Portfolio traditions and cuisine


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Portfolio traditions and cuisine

  2. 2. A project to help us gain better understanding of each other through the participating countries’ culture and traditions and to help us understand our own culture and traditions better. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission through Lifelong Learning/ Comenius program. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
  3. 3. THE PARTNER COUNTRIES Turkey romania spain slovenia
  4. 4. ROMÂNIA
  5. 5. CUSTOMS AND TRADİTİONS Throughout its tumultuous history, Bucovina has managed to form its own cultural identity, the result of the traditional civilization of the peoples hwo settled in the area . The perpetuation of the tradition and customs referring to ocupations, folk architecture costumes and craft reflects the complexity and individuality of the folk culture and civilization in Bucovina. This is a special place endowed with many human material and spiritual values, it is a place the innovation and creation, still alive in most of the types of folk art. The local folk spirituality in Suceava, material- ized through a wide range of artistic creation faithfully reflects the socio-economic and geographic realities. Integrat- ed in the Romanian cultural unity, the area of Bucovina stands out through its own etnic and artistic style. Strctured on fields of activity, the folk art is divided as follows: folk architecture, interior design, weavings, embroideries, tra- ditional ceramics, artistic creations made of wood, folk costumes, folk traditions and artistic– literary creations. From an ethnographic point of view, Bucovina stands out through its own identity, which has been main- tained and enriched by the elements of folk culture, displayed on the structure and style of the rural houses, on the organization of the interior designs with typical heating devices, on furniture and weavings, wich have surpassed their strictly utilitarian function and have become proof of the technique of folk art objects. The entire area presents particularities, depending on the type of , relief, on the ethnic interferences, on the dominant traditional ocupations, Bucovina having six ethnographic subdivision : Suceava, Humor, Câmpulung, Dorna , Fălticeni , Rădăuți. The spinning and weaving of textiles fibres These activites represent the main ocupations of the women in Bucovina. A weaving loom could be found in very household and weaving , as a domestic craft, was practiced for the necessities of the family and also for trade. The most popular weavings are the ones that decorate the interiors of the houses. The civilization of wood A true civilization of wood was developed on the territory of Bucovina in the XVII—XVIII centuries, through the exploration of the vast forests in the area, which led to the development of traditional trades and crafts, from the construction of houses and fabrication of furniture to the creation of household objects, or transport means (wagons, sleighs) Pottery The craft of pottery in Bucovina, practised also today, illustrates the preservation of the archaic types of black and paint- ed traditional ceramics.Today, there are two important centres in the area: Marginea , where black ceramics is used, preserving the traditional shapes of the earthen pots, decorated just by an art technique called ‖sgraffito‖ whith stanes and Radauti where the ceramics is painted and enameled like the ‖Kuty‖ ceramics (in yellow, green, broun), this having mostly a decorative purpose.
  6. 6. Romanian Traditions ”Martisor" Is the common name not too easy to pronounce by foreigners - of the month of March, but also of a custom, which symbolizes that spring has come. To emphasize this event better, an amulet has appeared: first a cod made of two threads of cotton, white and red tied to a pierced gold or silver coin. It was offered to children, girls and women. The color red sym- bolized the blood and life itself, while white, the purity of the sun and the first flowers. The gift was meant to bring health, beauty - in fact the three main conditions of happiness. In the various areas of the country, this custom was kept differently: in some places the people wore this amulet, beginning on March 1, for 9 days until All Saints' Day, in others until Easter. Young girls used to throw the amulet towards the sun so that they might get rid of freckles. Here, in Romania, the first days of spring are inconceivable without the image of "Baba Dochia". According to the legend the old lady was said to have worn either 12 or 9 coats, which she began to remove at the beginning of March, usually with changes in the weather. Sunny days were often followed by rain, and oc- casionally there might even have been some sleet. The legend also tells us that "Baba Dochia" had three special moments of her own: March, 1 - a time for sowing; March, 2 - dedicated to summer's work;finally March, 3 - representing the harvest in the autumn. Depending on how each day's weather turned out, one could expect similar conditions during the three seasons to come. A few, of course, resist the temptation of choosing a "Baba" during these first days of March,for if the day is clear and sunny, it means you are blessed with a pure and kind soul and everything will be good for you. There's another part of the legend concerning the amulet that tells of "Baba Dochia" wandering with her herd through the hills and valleys. Like other Romanian peasant women of that time, she also used her time to spin wool. Upon finding a coin, she made a hole in the coin and passed a thread of wool through it. In time, various symbols began to replace this that initial coin. Today there are dogs an elephants signs of the zodiac butterflies, little hearts and flowers, keys an horseshoes, masks an dwarfs...an endless world in miniature can be created for an amulet until it is finally given on March 1, perhaps with a little bunch of snowdrops or violets Spring customs The Romanian spring brings with it, besides the mild wind of revival, the charm of some ancient customs. Easter is definitely the most important of all. Easter and Christmas, in the cold season, offer the most sig- nificant events of the Romanian customs. The Christian Church says that Yesus was born during the winter solstice and his death followed by his resurrection happened during the spring equinox, the Easter. Mărţişor is one of the best Romanian traditions, celebrated in the beginning of the Spring, on March 1st. The tradition’s name is the diminutive of March (in Romanian: Martie). The men offer to the women a talis- man object also called Mărţişor, consisting of a jewel or a small decoration like a flower, an animal, a heart, tied to a red and white string. There are multiple symbols in this gift, but all of it have three common sense: revival, sensibility, and the care for the women. The gift is considered to bring good luck and wealth. Some consider the red as the symbol of the Spring, and the white for Winter, the tradition taking place right between the two seasons. In another version, the two colors represent the love and the sincerity. This symbols fit better with the early Spring flowers associ- ated with this tradition, especially the snowdrops. There are archeological proves that the tradition is over 8 thousands years old. It was celebrated by Get- as, and it is found in the celebration of Mars as the protector of the fertili- ty and vegetation, as well as in the celebration of the Marsyas Silen god by the Dacians. The Dacian women use coins and little stones tied to red and white wool wires, for wealth and fertility. Similar traditions can be found in Balkans, especially in Bulgaria (the tradition is called Martenitsa - Мартеница), Macedonia and Alba-
  7. 7. Part of an ancient Romanian tradition, Dragobete is comparable to Valentine’s Day but it is of course the Romanian way of celebrating it. Ever since ancient times, Romanians used to celebrate Dragobete on the 24th of February. It was a sort of Valentine's Day. This is the time when nature wakes up from her sleep, birds look for places to build their nests, and people, especially the youth, follow nature's course. A mythological deity similar to Eros or Cu- pid, the son of Dochia, Dragobete is a hand- some man who likes to indulge himself in love affairs. He isn't mild like St. Valentine, but tempestuous like the Dacian god who was thought to celebrate in heaven the marriage of all the animals. This has later on extended to people also, and young people keep the tradi- tion up to this day: boys and girls meet on this special day to make their love last. People believed that birds got engaged on Dragobe- te's day. So the holiday has a quite deep moti- vation, if we come to think that birds were considered messengers of gods, the Greek word for "bird" meaning "heaven message." Dragobete is also a deity of joy and well-being, prone to giving parties and festivities, which often ended up in marriage. According to the Romanian common belief, those who took part in the Dragobete festivities were protected against any sickness all year long. So: early in the morning, dressed up in their Sunday best, young people used to meet in the center of the village or in front of the church. If the weather was good, they would go singing in small groups to the forest, to look for snowdrops or other spring flowers, and if the weather was bad, they would gather at one's place to play games and tell stories. Dragobete was a holiday of love, full of superstitions and special rituals. It was considered to bear luck for all activi- ties and human actions, not only the small things, but also the big businesses. Farmers believed that Dragobete could help them have a richer year. People would not work on this day, they would keep it just like a religious holiday. They resumed their work to cleaning the house and cooking. It was believed that the girls who worked on Dragobete's day would be punished by this deity. Even if he sometimes "punished" the disobedient ladies, Dragobete was seen as pro- tector of love, bearing luck to young lovers and young people in general, like a true Romanian Cupid. Romanian Traditions: Dragobete's Day 'SANZIENELE' - A CELEBRATION OF MIDSUMMER'S DAY The celebration of Midsummer is especially popular throughout Europe, with festivities beginning on Midsummer Eve which include lighting bonfires, especially on mountaintops, dancing around and leaping over fires, and other ancient customs. In Romania, this celebration is called ―Sanziene‖. It probably originated in ancient times as sun worship, with the fires representing the power of the sun. These bonfires have been thought to have all sorts of magical proper- ties, from driving away of evil, to ensuring health and affecting the weather. As the sun worship was forgotten, the customs remained and the theme of Midsummer became very romantic. There are a number of customs for predicting one's future spouse. A girl who sees nine Midsummer fires will marry before the end of the year, and placing certain flowers under the pillow will give you dreams of your future mate. On Sânziene's night the people pick healing plants and light huge purifying fires. Midsummer Day has a twofold meaning in Romania. One stands for the traditional Midsummer fairies that do a lot of mischief. The other is a reminder of the nice smelling flowers. Young girls make wreathes out of them and the boys cross-shaped braids. The flowers are then thrown into the cattle pen. If the wreath gets stuck on an old beast, the future spouse will be elderly. If the animal is young, so will the spouse be. On Midsummer Eve, the lads of Maramures (north-west Romania) go out in the evening holding fire torches which they move around in the sense of the sun in the sky. When the torches are about to go out the young men descend the hills, surround the plots, enter into people's yards and give the torches to their parents to thrust them into the soil of their gardens. On the same day, in Moldavia, Wallachia and Dobrogea, two or four maidens, two of them dressed as lads, perform the Wicked Fairy's dance. The girls may be accompanied by a boy who plays the flute or the bagpipe and carries a banner on which colored handker- chiefs, bedstraw flowers, garlic and wheat ears are attached.
  8. 8. Easter (Greek: Πάσχα, Pascha) is the most important annual religious feast in the Christian liturgical year.[1] According to Christian scrip- ture, Jesus was resurrected from the dead on the third day from his cru- cifixion. Christians celebrate this resurrection on Easter Day or Easter Sunday[2] (also Resurrection Day or Resurrection Sunday), two days after Good Friday and three days after Maundy Thursday. The chronol- ogy of his death and resurrection is variously interpreted to be between 26 and 36 AD. Easter also refers to the season of the church year called Eastertide or the Easter Season. Traditionally the Easter Season lasted for the forty days from Easter Day until Ascension Day but now offi- cially lasts for the fifty days until Pentecost. The first week of the Easter Season is known as Easter Week or the Octave of Easter. Easter also marks the end of Lent, a season of fasting, prayer, and penance. Easter is a moveable feast, meaning it is not fixed in relation to the civil calendar. The First Council of Nicaea (325) established the date of East- er as the first Sunday after the full moon (the Paschal Full Moon) fol- lowing the vernal equinox.[3] Ecclesiastically, the equinox is reckoned to be on 21 March. The date of Easter therefore varies between 22 March and 25 April. Eastern Christianity bases its calculations on the Julian Calendar whose 21 March corresponds, during the twenty-first century, to 3 April in the Gregorian Calendar, in which calendar their celebration of Easter therefore varies between 4 April and 8 May. Easter is linked to the Jewish Passover not only for much of its symbolism but also for its position in the calendar. Relatively newer elements such as the Easter Bunny and Easter egg hunts have become part of the holiday's modern celebrations, and those aspects are often celebrated by many Chris- tians and non-Christians alike. There are also some Christian denominations who do not celebrate Easter. Easter, annual festival commemorating the resurrection of Jesus Christ, and the principal feast of the Christian year. It is celebrated on a Sunday on varying dates between March 22 and April 25 and is therefore called a movable feast. The dates of several other ecclesiastical festivals, extending over a period between Septuagesima Sunday (the ninth Sunday be- fore Easter) and the first Sunday of Advent, are fixed in relation to the date of Easter. Con- nected with the observance of Easter are the 40-day penitential season of Lent, beginning on Ash Wednesday and con- cluding at midnight on Holy Saturday, the day before Easter Sunday; Holy Week, commencing on Palm Sunday, in- cluding Good Friday, the day of the crucifixion, and ter- minating with Holy Saturday; and the Octave of Easter, extending from Easter Sunday through the following Sunday. Easter eggs are specially decorated eggs given to cele- brate the Easter holiday or springtime. The egg was a symbol of the rebirth of the earth in Pagan celebrations of spring and was adopted by early Chris- tians as a symbol of the rebirth.[1] The oldest tradition is to use dyed or painted chicken eggs, but a modern custom is to substitute chocolate eggs, or plastic eggs filled with confectionery such as jelly beans. These eggs are often hidden, allegedly by the Easter Bunny, for children to find on Easter morning. Otherwise, they are generally put in a basket filled with real or artificial straw to resemble a bird's nest. Easter feast and celebration
  9. 9. The Cross-Day Celebrated on the 14th of September each year, The Cross-Day is dedicated to the gathering of the last remedying plants, rockets and others. People say that on this day the flowers complain one to another that they will dry up, and they also say that those that blossom after this date- the autumn crocus, belong to the dead. It is known that on this day the snakes gather into hazel woods and that it isn't good to kill them. This festivity is in the same time the sign for the beginning of the gathering of the crops from the wine -yards and of the nuts too. Sâmedru's Fire This is a ceremony for renewing the calendaristic time. It takes place during the night of 25/ 26 October and it is celebrated by children and adults. They prepare a pyre and put a green pine in the middle to be burnt. During the ceremony, firing wagon wheels are pushed. The children call the villagers, wandering from door to door and yelling: "Come to Sâmedru's Fire". The signification of this holiday is so old, that nobody knows it today. Ovidenia Festival It is celebrated on the 21st of November, every year, the Ovidenia Festival marks Holy Virgin's entering the church. People say that on this day the sky opens and the animals speak. The men predict the weather and women aren't permitted to wash clothes. The custom is dedicated on the dead for whom charity food is offered. More than 2000 years ago, the festival used to mark the New Year's Eve for our ancestors, the Daci- ans, but in time this day reminded just a good opportunity for the commemoration of the dead. Saint Andrei It is celebrated on the 30th of November. It is a day dedicated to Apostle Andrei like symbol of time's renovate, like news of the cycle of winter holi- days during Christmas Days. In Romanian the folk name of December is "Indrea" or "Undrea" and it comes from name of Saint Andrei. With this occasion forecast are made for the New Year. People put grain beans into a dish. It is saying that at Saint Andrei the day is growing up how much the millet grain. Autumn traditions
  10. 10. Romanian Winter Season Traditions In Romania, the winter holiday season is truly in full-swing from December 24 to January 7. Highlights in- clude: Christmas Day, New Year and Epiphany, with their respective eves. The most important feature of these celebrations is their unique variety of colorful Romanian customs, traditions, and believes, of artistic, literary, musical, and other folklore events, which make the winter holidays some of the most original and spectacular spiritual manifestations of the Romanian people. Children of all ages go from house to house singing Christmas carols, or through the streets on New Year's Eve reciting congratulatory verse. The whole traditional village participates in waists, although mostly children prac- tice this custom. The Caroling * Colindatul The Star Carol * Steaua The Goat Tradition * Capra Sorcova The Little Plough * Plugusorul The Caroling. Traditionally, during the first hours after dark on Christmas' Eve is the time for children to go caroling and the adults stay home to greet them. As they go caroling from house to house, the children re- ceive treats like candy, fruit, baked treats and sometimes even money in appreciation of their performance and as a sign of holiday good will. The grown-ups caroling goes on Christmas evening and night. The waits -young and mature people - gather in groups and they choose a leader. When they are in the front yard of a house, they perform their repertory to the host. The songs are always accompanied by dance. When the perfor- mance is over, the host invites the carolers inside the house for food, drinks and presents. The Star Carol. Children make a star using colored paper and then they put in its middle an icon of Jesus. Many of children decorate their star using shiny tinsel. The “Star Carol” is a tradition during the 3 days of Ro- manian Christmas. While holding the star in the hands the children sing: "The star has appeared on high, Like a big secret in the sky, The star is bright, May all your wishes turn out right…" The Goat Tradition.Throughout the season, teenagers and young adults especially enjoy caroling with the “Goat”. The “Goat” is actual- ly a usually boisterous young person dressed up in a goat costume. The whole group dances through the streets and from door to door, often with flute music. This tradition comes from the ancient Roman people and it reminds us of the celebration of the ancient Greek gods. This custom is also called "brezaia" in Wallachia and Oltenia, be- cause of the multicolored appearance of the goat mask. The goat jumps, jerks, turns round, and bends, clattering regularly the wooden jaws. Plugusorul is a small plough. In Romanian folklore is a traditional procession with a decorated plough, on New Years' Eve. This is a well wishing custom for the field fruitfulness into the new year. This custom arises from "Carmen ar- vale", a Roman wish for bountiful crops. The ploughmen are teenagers and chil- dren carrying whips, bells and pipes in their hands. "Sorcova" is a special bouquet used for New Year's wishes early New Year’s morning. Children wish people a “Happy New Year!” while touching them lightly with this bouquet. After they have wished a Happy New Year to the members of their family, the children go to the neighbors and relatives. Traditionally, the "Sorcova" bouquet was made up of one or several fruit - tree twigs (apple-tree, pear-tree, cherry-tree, plum-tree); all of them are put into water, in warm place, on November 30th (St. Andrew’s Day), in order to bud and to blossom on New Year's Eve.
  11. 11. Within South Eastern Europe however, Romania preserved a significant number of traditional customs and celebra- tions manifest within the strong community of the village. Ceremonies dedicated to the significant moments of one's life (birth, wedding, death), to natural cycles (such as solstice, equinox, harvest, springtime) or to the big religious celebrations, follow the same archaic mythical rituals they did a thousand years ago. Even though preformed at the end of the 20th century in villages marked by modernization, such traditional rites haven't diminish their prestige. They still provide viable answers to how to live in harmony with the environment and community, that the present social and economical system cannot furnish. As a result of the historical time we live, most forms of traditional community life slowly vanished from the post-industrial civilizations of this century.During winter solstice, when the sun is weak and frost and dryness take over, Romanian peasants conceived ceremonies to help the Sun and Nature to overcome this "temporary crisis." For 12 days between Christmas and St. John on January 7th, all Romanian villages have spe- cific celebrations, starting with children's caroling on Christmas eve: Mos Ajun or Buna Dimineata (Good Morning). Well spread throughout Romanian countryside is the caroling of the Ceata de feciori (the Young Fellows Crew). In Transylvania, Banat, Maramures, and also in Wallachia and Dobruja, young bachelors in groups of 6 to 25, go carol- ing around the village for 3 days. Irrespective of the time of the day, they are expected by the villagers with lots of food and their porch lights on at night time. These carols are considered to be some of the most valuable works of po- etry in Eastern Europe. New Year's is another period of festivities. Augural time, the night of December 31st puts forth dances with masks, divination, foretelling, and magic. The caroling repertoire is vast. Besides ritual songs such as Plugusor (little plough), Buhai (traditional drum), Capra (goat dance), Ursul (bear dance), there are carols for each category of individuals within the community (old, very young, young, newly weds, ready to marry, young parents, families without children, etc), for each profession (shepherd, farmer, bucket makers, soldiers), or for specific regions (such as Jiu dwellers). In certain villages, we can find gatherings as large as 100 people of smaller young fellows' crews singing together on the streets (Bukovinan Malanca). In Moldova, the choreography, costumes and ritual dances during the caroling festivities represent a genuine work of art. April and May festivities are connected to agricultural or sheep raising practices: Tilling Day (Maramures) or Choos- ing of the King (Transylvania), celebrating the first farmer to finish tilling and sowing. Similarly, Sheep Day or Milk Measuring celebrations (Banat and Transylvania) mark the moving of the sheep flocks up on the mountain to spend the summer. Around the summer solstice and coinciding with the Christian celebrations of Rusalii (Pentecost) and St. John Day's, Romanians traditionally practiced two ritual ceremonies dedicated to good crops and land fertility: Calusul, a dance performed by a special group of men (esp. in the Olt region and Wallachia) and Sanzienile and Dragaica, the Romani- an versions of Midsummer's Day, with ritual dancing and singing by a group of young girls. Harvesting is another time of celebration, thanksgiving, and preparation for the next crop. A symbolic wheat crown or braid is put in a special place next to the icons, their grains being later mixed with next crop's seeds. In the Saxon land, such a harvesting festivity is knows as Chirvai (kir-vy): a time when the community drinks from the sweet grape juice, parties, feasts and dances. Other types of festivities are Hramuri and Nedei. An old tradition from Moldova and Northern Transylvania, hramuri represents the day to celebrate the patron saint of a particular church. Closer or more remote villages come in a proces- sion to that church, while the hosting village organizes a big communal feasts. September 8th, the hram of St Mary, is the day when the caldarari Roma get together to the church of Costesti (Valcea county) and when they also delimit their clans and territories and display their possessions. Romanian annual traditions
  12. 12. Romanian folklore, traditions and life style Romanian folklore is probably the most varied and traditional in the whole of Eu- rope, so many experts say. You will be captivated by the beauty of the regional cos- tumes which you may see passing through villages near Sibiu, in the Apuseni Moun- tains or Maramures, Bucovina. Transylvanian folk music and dancing is well known abroad. The 'Doina', a distinc- tively ballad, gives expression to a wide variety of feelings whereas dances like 'Invartita' or 'Fecioresti' demand great virtuosity. ROMANIAN PEOPLE Romanians are said to be one of the most welcoming and friendliest people in the world. When you first meet them, you may find them formal by Western standards. This may take the form of old-fashioned behaviour such as a man kissing a woman's hand when they meet. Men usually greet each other with a hand shake and it is not unusual for friends, both men and women, to kiss on both cheeks. In rural areas, it is usual to greet people individually and even to greet strangers! Traditionally, first names are used only by friends and relatives and by adults when they are address- ing children. It is likely that you will be offered a glass of 'palinca' and a four meal dinner regardless of the time of day. If you do not want to drink it, or the food served is overwhelming, however, refuse polite- ly. You may find that your host insists that you accept. This is a traditional offer purely out of friendship and courtesy and a polite refusal will be accepted. Sociable, interested in open and pragmatic ideas, it is easy to find something to talk about with Romanian people. Current events are very popular and sport is a popular interest. Politics and Ro- manian history are acceptable topics among older men and will be hotly debated by them. People will most certainly talk about Ceausescu and communism and many of them will have amazing stories to tell. Romanians are, cheerful, happy people, always ready for guests and cele- bration. Any shyness will quickly change if you are friendly and interested. You will be surprised at the ability of many Romanians to speak other languages, including English. Should you be invited to the home of a Romanian, you may find that you are the guest of honour or at least the centre of attention. Hosts ap- preciate it when a dinner guest brings flowers or another gift. Make sure that you stay for a few hours, talk to everyone pre- sent and eat as much as you can! In rural Romania you can experience a way of life which vanished from the west nearly a century ago. Traditional occupations such as shepherding, weaving and carpentry are still very much alive in its attractive little villages, where painting icons on glass and colouring eggs pro- vide an attractive contrast to 21st century activi- ties.You can see much that you cannot easily experience elsewhere: ploughing with horses, cutting hay with a scythe, milking a cow, making a horseshoe by hand at the forge. Food in rural Transylvania is frequently organic and, surpris- ingly to the Western visitor, full of flavour.
  13. 13. Traditional food
  14. 14. Romania is a beautiful little country in Eastern Europe in the Balkan region. While living and working there over the years, I have eaten and enjoyed many delicious meals. Meal time in Romania is a very special time. Family and friends come together and may linger long after a meal is over in deep conversation. The food of Romania is diverse. Food choices and cooking styles are influenced by Balkan traditions as well as Ger- man, Hungarian, Turkish, Russian and those of the Near East which includes Israel, Palestine, Jordon, Syria, Lebanon, and Iraq. Some of the traditional Romanian dishes are stuffed cabbage leaves known in the Romanian language as sarmale. Oth- er vegetables cooked and served are stuffed bell peppers (ardei umpluti); green beans (fasole verde); carrots sote (sote de morcovi); roasted peppers (ardei copti); eggplant salad (salata de vinete); and tomato salad (salata de rosii). Pota- toes are popular in Romania and are served very often. They are cheap to buy and are sold everywhere in the fall, both in markets and along the streets and highways in front of private homes. There are vegetables and fruits of all kinds and many of them are raised in the country itself. Pork and lamb are preferred over beef in Romania and pork fat is used for cooking. For Christmas a pig is traditionally butchered by every family and a variety of recipes are used to prepare the meat. One of the popular dishes made from the liver and intestines of the pork is a long sausage called carnati. Another dish is piftie which is made from the feet, head, and the ears and is suspended in aspic. I have seen most of the country and in my travels around I have seen many more sheep and pigs grazing in fields than cattle. Romanians love spicy meatballs made from a mixture of pork and beef. Ghiveci is a Romanian dish which combines meat and vegetables and is baked. Other meat dishes include skewered meat (frigarui); cow tongue with olives (limba cu masline); grilled mince meat rolls (mititei); and chicken cutlet (snitel). At Easter roast lamb is served and also a cooked mixture of intestines, meat, and fresh vegetables called drob in Romanian. Fish from the Danube River and scad from the Black Sea is very important to Romanians. Pollu- tion has widely affected the fishing industry in Eastern Europe and eating fish is not as popular as it once was. Soups, especially bean soup, is served hot in the winter in Romania and cold soup made with cucumber, yogurt, and walnuts and known as tarator, is made in the summer. Lovage, an unusual herb tasting like celery, is used in Romanian cooking, especially in lamb soup. Soups are usually soured with lemon juice or a dash of vinegar. Different breads are very popular in Romanian culture and there are many interesting varieties. Cooked cornmeal (mamaliga) is traditional in all of Eastern Europe and is considered the poor man's dish and is a Romanian specialty. It is used with meat or cheese and is called polenta in Italy. It is cooked so long to be thickened and when done can be sliced like bread. Cheeses of all kinds are very popular with the Romanian people. The generic name for cheese in Romania is branza. Most of the cheese is made from cow or sheep milk. Desserts are usually crepes filled with fruits or cherry streudel. Other desserts in Romania include baclava, which is sweet layered pastry; sponge cake known as pandispan; rice pud- ding or orez cu lapte; and gingerbread or turta dulce. More and more wine is produced now in Romania. In the past religious influences and fifty years of political isolation from market influences kept it from being so. Romanian brandy made with plums grown there is considered to be a national spirit drink and is called tulca. The meal ends with coffee, the strong thick Turkish style coffee served with dulceata which are soft candies made with apples, plums, or raisins or figs that have been stewed, thickened and rolled into balls, coated with nuts and dipped in rum or other alcohol. When visiting homes anywhere in Romania the people are friendly and warm and always there is an invitation to share their food. Romanian cuisine
  15. 15. 71 Traditional Easter dishes And speaking about traditional food, probably the most important ―dishes‖ are Pasca (a version of cheesecake) and Cozonaci (Romanian Panettone – variations of sweet bread in dif- ferent shapes round or rectangular, symboliz- ing Christ’s grave – but the difference is that they are not an exclu- sive Easter dish, being also prepared for Christmas, weddings and other important celebrations). Last but not least, the traditional main dishes at Easter in Romanian are prepared from fresh lamb: lamb roast and drob (lamb haggis – spiced minced lamb organs with green onion, green garlic and eggs in lamb stomach). Drob recipe: Ingredients:  liver from a lamb  heart from a lamb  lungs from a lamb  a lamb peritoneum  5 green onions  3 green garlic  2 tbs chopped green parsley  1 tbs chopped green dill  1 raw egg  4-5 boiled eggs  2 tbs sour cream  1 tbs oil  salt and pepper Boil the liver, heart and lungs in a pot. Wash the peritoneum and let it to cool. Take the boiled organs out on a plate and put them in the fridge (for at last 6 hours). Put the organs together with onion, garlic, parsley, dill and 2 boiled eggs through the hewing machine. Put the mixture in a bowl; add the raw egg, salt, pepper and the sour cream. Typical Dishes: Romanian traditional foods heavily feature meat. Cabbage rolls, sausages, and stews (like tocanita) are popular main dishes. You can also sample traditional Romanian fish dishes, like the salty, grilled carp called saramura. Romanian Traditional Foods - Soups and Appetizers and Side Dishes in Romania: Soups - made with or without meat, or made with fish - are usually offered on menus at Romanian restaurants. Zama is a green bean soup with chicken, parsley, and dill. You may also encounter pilaf and moussaka, vegetables prepared in various ways (including stuffed peppers), and polenta. Romanian Traditional Foods - Desserts of Romanian Cuisine: Traditional Romanian desserts may resemble baklava. Other pastries may best be described as danishes (pastries with cheese filling). Crepes with various fillings and toppings may also be on the typical Romanian dessert menu.
  16. 16. TURCIA
  17. 17. TURKİSH CUSTOMS AND TRADİTİONS BIRTH When visiting the newly-born, you will inevitably be served Lohusa sorbet, a sweet, spicy, red drink, which may be drunk either warm or cold according to the season. Lohusa sorbet is made by leaving a kind of candy called Lohusa candy in some water and then mixing and boiling it with some spices like cinnamon, ginger and clove. New mothers are called as "Lohusa".They always wear a red ribbon as it is believed this will prevent the mother from an evel eye. The gold coins and gold Maşallahs brought by relatives and friends are pinned to the baby's pillow. Also a yellow ribbon or a yellow cover is put on the baby's bed to avoid “Baby jaundice”. When the first tooth appears, a ceremony called „ Diş Buğdayı‟ (tooth wheat) occurs. DEATH CEREMONY In Turkey, when someone dies, a pair of shoes, belonging to the dead person is immediately put outside the door of their house. It is customary to send either a wreath or fresh flowers on the day of the funeral, or you can make a financial contribution to the chosen foundation which will supply the family with a wreath..Neighbours bring food to the dead person‟s house for a week to help them.On the seventh and the fiftieth days, people pray for the soul of the dead person. TRADITIONAL CLOTHES Traditional clothing forms a part of Turkish traditional culture.In the past, the Turks would weave their own clothing and make dyes from natural plant ingredients, in a way that reflected their feelings in the designs they created. Each region has its own characteristics in the way of clothing, headwear, scarves and socks, which have all, through the centuries, attracted interest and admiration.
  18. 18. WEDDING CEREMONY Books can be written on the marriage customs! However let's cut it short. A Turkish wedding ceremony has four essential stages: 1. The family of the groom-to-be visits the family of the bride-to-be and asks permission to let their children get married. 2. Promise stage, the period until engagement. 3. Engagement. 4. Wedding ceremony. More details surrounding Turkish marriages and customs will be added to this site in due course. In order to get married you have to apply to your district's Municipality and start the necessary paperwork. HENNA NIGHT The ceremony held one day before the wedding in the home of bride and groom is called the henna night. It generally takes place at the girl's home and among women, although either side can elect to host it. Usually dry henna brought by the bridegroom's family is broken to pieces in a silver or copper vessel by a woman whose father and mother alive, not experienced any separation. After preparing the bride, veil ornamented with red flake is placed over her head, and she is brought into the middle with hymn and folk songs about henna. Henna that has earlier kneaded with water is brought in on a tray surrounded by candles and placed in the middle of the room. In some places, the henna is first put on the hands of the bride and then distributed to the guests; in other areas the henna is first distributed to the guests, and only after everybody has left is it placed on the bride's hands. If the woman so wishes, henna can also be placed on her feet and hair. Considerable attention is paid to charging a woman with a happy marriage, called the “basi bütün” (meaning “whose head is complete”, in a sense, this describes her as someone who has a complete family with husband and children and whose marriage is whole, not separated by divorce) to knead and distribute the henna and apply it to the girl's hand. The woman places the henna on one of the bride's hands, and a young girl places it on the other. Before the henna is applied, coins or gold are also placed in her hands. After woman who came together for dying henna leave, close friend of the bride remain with her and enjoy themselves till morning. Dying ceremony of henna is different according to regions. The henna so dyed has such names and types as “iplik kinasi” (henna for yarn), “sivama” (smearing), “kusgözü” (bird eye).
  19. 19. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AQJC2ce5pYk EVIL EYE This is a typical item, a specialty of this region.You should take home as a souvenir. It's called the Boncuk, the Little Magic Stone that protects one from the "Evil Eye”.You will see this blue glass piece everywhere here in this area. But what is behind this superstition?Once upon a time (yes, it starts like in a fairy tale) there was a rock by the sea that, e v e n w i t h t h e f o r c e o f a h u n d r e d m e n a n d a l o t o f dynamite, couldn't be moved or cracked. There was also a man in this town by the sea, who was known to carry the evil eye (Nazar). After much effort and endeavor, the town people brought the man to the rock, and the man, upon looking at the rock said, "My! What a big rock this is." The instant he said this, there was a rip and roar and crack and instantly the immense and impossible rock was found to be cracked in two. The force of the evil eye (or Nazar) is a widely accepted and feared random element in Turkish daily life. The word "Nazar" denotes seeing or looking enviously. It is believed that the compliments made to a specific body part can result in Nazar. That's why nearly every Turkish mother fixes with a safety pin a small Boncuk on the child's clothes. Once a Boncuk is found cracked, it means it has prevented the evil eye and immediately a new one has to replace it.
  20. 20. COFEE HOUSES Coffee-houses ("kahve") are very specific to Turkish people. Even the smallest village has at least one "kahve." In old times men used to smoke hubble-bubble pipes ("nargile") while talking about the matters of the day. You can still smoke "nargile," but only in some of the coffee-houses. If you ever had a chance to see a "kahve," especially in Istanbul, do not hesitate to spend some time in that lovely, authentic place. PERFORMING ARTS T h e r e a r e s i x v a r i e t i e s o f t r a d i t i o n a l T u r k i s h p e r f o r m i n g a r t s : Village Plays are put on in accordance with rural traditions on special days, weddings and holidays. Meddah is a kind of one-act dramatic play where the narrator also imitates the various characters in the play. Karagöz is a traditional show theatre, where the shadow puppets of human and animal figures, cut out of leather and colored, are thrown onto a white curtain using a light source behind it. Orta Oyun,in style and theme resembles Karagöz, but is performed by real actors. Tuluat Theater is a mixture of Orta Oyun and western theater. TURKISH FOLK DANCES Turkish folk dance is also very alive and variant. Each region has its characteristic dance with particular costumes, steps, rhythms and instruments. Every region's dance reflects the characteristics of that region's people. Turkish people are very inventive, creating new dances for different situations. There are particular dances for weddings, for harvest or for guest welcoming and so on, Folk dances have different characteristics based on region and location and are generally engaged in during weddings, journeys to the mountains in the summer, when sending sons off to military service and during religious and national holidays. The best known folk dances are:
  21. 21. Horon "Horon" a very fluid and swift dance, is particular to the Black Sea Region; a special instrument “kemençe” is used for this dance. Kasik Oyunu "Kasik Oyunu" played with spoons, is performed in from Konya to Silifke Kilic Kalkan "Kilic-Kalkan" practiced in Bursa in memory of the capture of the city by the Ottomans; The Sword and Shield Dance of Bursa represents the Ottoman conquest of the city. It is performed by men only, dressed in early Ottoman battle dress, who dance to the sound of clashing swords and shields without music. Zeybek "Zeybek" particular to the Aegean Region, symbolizes courage and heroism In this Aegean dance, colorfully dressed male dancers, called "Efe", symbolize courage and heroism.
  22. 22. TURKISH FOLK MUSIC The lively Turkish folk music, which originated on the steppes of Asia, is in complete contrast to the refined Turkish classical music of the Ottoman court. Until recently, folk music was not written down, and the traditions have been kept alive by the 'asiklar', or Turkish troubadours. Distinct from Turkish folk music is Ottoman military music, now performed by the 'mehter takimi' (Janissary Band) in Istanbul, which originated in Central Asia, and is played with kettle drums, clarinets, cymbals and bells. The mystical music of the Whirling Dervishes is dominated by the haunting sound of the reed pipe or 'ney', and can be heard in Konya during the Mevlana Festival in December. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mi4Sb7k7Yr0&feature=fvwrel http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j7SxmVs42Iw&feature=related
  23. 23. HOSPITALITY Turks are famous for their hospitality. You will find that the majority of people you meet will be friendly and courteous to strangers, whether they're foreign or not. As a tourist you'll find yourself offered tea by almost anyone who is trying to sell you something. It's not rude to refuse and in most cases it's probably not a pressure sell tactic, a lot of people are more than happy to talk to you about where you're from, what you do, whether you're married ... If you're comfortable in a shop and fancy looking at the stuff that's there then have a tea. This is common sense stuff anyway. If you find yourself invited to a home, which happens quite a lot, especially if you're out of the main resort areas, then you can probably play it by ear. It's more usual to take pastries, chocolates or flowers than something to drink. In the average Turkish home you will be treated as an honoured guest, as is any visitor, and it's an opportunity that shouldn't be turned down. TURKİSH CARPETS Turkish hand made carpets are very popular all around the word. They have special designs, some are ottoman designs. The colours of the carpets are made from natural produccts.
  24. 24. RELİGİOUS FESTİVALS In our Islamic belief, we have two festivals. We have special traditions for our festivals. People visit their elder relatives and neighbours in festivals. They kiss the hands of elder people which shows their respect to them. A traditional dessert, baklava is prepared and served for the guests. Children wear new clothes in festivals and they get poket money from their parents. CHİNA- PORCELAİN Turkish porcelain is very thin. When you look at one side, you can see the other side of the plate. They have special designs on them. HIDIRELLEZ İn may we celebrate the coming of Spring, the renewal of nature, which is called as Hıdırellez. People either write or draw their wishes to the small papers and bury these papers to the soil of rose tree. At midnight, they take the papers and throw them to the sea. Another ritval is that, people light a small fire in the street and everybody jump over the fire after wishing something. Also we believe that we should clean our houses before Hıdırellez, which prevent our houses from the problems.
  25. 25. TURKİSH COUSİNE Some famous Turkish foods are ; Sarma Lahmacun.. Şiş Kebab Karnı yarık (Stuffed eggplant) Baklava Adana Kebab Mantı Meat ball
  26. 26. CRAFTS marbling paper, decorative arts is one of the most important. Calligraphy is the art of beautiful writing. Coppersmith is the art of making articles thereof. SIRA GECESİ It is a traditional special event for males. It is especially held in south eastern region.Males get together and prepare a special food “cig kofte” while listening to folk music . Some special musical instruments are zither, saz, drum and horn. They also play folk dance http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9b4zybdmN78&feature=related
  27. 27. Turkish Evil Eye Pendants (Nazar Boncugu) The Turks are especially circumspect of people with blue eyes. They believe that blue-eyed people, however enchanting and attractive their eyes may look, essentially harbor negative feelings about others and when this negative energy gets transmitted to others, much harm and distress is caused. The Turkish Evil Eye Pendants or the "nazar boncugu" is the Turkish means of keeping at bay the ills brought on by envious and greedy eyes. The Evil Eye belief says that when someone eyes your good fortune with jealousy or gluttony, bad luck in some form is bound to befall you. It is also widely held that any accolade or praise, however well meaning it may be, is always tinged with a wee bit of greed and spite.
  28. 28. SLOVENIA
  29. 29. SLOVENIAN TRADITIONS Slovenia can boast one of the oldest Philharmonic Societies in Europe, whose honorary members included Haydn and Beethoven, an Academy of Sciences and Arts that has its roots in the 17th century, one of Europe's oldest pharmacies, and a host of other eminent legacies of a long creative life. Discovered in 1492, the mercury mine in Idrija was the second largest mercury mine in the world for centuries and stimulated the development of science, medicine, and technology in Slovenia and in Europe. Along with important natural science, technical, and other discoveries and innovations, Slovenia has always preserved its ethnological features and traditions. Even today, the kozolec, a traditional rack for drying hay and other field crops, can been seen all across Slovenia. The double kozolec is unique in the world and delights the eye with the originality of its construction and its ornate decoration. Along with its universally known breed of honeybee, a special feature of Slovenia is the colourful beehive panel decorated with religious, historical, and frequently humourous scenes found on the front of the original Slovene beehive. In the 18th and 19th centuries there were at least fifty thousand in existence, and more than six hundred preserved motifs remain a genuine gallery of folk art. Slovene originality is also reflected in numerous Carnival costumes, among which the kurent figure from Ptujsko polje is especially interesting. With its long leather nose, red tongue, cowbells, and staff decorated with a hedgehog skin, the kurent drives winter from the land.
  30. 30. In every corner of Slovenia, visitors are pleasantly surprised by new and different culinary delicacies and by the autochthonous wines along the more than twenty Wine Roads that crisscross its three winegrowing regions. Slovene wines are popularly served with homemade sausage specialties, karst prsut (prosciutto) dried in the bora wind, and other original Slovene dishes. Among Slovenia's many historical legacies, its original skis arouse special respect. One of the oldest means of transportation on the high Bloke plateau in central Slovenia, they were first documented in the 17th century. Their autochthonous character and originality prove the assertion that Slovenes are among the oldest skiers in Central Europe. While the people of the Bloke plateau spent the winter days on them using them to transport goods, overcome distances, and go about their work, at the same time they also used them for various games and pure pleasure. Food in Daily Life. Slovenia has a rich culinary tradition that is a product of both its climate and its location at the crossroads of central Europe. Slovene culinary heritage is reflective of Mediterranean, Alpine, and Eastern European cultures. Meals are an important part of Slovene family life, and enjoying a snack or a glass of wine at a café with friends is a typical social activity. Although every region in Slovenia has its own specialties, most of Slovenia's oldest traditional dishes are made using flour, buckwheat, or barley, as well as potatoes and cabbage. The town of Idrija, west of Ljubljana, is known for its idrija zlikrofi, spiced potato balls wrapped in thinly rolled dough, and zeljsevka, rolled yeast dough with herb filling. The town of Murska Sobota, Slovenia's northernmost city, is famous for its prekmurska gibanica, a pastry filled with cottage cheese, poppy seeds, walnuts, and apple. Slovenia also produces a variety of wines, an activity dating back to the days when the country was a part of the Roman Empire. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions. There are some particular dishes prepared for special occasions including potica, a dessert with a variety of fillings, and braided loaves of traditional bread for Christmas. In country towns the slaughtering of a pig, all parts of which are used to make a variety of pork products, is still a major event
  31. 31. Classes and Castes. According to the 1998 census, 87 percent of people are Slovenes. There are approximately 8,500 ethnic Hungarians, 3,000 Italians, and 2,300 Gypsies living in Slovenia. The Hungarian and Italian populations are recognized by the government as indigenous minorities and are protected under the constitution. The Gypsies, however, are viewed with suspicion and are frequently targets of ethnic discrimination. Despite government attempts, past and present, to provide employment and increase school attendance among Gypsies, most of them continue to hold on to their nomadic way of life, shunning mainstream education and jobs. Since the start of civil unrest in other regions of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia has become a refuge for those escaping from both violence and poor economic conditions. There are also several thousand migrants from Croatia who enter Slovenia every day to work. The peasants, who once accounted for a large part of the population, decreased dramatically in numbers during the post-World War II era as Slovenia, along with the rest of Yugoslavia, underwent a rapid transformation from an agricultural to an industrial society. By the early 1980s, over half of agricultural workers were women. Postwar industrialization created a new class of workers, including government employees who achieved desirable positions through education and political connections. A small intellectual caste has been present in Slovenia since the nineteenth century. A large section of Slovenia's population is now a part of the well-educated, urban-dwelling middle class. Extreme class differences between rich and poor are not present. Marriage. Despite years of socialism, Slovenian society is still oriented around the extended family. Rights and duties are more rigorously defined by family relationships than in the West. Although the average age for a first marriage has increased, marriage is considered important for maintaining and strengthening family bonds. Religious and cultural influences help keep the divorce rate low.
  32. 32. CULTURAL LIFE IN SLOVENIA Art and culture have a special place in the history of the Slovene people. Like several other peoples of Central Europe, the Slovenes compensated for the lack of their own country and a recognized political existence through their art and culture. The result was a rich cultural life and the development of a network of institutions, organizations, and cultural societies that are comparable to those of developed European countries. Libraries, museum, art galleries, and professional theatres are as numerous and popular in Slovenia as anywhere else. A little less than two decades ago, Slovenia held the European record for the number of new books published per capita. The first book in the Slovene language was published more than 450 years ago, and today there are around 150 Slovene publishing houses in operation. Sixty-one percent of the population of Slovenia reads at least one book a year, which ranks Slovenes at the very top in this category. Slovenes regularly attend performances at our two opera and ballet theatres, nine drama theatres, and two puppet theatres. Slovene theatre companies have long been regular guests at the most eminent theatre festivals and meetings in Germany, Italy, France, and South America. From some ninety recognized moviemakers come four to six new full -length Slovene films every year, and Slovene filmmakers have produced altogether almost 130 feature films and several hundred short documentaries and other films. In addition to a long list of top musicians and vocalists, Slovenia boasts five professional orchestras, and the creative work of modern Slovene composers has resounded through concert halls around the world.
  33. 33. There are around 200 permanent galleries in Slovenia and more than 800 temporary exhibition sites. Among the most important is the Moderna galerija in Ljubljana, a national museum and central exhibition site for modern art. Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, is itself a unique exhibition site of the work of the most noteworthy Slovene architect Joze Plecnik (1872 -1957), a pioneer of modern European and Slovene architecture. Numerous cultural performances that enliven life in Slovenia every year have become traditional and their fame has spread abroad. Certainly foremost is the International Graphics Biennial, which has won renown as one of Europe's major art events. Also highly regarded are the annual Ljubljana Summer Festival, Festival Lent in Maribor, the Exodos Festival of Artistic Dance in Ljubljana, the Borstnik theatre festival and competition in Maribor, the PEN conference in Bled, and the writer's meeting at Vilenica. Slovenia also frequently hosts athletes. Every year in Maribor the best women alpine skiers in the world compete for the FIS Golden Fox trophy, while the best men slalom and giant slalom competitors compete for the Vitranc Trophy in Kranjska Gora. There are major international FIS competitions in ski jumping and ski flying at Planica, including the World Cup finals. Bled, which will host the 2000 Chess Olympiad and the 2003 European Youth Olympic Days, is the scene of international rowing regattas and has already hosted three World Championship competitions in rowing, while the Bay of Piran is the venue for international sailboat regattas. Ljubljana has twice hosted World Championship gymnastics competitions, as well as world championships in table tennis, figure skating, men's basketball, bowling, and weightlifting. A World Championship in parachuting has been held in Slovenia as well as seven World Championship ice hockey tournaments.
  34. 34. SPANIA
  35. 35. First Communions in Spain The day of a child’s First Communion is one of the most important days of their lives because the child takes the Body of Christ for the first time. Before the First Communion day, the child’s parents prepare the child by buying them a special First Communion dress or tuxedo. Later on, they take photos on the beach or by the Chapel.
  36. 36. On the First Communion day, there is a big mass in the chapel with all the other First Communion children. After this mass, each First Communion child has a very big party with his or her family and friends for the whole day. Normally, there is a First Communion lunch and, later on, they have coffee. Some parties start at the ending of the mass until three or four in the morning of the next day. The First Communion child receives many valuable gifts from family and friends for this very, very special day.
  37. 37. Typical Andalusian Music The typical Andalusian music and dance the flamenco, is the oldest style of Europe. Nobody knows its roots but first appears in Andalusia. It is associated with the romanies people, the main diffuser. Forged in the common peo- ple, in bars with a guitar and a singer, people began to dance. Flamenco guitarists are called "tocaores" by his posture, legs crossed, and the technique used to play guitar. The "cante jondo" is a type of flamenco song, sung with deep feeling; this is used for some "palos" of flamenco. It is known as "palos" to each of the traditional varieties of flamenco singing. The "palos" can be classified according to several criteria: Depending on your compass, serious orfestive character, its geographic origin and so on. Some “palos” are: “Sevillanas” are native to the province of Seville; it is the most popular style of fla- menco in the world, there are many schools everywhere. Danced in fairs in May and pil- grimages, are dancing and singing, the dancers wear castanets to accompany the guitar. There are many dance competitions and is a dance practiced, for all ages. Overall a very moving dance and sing very happy. The “saetas” are a religious song, the melody is free and Arab influence, are sung at Easter week. When the singer sings, the "costaleros" dance the image of pas- sion, with the rhythm of the “saeta”. There are some "archers" who earn much money by singing. It's a very emotional song and is a “cante jondo”. The "tanguillo" native of Cadiz, Seville, is a classic style of flamenco dance, sing executed in every shade possible, it is a "palo" of the flamenco with copla. The "soleá" is a lyrical expression Andalusian popular at first, but has gained over the year’s greatness, to become one of the great Andalusian songs The "fandango" consists of music and dance, some have tried to link with a dance from the time of the Romans, is one of the "palos" fundamentals of flamenco. The "fandango" as dance is a demonstration of mastery. There are styles of flamenco, and each one dances and plays to form a style of music is constantly boiling. His songs have all sorts of topics, not just for singing and dancing, also can be heard. Flamenco in my opinion is too good, because I never go out of style, there's always someone singing or playing guitar. There will always be some group of people singing on the street and being well with this music.
  38. 38. Christmas in Spain The Christmas is a traditional Spanish cristian festival celebrated in the month of Decem- ber. It is a very special feast is celebrated the birth of the child jeusus (Jesus Christ) It is a very important date in which we should be happy and united family. Each year at the beginning the month of December the families decorate their houses with colored light bulbs, trees, ornaments, wreaths, colored spheres and the traditional "Nativity scene¨· What is a miniature representation of the holy family day birth of Christ accompanied by the shep- herds, wise men, animals, shepherds and of course the parent of the child Jesus Joseph and Mary and among empty straw crib is where you put the image of the Christ It put into houses, and can become a true work of art. Traditionally, near the Navity scene, families come together to sing carols, Christmas songs that are accompanied by tambourines and bagpipes that are instrumental Christmas. The tradition of Christmas Eve (Christmas Eve night) is complete familiar.It is a familiar dinner, the menu is varied, being as usual seafood or poultry (turkey..) The desserts usually consist of nougat and marzipan, desserts,both of Arabic origin made with almonds and honey. The Christmas Eve dinner and midnight mass
  39. 39. At twelve at night o'clock practicing Catholics attend midnight mass. The day dedicated to children's Twelfth Night. On January 5 we are witnessing the arrival of the Magi, and arriving on horse back through the streets of towns and cities throwing candy. The next morning, chil- dren find the gifts that the Magi brought allan. January 6th The day we usually buy a "Roscón of Kings", a cake with a gift inside, part of whose turn it is lots and the figure will have the luck to have a good year. Almost every family following the end of the year through television the last 12 strokes of midnight in the Puerta del Sol in Madrid. This costume is accompanied by the twelve grapes of luck, taking all close together and with each stroke. Currently, young people, after dinner´s families ,come to celebrate the festival with their friends. In Rota, the teenagers are making a living Nativity scene is like a theater. People dress up as a character and decorate the streets like a really belen. Most of the people attending to him and eve- rything seems real.
  40. 40. Typical Andalusian Meals The autonomous region of Andalusia has a rich gastronomy. Is varied and there are differ- ences between the coast and inland, the Andalusian gastronomy is part of the Mediterranean diet. It is closely linked to the use of olive oil, nuts, fish and meats. The pastry is shown greatly influ- enced by Andalusian cuisine, with the use of almonds and honey, being well known in this region Christmas cakes: the ice cream, shortbread and alfajores. Fish and Seafood The fried fish and seafood are widespread in the coastal zone, and under its influence throughout the interior. Highlights include the bluefin tuna in the areas of the Gulf of Cadiz alma- draberas the Motril shrimp, crawfish Sanlucar, white shrimp goby Huelva and Malaga. With five coastal provinces, the consumption of seafood is quite high: Huelva white shrimp, ancho- vies, squid, cuttlefish, mouths of the island, heartburn, panicles, clams… Of special note is the Iberian pork and game. The Iberian pig Jabugo is unique in the world, its production being limited by the aging process, which requires one acre of oak or oak, thereby achieving a streaky fat muscles that make them exceptional, which together with the cli- matology of the northern Sierra de Huelva and its winds producing hams. Iberian pigs are also ob- tained excellent meat, which can be eaten in the dozens of restaurants throughout Andalusia. One of the preparations of meat is cooked tripe Andalusia. Sierra Morena is famous for its hunting, especially big game, so you can also enjoy the famous dishes of wild boar and deer and their sau- sages. In the Sierra de Cádiz are typical dishes of game meat, wild boar, rabbit, partridge, deer, roe deer and others. The ham is produced in the mountain regions of Sierra Morena and Sierra Nevada, as the ham from the Sierra de Huelva, Los Pedroches, the Trevélez. All three are designations of origin and have a proven quality. In the case of Huelva hams and pork are Pedroches for Iberian and white pigs are Trevélez.
  41. 41. Vegetables and cereals Vegetables are the basis of dishes such as alboronía and pipirrana or Piriñaca. Features are especially hot and cold soups prepared from oil, vinegar, garlic, bread, tomatoes and peppers, as gazpacho, gazpacho, the club Antequera, garlic, hot soup or jacket, regardless of tomatoes and almonds using , the garlic soup. The pastry show great influence of Andalusian cuisine with the use of almonds and honey, with well-known Christmas cakes made in cloistered convents women: the ice cream, shortbread, fritters, alfajores, buds and amarguillos. As for dishes based on cereals, are widespread in eastern Andalusia crumbs flour, closer to the porridge crumbs Mancha than themselves. In Western Andalusia, however, are the pulleys which take their place. As the lower Guadalquivir's largest producer of rice (long) can also be tasted in Spain, especially in the area, excellent rice, stews being well known (without detracting from the seafood stews of Huelva), and pigeon. Confectionery Heavily influenced by medieval Andalusian pastries, fritters highlights, alfajores and amarguillos of Medina Sidonia, the polvorón of Estepa, ice cream, wine donuts, toast, and so on. It is greatly appreciated conventual pastry. It's very tasty food Andalusian. Wine and Spirits Famous worldwide are the wines of Jerez, praised even by Shakespeare. Also noteworthy are the Manzanilla Sanlucar de Barrameda, white wines from the land of Cadiz, the pajarete, the County in Huelva, the Montilla-Moriles, those of Malaga, the tintilla roteña, Umbrete's Word, and so on. Also appreciated are many spirits, such as anise or developed in Rute Cazalla de la Sierra, and rum produced in the coast of Granada (Motril).
  42. 42. Urta a la Roteña 3 Kgr. of Urta. 1/2 Kgr. onion. 3 green pepper. 4 tomatoes. 100 grs. flour. 75 grs. sugar. 1/4 litro dry wine. White pepper. 2 Ladle of olive oil. Salt. The pumpkin of Rota ●The mayet is the traditional truckfarmer of Rota and devote his time to sow pumpkin, the typical product of Rota. The Arranque of Rota ●The ―Arranque‖ is very daily in Rota, it is a cold food. It’s prepared this way: • 3 or 4 green pepper ●2 clove of garlic. ●1/2 glass of olive oil. ●salt. ●1 Kilo red tomatoes. ● Grind everything with a mixer and stale bread, grind again until get thick. Put in the fridge and ready. Eats with bread or pieces of green pepper.