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  • Ch15

    1. 1. State Organization and National Power Chapter 15
    2. 2. Colonialism: Europeans established colonies for three basic reasons:God,Gold, Glory
    3. 3. There were two waves of colonization <ul><li>1415-1800 Settlement colonies in the Americas. </li></ul><ul><li>Late 1800s to late 1940s Colonies of occupation designed to provide resources for European factories </li></ul>
    4. 4. Colonialism in Latin America <ul><li>Spain and Portugal were dominant </li></ul><ul><li>Independence in early 1800s </li></ul><ul><li>Stratified social structure and great disparities in wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous populations were decimated </li></ul><ul><li>Based on extraction of wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Considerable intermarriage with indigenous population </li></ul>
    5. 5. Treaty of Tordesillas
    6. 6. African influences in Caribbean and coastal Central America and along NE coast of Brazil
    7. 7. Mestizo in Mexico ad Central America
    8. 8. Indian influence in the Andes
    9. 9. More European in the South
    10. 10. Colonialism in Africa <ul><li>Last colonized, last decolonized (many in the late 1960s.) </li></ul><ul><li>France and Britain dominated </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin Conference--1884 </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly occupation colonies (with settlement colonies in East Africa, South Africa, Kenya, and Zimbabwe.) </li></ul>
    11. 12. Contemporary state system that emerged was problematic <ul><li>Landlocked states </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic rivalries </li></ul><ul><li>Uneven development of infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimacy of government (control had come from outside). </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency of European powers to play groups against each other. </li></ul>
    12. 13. Colonialism in US, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand <ul><li>“Settler empires” dominated by British--essentially seen as empty areas where migrants could make a home for themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Governance--concept of limited government </li></ul><ul><li>Social Structure--more egalitarian than Latin America </li></ul>
    13. 14. Soooo.. Broad implications <ul><li>Through “circular and cumulative causation” these former colonies were put at a disadvantage--a situation that persists. (structuralist viewpoint) </li></ul><ul><li>Still evident in geographic dynamics of global economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Political effects--patterns of governance </li></ul><ul><li>Large-scale political maneuverings (Cold War and beyond </li></ul><ul><li>Complex social and cultural interplay between former colonies and colonizers </li></ul>
    14. 15. Wallerstein’s World Systems Theory has three tiers
    15. 16. <ul><li>Core regions dominate trade, control the most advanced technologies, and have high levels of productivity within diversified economies. </li></ul>
    16. 17. <ul><li>Peripheral regions have undeveloped or narrowly specialized economies with low levels of productivity. </li></ul>
    17. 18. <ul><li>Semiperipheral regions are able to exploit peripheral regions, but are themselves exploited and dominated by core regions. </li></ul>
    18. 21. You can also have cores and peripheries at the national level. <ul><li>Regional growth creates regional core areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Cumulative causation--economic growth supports further economic growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Regional decline can create downward spiral syndrome. </li></ul>
    19. 24. In urban geography, the core area has a dependent hinterland.
    20. 25. <ul><li>At all scales, the model assumes that at least partially and temporarily, the growth and prosperity of core regions is at the expense of exploited peripheral zones. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backwash—initial negative effects on periphery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spillover—eventual positive effects on periphery </li></ul></ul>
    21. 26. Unitary States <ul><li>Centralized authority </li></ul><ul><li>Little local political autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>A stable form of political authority for a nation-state or single-culture-group state </li></ul><ul><li>Works well provided there is no tribalism or high degree of diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: France, Japan, Iceland, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan </li></ul>
    22. 27. Federal State <ul><li>Primary political authority is distributed and vested in the regional governments </li></ul><ul><li>Creates integration when a level of regional diversity exists </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: USA, Germany, India, Russia, </li></ul>
    23. 28. A primate city is a country’s leading city that is disproportionately larger and functionally complex that any other. <ul><li>Metropolitan Seoul contains over 40% of the total population and one half of the urban population of South Korea. </li></ul>
    24. 29. <ul><li>Luanda has almost two thirds of Angola’s urban population. </li></ul><ul><li>A heritage of the colonial past. </li></ul>
    25. 30. <ul><li>Not all primate cities are in the less-developed world. </li></ul>
    26. 31. A forward capital is located in a particular place in order to further a country’s political or economic goals. <ul><li>In 1959, Pakistan moved its capital from Karachi to Islamabad to focus attention on its historic interior. </li></ul>
    27. 32. Brasilia--The classic example of the forward capital
    28. 33. Electoral Geography <ul><li>There are 435 seats in the House of Representatives, which means there must be a fixed number of electoral districts. </li></ul><ul><li>Reapportionment is the process of reallocating the electoral seats that change as population distribution changes. </li></ul>
    29. 35. Redistricting occurs as a result of reapportionment. <ul><li>Gerrymandering is the practice of drawing the boundaries of voting districts in a way that favors one group over another. </li></ul>
    30. 36. Gerrymandering Made Simple Democrats Rule Republicans Rule Nobody Rules Copyright © 2001 by Michael D. Robbins, R R R R R R D D D D D D R R R R R R D D D D D D R R R R R R D D D D D D
    31. 37. Gerrymandering – excess vote <ul><li>Concentrate one group together in a district </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize their impact in other districts </li></ul><ul><li>This guarantees them some representation – but weakens them overall </li></ul>R R R R R R D D D D D D
    32. 38. Gerrymandering – wasted vote <ul><li>Break up concentrations of voters </li></ul><ul><li>Mix with different voter groups </li></ul><ul><li>Dilutes their voting power </li></ul>D D D R R R R R R
    33. 39. Gerrymandering – stacked vote Group power bases together Removes much contestation from elections Often done by incumbents to ensure continued election R R R R R R D D D D D D
    34. 41. The Bullwinkle (New York’s 12) Hispanic majority Images from Mark Monmonier’s Bushmanders and Bullwinkles: How Politicians Manipulate Electronic Maps and Census Data to Win Elections . Univ. Chicago Press, 2001
    35. 42. The Earmuffs (Illinois 4 th ) Hispanic majority
    36. 43. Mask of Zorro (Louisiana’s 4 th ) black majority
    37. 44. Flying fossilized reptile (Texas’ 30 th ) black majority
    38. 45. Bird with plumage (Texas’ 29 th ) Hispanic majority
    39. 46. Gnawed wishbone (Florida’s 3 rd ) black majority
    40. 47. Affirmative gerrymandering <ul><li>Supreme Court has said gerrymandering is legal – </li></ul><ul><li>When done to correct for previous underrepresentation </li></ul><ul><li>Or assure minority representation </li></ul><ul><li>But must be based on more than race alone </li></ul>Majority-minority district proposed in Virginia Beach
    41. 48. Iowa One of the least diverse (and therefore least gerrymandered) states
    42. 49. Centripetal forces tend to bind together the citizens of a state.
    43. 50. Centrifugal forces threaten the unity of a state.