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Introduction to Physics

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- 1. Chapter 1<br />Introduction to Physics<br />
- 2. In this chapter, we will discuss the following:<br />Definition of Physics<br />Branches and sub-branches of Physics<br />Measurement of Quantities<br />
- 3. What is Physics?<br />ENERGY<br />MATTER<br />It is the study of everyday phenomena.<br /><ul><li>It is the study of matter and energy and their relationship.</li></li></ul><li>What are the Branches Physics?<br />
- 4. Classical Physics<br />Mechanics – the study of forces acting on bodies.<br />Statics – on bodies at rest.<br />Kinematics – on motion without regard to its cause.<br />Dynamics – on motion and forces that affect it.<br />Acoustics – study of the production of and the propagation of sound waves.<br />Optics - study of light.<br />Thermodynamics – study of the relationship between heat and other forms of energy.<br />Electromagnetism – study of the properties of electric current and magnetism, and their relationship.<br />
- 5. Modern Physics<br />Atomic and Nuclear Physics – study of the components, structure and behavior of the nucleus of the atom.<br />Quantum Physics – study of the discrete nature of the phenomena at the atomic and sub-atomic levels. It focuses on the unit of energy called quanta.<br />
- 6. What is Measurement?<br /><ul><li>It is the process of comparing one quantity with another quantity.</li></ul>Which segment is longer? AB or CD?<br />
- 7. What is a standard/unit of measurement?<br />It is a quantity or amount that everyone agrees on.<br /> For instance, in the ancient period, the cubit, which is agreed upon by the ancient people as the measure from a man’s elbow to the tip of the middle finger.<br />
- 8. The Metric System or International System of Measurements (SI)<br />In 1790, the French National Assembly appointed a committee (Academy of Science) that created the metric system.<br />In 1960, the metric system was named International System of Measurements, abbreviated as SI.<br />The SI includes fundamental quantities and derived quantities which are described by base units and derived units, respectively. <br />
- 9. Fundamental and Derived Quantities<br />
- 10. Description of SI base units<br /><ul><li>The meter is the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second. (1⁄10,000,000 of the distance from the Earth's equator to the North Pole measured on the circumference through Paris.)
- 11. The kilogram is the unit of mass; it is equal to the mass of the international prototype of the kilogram.(The mass of one liter of water. A liter is one thousandth of a cubic meter.)
- 12. The second is the duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium 133 atom. This definition refers to a cesium atom at rest at a temperature of 0 K. (The day is divided in 24 hours, each hour divided in 60 minutes, each minute divided in 60 seconds. A second is 1⁄(24 × 60 × 60) of the day)</li></li></ul><li>Common Prefixes for SI units<br />
- 13. Conversion of Units<br /> One of the simplest method of converting one unit of measurement is using the chain-link conversion method.<br />The chain-link conversion method uses a conversion factor. <br />A conversion factor is a ratio which is equal to one and which contains the original unit and the unit which you want the quantity to be converted to.<br />

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