Ch1

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Ch1

  1. 1. Human Geography
  2. 2. Definition of Geography <ul><li>The study of place </li></ul><ul><li>Why places and people are where they are </li></ul><ul><li>What their location means in the past, present, and future </li></ul><ul><li>How their location affects other places </li></ul>
  3. 3. Human Geography’s Place <ul><li>Gives a spatial perspective to other disciplines. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The “Five Themes” <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Place (Human and Physical Characteristics) </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction (Human/Environment) </li></ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Region </li></ul>
  5. 5. Location--absolute and relative
  6. 6. Human-environment interaction <ul><li>Different culture groups understand, use, and transform their environments in different ways, depending on their world view,level of technology, and resources available. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Regions <ul><li>A region displays some degree of uniformity that differentiates it from surrounding territories. </li></ul><ul><li>The region is the basic unit of study for the geographer. </li></ul><ul><li>The criteria used to define a region can vary according to the phenomenon being considered. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Functional (nodal) regions <ul><li>…are defined by a set of activities or interactions that occur within it. </li></ul>Eanes Attendance area map A city and its suburbs
  9. 9. Perceptual regions <ul><li>… are perceived to exist by its inhabitants or thegeneral population. </li></ul><ul><li>… are also known as “vernacular regions” or “popular regions.” </li></ul>
  10. 10. Hierarchies of regions <ul><li>Regions exist within a vertical order, and one place can be part of several regions simultaneously. </li></ul>Austin Texas The United States World Realms
  11. 11. Landscape--also important, but not one of the five themes <ul><li>Landscape is the material character of a place. </li></ul><ul><li>Aspects of an environment introduced by humans is “built environment.” </li></ul>
  12. 12. Spatial Themes National Research Council <ul><li>Focus on integrative themes and implications for research and policy making. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Integration in place <ul><li>How do distinctive social, cultural, political, and environmental characteristics of a town or region shape its character as a place? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Interdependencies between places <ul><li>Focuses on the nature and significance of patterns and networks that tie places together. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Interdependencies among scales <ul><li>What happens at one scale is the result of factors operating at different scales--on a “local-global continuum.” </li></ul>
  16. 16. Formal (Uniform) Regions <ul><li>…are areas that have some degree of homogeneity in one or more phenomena. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Geographic inquiry-- the “why of where”
  18. 18. What does a geographer do? <ul><li>Cartography and remote sensing </li></ul><ul><li>Location of public facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing and location of industry </li></ul><ul><li>Geography and the law </li></ul><ul><li>Disease ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Urban and regional planning </li></ul><ul><li>Issues of economic development </li></ul>
  19. 19. Role of maps <ul><li>Maps reflect the spatial aspect of geography. They are the “language” of the geographer. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Geographic Information Systems <ul><li>GIS technology uses powerful computer programs to layer several sets of data so that conclusions can be drawn. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Remote sensing <ul><li>Satellites take pictures that are used for gathering data to be used for analysis and decision-making. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Global Positioning System (GPS)
  23. 23. Mental maps (cognitive maps) <ul><li>Our mental maps represent our own image of the world, and vary according to our perspective and life experiences. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Environmental perception <ul><li>Where do Californian students prefer to live? </li></ul><ul><li>--based on the “total impression” they have of a place. </li></ul>
  25. 26. All maps are distortions of reality.
  26. 27. <ul><li>Large scale maps show smaller areas with greater detail. </li></ul><ul><li>Small scale maps show larger areas with less detail. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Pin dot maps <ul><li>Dr. Snow’s map of Cholera deaths in London </li></ul>
  28. 29. Proportional Symbol Map
  29. 33. Distribution of the world’s population: <ul><li>Cartograms have a scale based on some statistic other than land area. </li></ul>

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