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Historical Context: Emergence of Social Science Disciplines

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HISTORICAL CONTEXT:
EMERGENCE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE
DISCIPLINES
Reference:
Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights
reserved.
Prepared by: JESS SALVILLA
Anthropology: Definition
• Anthropology, the study of all aspects of human life
and culture. Anthropology examines such topics as
how people live, what they think, what they produce,
and how they interact with their environments.
Anthropologists try to understand the full range of
human diversity as well as what all people share in
common.
Anthropology: QUESTIONS ASKED:
• Anthropologists ask such basic questions as:
When, where, and how did humans evolve?
How do people adapt to different
environments? How have societies developed
and changed from the ancient past to the
present? Answers to these questions can help
us understand what it means to be human.
They can also help us to learn ways to meet
the present-day needs of people all over the
world and to plan how we might live in the
future.
Fields of Anthropology
• Cultural Anthropology
• Linguistic Anthropology
• Archaeology
• Physical Anthropology
Anthropolology: Historical Background
• The European Age of Enlightenment of the 17th and
18th centuries marked the rise of scientific and
rational philosophical thought. Enlightenment
thinkers, such as Scottish-born David Hume, John
Locke of England, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau of
France, wrote a number of humanistic works on the
nature of humankind. They based their work on
philosophical reason rather than religious authority
and asked important anthropological questions.
Rousseau, for instance, wrote on the moral qualities
of “primitive” societies and about human inequality.
But most writers of the Enlightenment also lacked
firsthand experience with non-Western cultures.
ECONOMICS: Definition
• Economics, social science concerned with the
production, distribution, exchange, and consumption
of goods and services.
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Historical Context: Emergence of Social Science Disciplines

  • 1. HISTORICAL CONTEXT: EMERGENCE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES Reference: Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Prepared by: JESS SALVILLA
  • 2. Anthropology: Definition • Anthropology, the study of all aspects of human life and culture. Anthropology examines such topics as how people live, what they think, what they produce, and how they interact with their environments. Anthropologists try to understand the full range of human diversity as well as what all people share in common.
  • 3. Anthropology: QUESTIONS ASKED: • Anthropologists ask such basic questions as: When, where, and how did humans evolve? How do people adapt to different environments? How have societies developed and changed from the ancient past to the present? Answers to these questions can help us understand what it means to be human. They can also help us to learn ways to meet the present-day needs of people all over the world and to plan how we might live in the future.
  • 4. Fields of Anthropology • Cultural Anthropology • Linguistic Anthropology • Archaeology • Physical Anthropology
  • 5. Anthropolology: Historical Background • The European Age of Enlightenment of the 17th and 18th centuries marked the rise of scientific and rational philosophical thought. Enlightenment thinkers, such as Scottish-born David Hume, John Locke of England, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau of France, wrote a number of humanistic works on the nature of humankind. They based their work on philosophical reason rather than religious authority and asked important anthropological questions. Rousseau, for instance, wrote on the moral qualities of “primitive” societies and about human inequality. But most writers of the Enlightenment also lacked firsthand experience with non-Western cultures.
  • 6. ECONOMICS: Definition • Economics, social science concerned with the production, distribution, exchange, and consumption of goods and services.
  • 7. ECONOMICS: Historical (Mercantilism) • The development of modern nationalism during the 16th century shifted attention to the problem of increasing the wealth and power of the various nation-states. The economic policy of the leaders of that time, known as mercantilism, sought to encourage national self-sufficiency. The heyday of the mercantilist school in England and western Europe occurred during the 16th through the early 18th centuries.
  • 8. ECONOMICS: Historical (Mercantilism) • Mercantilists valued gold and silver as an index of national power. Without the gold and silver mines in the New World from which Spain drew its riches, a nation could accumulate these precious metals only by selling more merchandise to foreigners than it bought from them. This favorable balance of trade necessarily compelled foreigners to cover their deficits by shipping gold and silver.
  • 9. ECONOMICS: Historical (Mercantilism) • Mercantilists took for granted that their own country was either at war with its neighbors, recovering from a recent conflict, or getting ready to plunge into a new war. With gold and silver, a ruler could hire mercenaries to fight, a practice followed by King George III of the United Kingdom of Great Britain when he used Hessian troops during the American Revolution. As needed, the monarch could also buy weapons, uniforms, and food to supply the soldiers and sailors.
  • 10. GEOGRAPHY: Definition • Geography, science that deals with the distribution and arrangement of all elements of the earth's surface. The word geography was adopted in the 200s BC by the Greek scholar Eratosthenes and means “earth description.”
  • 11. GEOGRAPHY: Branches • 1. Physical geography includes the following fields: geomorphology, which uses geology to study the form and structure of the surface of the earth; climatology, which involves meteorology and is concerned with climatic conditions; biogeography, which uses biology and deals with the distribution of plant and animal life; soils geography/Soil Management, which is concerned with the distribution of soil; hydrography, which concerns the distribution of seas, lakes, rivers, and streams in relation to their uses; oceanography, which deals with the waves, tides, and currents of oceans and the ocean floor (see Ocean and Oceanography); and cartography, or mapmaking through graphic representation and measurement of the surface of the earth.
  • 12. GEOGRAPHY: Branches • 2. Cultural Geography. This classification, sometimes called human geography, involves all phases of human social life in relation to the physical earth. Economic geography, a field of cultural geography, deals with the industrial use of the geographic environment. Natural resources, such as mineral and oil deposits, forests, grazing lands, and farmlands, are studied with reference to their position, productivity, and potential uses. Manufacturing industries rely on geographic studies for information concerning raw materials, sources of labor, and distribution of goods. Marketing studies concerned with plant locations and sales potentials are based on geographic studies. The establishment of transportation facilities, trade routes, and resort areas also frequently depends on the results of geographic studies.
  • 13. GEOGRAPHY: Branches • Cultural geography also includes political geography, which is an application of political science. Political geography deals with human social activities that are related to the locations and boundaries of cities, nations, and groups of nations. • Military geography provides military leaders with information about areas in which they may need to operate. The many other fields of cultural geography include ethnography, historical geography, urban geography, demography, and linguistic geography.
  • 14. GEOGRAPHY: History • The earliest geographers were concerned with exploring unknown areas and with describing the observable features of different places. Such ancient peoples as the Chinese, Egyptians, and Phoenicians made long journeys and recorded their observations of strange lands. One of the first known maps was made on a clay tablet in Babylonia about 2300 BC. By 1400 BC, the shores of the Mediterranean Sea had been explored and charted, and during the next thousand years, early explorers visited Britain and navigated most of the African coast. The ancient Greeks, however, gave the Western world its first important knowledge relating to the form, size, and general nature of the earth.
  • 15. HISTORY: Definition • History and Historiography. • History, in its broadest sense, is the totality of all past events, although a more realistic definition would limit it to the known past. Historiography is the written record of what is known of human lives and societies in the past and how historians have attempted to understand them.
  • 16. HISTORY: Approaches • Historians have looked more and more to the social sciences—sociology, psychology, anthropology, and economics—for new methods and forms of explanation; the sophisticated use of quantitative data has become the accepted approach to economic and demographic studies. The influence of Marxist theories of economic and social development remains vital and contentious,
  • 17. HISTORY: Definition • as does the application of psychoanalytic theory to history. At the same time, many scholars have turned with sharpened interest to the theoretical foundations of historical knowledge and are reconsidering the relation between imaginative literature and history, with the possibility emerging that history may after all be the literary art that works upon scholarly material.
  • 18. LINGUISTICS: Definition • Linguistics, the scientific study of language. It encompasses the description of languages, the study of their origin, and the analysis of how children acquire language and how people learn languages other than their own.
  • 19. LINGUISTICS: History • In the early 20th century, linguistics expanded to include the study of unwritten languages. In the United States linguists and anthropologists began to study the rapidly disappearing spoken languages of Native North Americans. Because many of these languages were unwritten, researchers could not use historical analysis in their studies. In their pioneering research on these languages, anthropologists Franz Boas and Edward Sapir developed the techniques of descriptive linguistics and theorized on the ways in which language shapes our perceptions of the world.
  • 20. Political Science: Meaning • Political Science, the systematic study of and reflection upon politics. Politics usually describes the processes by which people and institutions exercise and resist power. Political processes are used to formulate policies, influence individuals and institutions, and organize societies.
  • 21. Political Science: History • The systematic study of politics dates to ancient times. The oldest legal and administrative code that survives in its entirety is the Code of Hammurabi, inscribed on a pillar of black basalt. Hammurabi, a Babylonian king who ruled from 1792 to 1750 BC, described the laws in his code as enabling “stable government and good rule.” Hammurabi’s justification indicates that the reasoning behind the code was political as well as legal.
  • 22. PSYCHOLOGY: Meaning • Psychology, the scientific study of behavior and the mind. This definition contains three elements. The first is that psychology is a scientific enterprise that obtains knowledge through systematic and objective methods of observation and experimentation. Second is that psychologists study behavior, which refers to any action or reaction that can be measured or observed—such as the blink of an eye, an increase in heart rate, or the unruly violence that often erupts in a mob. Third is that psychologists study the mind, which refers to both conscious and unconscious mental states. These states cannot actually be seen, only inferred from • observable behavior.
  • 23. PSYCHOLOGY: History • From about 600 to 300 BC, Greek philosophers inquired about a wide range of psychological topics. They were especially interested in the nature of knowledge and how human beings come to know the world, a field of philosophy known as epistemology. The Greek philosopher Socrates and his followers, Plato and Aristotle, wrote about pleasure and pain, knowledge, beauty, desire, free will, motivation, common sense, rationality, memory, and the subjective nature of perception.
  • 24. Sociology: Meaning • Sociology, the scientific study of human social relations or group life.
  • 25. Sociology: History • The first definition of sociology was advanced by the French philosopher Auguste Comte. In 1838 Comte coined the term sociology to describe his vision of a new science that would discover laws of human society resembling the laws of nature by applying the methods of factual investigation that had proved so successful in the physical sciences. The British philosopher Herbert Spencer adopted both Comte's term and his mission.