Carbohydrate Counting

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Used at Camp Nejeda for Type One Diabetes to educate children and their families on counting carbohydrates

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Carbohydrate Counting

  1. 1. Carbohydrate Counting<br />
  2. 2. What is Carbohydrate Counting?<br />Meal planning approach to diabetes<br />Easy to learn & follow<br />Adds variety & flexibility to meal/snack choices<br />Achieve better glucose control<br />
  3. 3. Carbohydrate (CHO)<br />Main nutrient raises glucose levels<br />Foods that contain starch and sugar<br />90% digestible CHO turns into glucose<br />Insulin needs to cover the amount of CHO ingested<br />
  4. 4. CHO Counting Basics<br />Two methods for counting CHO<br />CHO gram counting: add exact number of grams of CHO in each meal<br />2) CHO exchange system: uses food groups called “exchanges.” One portion/exchange of each food containing CHO=15g CHO<br />
  5. 5. Carbohydrates<br />Starches/Bread<br />Fruits<br />Milk<br />Vegetables<br />Most glucose will enter bloodstream between 15min to 2 hours after eating these foods<br />
  6. 6. Protein and Fats<br />Less effect on blood glucose. <br />Appears to have an effect hours later after eating.<br />Can potentially slow down rate that CHO turns to glucose<br />
  7. 7. Foods That Contain CHO<br />Cereal, Breads, Grains<br />Pasta, Rice and Crackers<br />Fruit and Fruit Juices<br />Honey, Table Sugar, Syrup<br />Yogurt and Milk<br />Vegetables (starchy/nonstarchy)<br />Cakes, pies, cookies, candy<br />
  8. 8. Cereals, Breads & Grains<br />¾ cup unsweetened cereal <br />½ cup sweetened cereal<br />½ cup oatmeal<br />1 slice (1oz) bread<br />¼ large bagel<br />6 inch tortilla<br />½ hamburger or hot dog bun<br />1-4 inch pancake<br />
  9. 9. Pasta, Rice, & Crackers<br />1/3 cup cooked pasta/rice<br />3 cups air popped popcorn<br />15 small pretzels<br />1 ½ graham crackers <br />4-5 vanilla wafers<br />5-6 saltine crackers<br />7-8 animal crackers<br />15 potato or corn chips<br />
  10. 10. Fruit & Fruit Juices<br />Apple or Orange juice (1/2 cup)<br />Grape juice (1/3 cup)<br />1 small banana<br />1 small apple, orange, pear or peach<br />17 seedless grapes<br />2 T. raisins<br />½ cup mixed fruit in light syrup<br />1 cup watermelon<br />
  11. 11. Yogurt, Milk & Ice cream<br />Milk (1cup)<br />Chocolate milk (1/3 cup)<br />Plain Yogurt (1 cup)<br />Fruited Yogurt (1/3 cup)<br />Ice cream (1/2 cup or 1 scoop)<br />Sherbet (1/3 cup)<br />
  12. 12. Vegetables<br />Starchy Vegetables: <br /><ul><li>½ cup peas, potatoes, corn, yams, beans, squash
  13. 13. 3 oz small potato </li></ul>Non-Starchy Vegetables: <br />-1/2 cup cooked or 1cup raw= 5 grams CHO<br />(e.i. lettuce, carrots, broccoli, cucumbers, spinach)<br />
  14. 14. Cakes, Pies, Cookies & Candies<br />Angel food cake (4oz)= 35g CHO<br />Chocolate cake plain (4oz)= 30g CHO<br />Chocolate cake w/frosting (4oz)= 50g CHO<br />2 Sugar cookies= 15g CHO<br />Donut plain= 20g CHO<br />½ cup Pudding= 20g CHO <br />Chocolate Candy Bar (1 ½ oz)= 12g CHO<br />Hard candy (1oz)= 25g CHO<br />Fruit pie (1/8 slice)= 35-40g CHO<br />
  15. 15. Sugar, Honey & Syrup<br />Regular Jelly/Jam (1T)<br />Brown Sugar (1T)<br />Honey (1T)<br />Chocolate Sauce (1oz)<br />Syrup (1 T)<br />
  16. 16. Beverages<br />Diet Soda=Free<br />Regular Soda (12oz can)= 40-50g CHO<br />Gatorade (8oz)= 15g CHO<br />
  17. 17. Balanced Meals<br />10-20% Calories from Protein<br />-high protein diet harmful to kidneys<br />50-60% Calories from Carb<br />-rich source of carbs (fruits, vegetables, whole grains)<br />25-30% Calories from Fat<br />-excess animal fat may result in greater risk for heart disease later in life<br />
  18. 18. Balanced Meals Cont…<br />Eat meals & snacks around same time each day<br />Need to be flexible <br />Never skip a meal or wait more than 4-5hr without eating<br />Solid snack containing protein, fat, and carbs is best before bedtime<br />
  19. 19. Hypoglycemia<br />Signs: sweating, nauseas, dizzy, confused, irritable, tired<br />Check blood sugar level right away. If below 100 mg/dl give 15g CHO (ei. 1/2c orange juice or 3 glucose tablets)<br />Wait 15 minutes and test blood sugars again.<br />Repeat steps if not above 100 mg/dl<br />
  20. 20. Encourage Increase Fiber Intake<br />Fiber: roughage in our food that is not absorbed into the body<br />Fiber may slow the rise in blood sugar levels<br />Apple juice vs Raw Apple<br />Examples: raw fruits, vegetables, legumes, high-fiber cereals, and whole wheat breads<br />
  21. 21. Avoid Added Salt<br />High blood pressure is important risk factor for both eye and kidney complications of DM & heart attacks<br />Rec. less than 3000 mg salt/d= 1 1/4tsp salt<br />Foods high in salt content: canned soups, fast foods, many snack foods, frozen veg. in sauces<br />
  22. 22. Important Points<br />No difference in the effect of a simple sugar compared with a starch in raising FSBG levels<br />A diabetic can eat almost any food in moderation if it is worked into meal plan<br />Nutritious carbs should be encouraged<br />Frequent FSBG testing is encouraged (2hrs post eating) to determine how a given food affects an individual<br />
  23. 23. Last but not least!<br />Food management for diabetics does not mean a restrictive diet, but rather a healthy eating regimen<br />

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