around the world. </li></ul>
  18. 21. Relocation Diffusion… <ul><li>… is a result of migration. </li></ul>
  19. 22. Relocation diffusion example <ul><li>German migrants to Fredericksburg, Texas brought their culture with them. </li></ul>
  20. 23. Relocation diffusion example <ul><li>It is common to find mosques in many American communities today. </li></ul>
  21. 24. Stimulus diffusion occurs when a specific trait is rejected, but the underlying idea is accepted. Siberians rejected cattle herding, but adopted reindeer herding instead.
  22. 25. Acculturation <ul><li>…is the process by which a culture is substantially changed through interaction with another more powerful culture. </li></ul>
  23. 26. Transculturation occurs when strong cultures interact with each other and each acts as both a source and adopter .
  24. 27. Some things inhibit diffusion Time-Distance decay Cultural restraints
  25. 28. Perceptual regions exist in our imaginations. What is “the South?” Where is it?
  26. 29. Percent who say each state is Southern “All in all.”
  27. 30. Where kudzu grows
  28. 31. Acres of cotton cultivation
  29. 32. Lynchings--1900-1930
  30. 33. Support for third-party or unpopular major-party presidential candidates
  31. 34. Concentrations of poor, rural black Southerners
  32. 35. Housing units without complete plumbing
  33. 36. Illiteracy rates
  34. 37. Active dentists per 1000 residents
  35. 38. High burglary rates
  36. 39. Members of Baptist Churches
  37. 40. Birthplaces of country music notables
  38. 41. States mentioned in country music lyrics
  39. 42. Ratio of homicides to suicides
  40. 43. No state law against sex discrimination in 1972
  41. 44. Low percentage of white women employed in traditionally white male occupations in 1985
  42. 45. Colleges and universities that publish sports magazines
  43. 46. Chapters of the Kappa Alpha Order in 1988
  44. 47. “ Dixie” listings as percentage of “American” listings in telephone directories ca. 1975
  45. 48. Average scores on”Index of Southern Preference”
  46. 49. “ Southern Living” readers as a percentage of white population

Editor's Notes