Page Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILE Free time and leisure activities A portfolio on how young people enjoy free time June 2012 Colegio Nuestra Señora del Perpetuo Socorro ROTA—SPAIN June 2012
Page 2 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILEWHAT YOUNG PEOPLE DO NOWADAYS ONTHEIR FREE TIME… at least here in Rota.Nowadays we young teenagers have many exams and schoolwork, but we still have some free time to spend with our friends, do newactivities, and relax before classes start again. We have different possibilities depending on where we live, our economic situation orage. But we have many options to spend our free time, although sometimes we don’t know what to do and we stay at home having anap or totally bored.Sport activities are the first option for most students. Joining to a football, basketball,bádminton or volleyball team are interesting ways of doing exercise and having a good time.Teenagers can also play paddle, tennis, go to the swimming pool, or work out at a gym. Thegood side of sport activities is that they help you to stay fit and healthy. Most sports are alsofunny, like team sports. You can practice sport alone or with your friends, and you can alsomeet new interesting people. Many young people do sport because they want to be like theiridols. They want to play tennis as well as Nadal, or be as good at football as Messi or Ronaldo,so they train a lot of hours. In Rota we have two football clubs, Rota CF and Roteña, and bothof them have teams for children and young people. And if you play very well, you could evensign for an important Spanish club like Betis, Real Madrid or Barcelona!Another good option to spend your free time is going to the park. There are lots of parksin all cities, and in Rota we have several good ones, especially a pine forest where you can go with your family or with your friends. In a park, you can read a book or have a nap. You can also kick a football around. And, if you want, you can take a picnic basket and seat at some of the wooden tables set there for the purpose. Teenagers that don’t want to be outdoors can stay at home. They can spend their free time watching a good film or any TV programme. There are many types of films to see, like comedies, action films, horror films and thrillers, romantic and musical films, documentaries, Science fiction and fantastic films… And there are also hundreds of diffe- rent TV programmes, like soap operas, talk shows, sport programs, documentaries, and more. In Spain we have lots of free channels, and if you want to have more you can pay for prívate ones (satellite or cable), with special programs on sport, documentaries, films,series... When you are bored of TV programs and don’t want to rent a film, you can switch on yourcomputer. Nowadays teenagers love surfing the Internet for hours, where they can talk with theirfriends using social networking sites, blogs or chat programs. In Spain young people like“Tuenti”, similar to Facebook, but widely used among us. They can also research images and vide-os or download music. And when there isn’t any interesting thing in the Internet, they can use thecomputer or a game console to play videogames. Lots of us own a Playstation, Wii, X-Box or othervideo consoles.We have a wonderful weather most of the year, so many young people prefer going out withtheir friends to stay at home all day. If they decide to go out, there are many things they can do. They can go for a walk, play any sport or go shopping. They can go out to a bar, or go out for a coffee, if they want to sit and talk and they are over 18 years old. They can play billiards, bowling, chess, cards, too .They can have dinner at a restaurant, have a barbecue, go to the swimming pool, or any other activity that they all enjoy. Finally, at Friday or Saturday nights we can go to a disco or to a party, and on some occa- sions to a concert. In Rota, young people usually gather in “La muralla”, an area near the harbour with lots of places to dance, listen to music and have a drink. But we usually have little money, so we often stay in the street having “botellona” (we take our drinks from home or a supermar-ket…).(Summary written by the students in 4th ESO, after a colloquium on free time
Page 3 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILEHere, in Rota, there aren´t many places where you can have fun with your friends, because to spendyour free time alone you can read, play videogames or visit social webs.An example that people from Rota do in his spare time I can be myself.At weekends, I usually go out with my friends around town. There are some parks where you can restwhile you see how parents and kids are playing. Near these parks there are little candy shops whereyou can buy some sweets or a drink.Moreover, there is a cinema where you can watch an ordinary film or a 3D movie.When it is sunny, people usually go to the beach to bronze or swim.Sport is a really good way to enjoy in your free time. In Rota there are three football clubs and organ-ize matches between them in the football fields there are here. There are some gyms too where youcan sign up to different activities or use the machines as treadmill or weights.You can practice cycling on bike lanes. These are along all the town and you can go on them withoutbe worried about cars or motorbikes. There is a footway from Rota to Chipiona where you can do hik-ing or cycling too.On the other hand, in Rota we have a lot of local feasts along the year as Carnival, Easter Week, Fairand more. During these feasts, Rota is adorned with lights and streets are full of people who arelaughing, eating and having fun.Generally, Spain is a wonderful holiday destiny because you can find both beaches with golden sandand rocky mountains so tall that, in winter, they are covered with snow.Above all in Andalusia, where all of this things are really close to each other. Also, most of the townsfrom Andalusia tell you a little bit of our great history and walking on their streets, you can go back inthe time and back to live it, feeling like an Arabian princess or a Christian knight. Laura Sánchez Bejarano 4º ESO
Page 4 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILE CARNIVALS IN CÁDIZ SEMANA SANTA (Easter) IN ROTA MAY FAIR (Feria) IN ROTA URTA FAIR (in August) IN ROTA ROSARIO (Virgin—in October) IN ROTA CHRISTMAS IN ROTA And in our school we celebrate these important festivities... FIESTA FIESTA DE LA DE INMACULADA MADRE December 8th MAZARELLO May 13th FIESTA FIESTA DE DE DON BOSCO MARÍA January 31st AUXILIADORA May 24th
Page 5 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILE Leasure and Spare Time Juan José Rodríguez Martín-Arroyo 4º de ESOIn Spain we can do lots of things to our free time in working days and in the weekends, for example,we can watch TV or listen to music at home, but if you don’t want to stay at home, you can do lots ofthings too, at weekends there is usually some basketball matches in a pavilion and people normally gothere to watch it.The activities that we can do at home are with electronic equipment like watch TV, when I am boringI usually watch TV, you can chat with your friends by the internet in social networks and you can playvideogames with the computer or with a play station, you can play lonely or you can play with yourfriends by internet.If you don’t want to stay at home you can do more activities with your friends, but most of them areonly at weekends. On Saturdays afternoons you can watch basketball or football matches or you cango for a walk for the centre of the town, there are usually people for there. On Saturday nights we usu-ally go to a pub when young people meet and there we chat with our friends, we drink something andwe can watch football matches for TV, on summer we usually go to a place when everyone go andthere we drink and chat and we know other people who comes from other sites.That are the most common activities that we can do here.
Page 6 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILEA Summer WeekendRota ... beach ... tourists ... I am about to tell you about our summers.Rota, due to its beaches and its reputation as one of the best places to spend the sum-mer, gets overcrowed in summer, because weekends are usually very fun and interes-ting. I’ll explain:A beach day for a young man is as follows: we usually go to the beach in the afternoon(17:00). It is usually full of people and we always have a great time swimming, playingand sunbathing, talking with friends: At about 21:00 everybody climbs home and has ashower, dinner and then gets ready to go to “La Muralla” (the wall), which is a placewhere you are with friends and have a drink. You stay there until you go home and soanother day This is great fun because you never know what may happen.There are alternatives in the evening. If the night is clear and warm, you can go to thebeach with your friends. There are usually many summer festivals (John and Jane bonfi-res, feast of the Curvita, UrtaFunFair, etc.).This is a summary of what oursummer and beaches can of-fer you. I hope that when youcome we can show youabout all this.Alberto Hermida Rizo 3ºESO
Page 7 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILEFirst Communions in SpainThe day of a child’s First Communion is one of the most important days of their lives because the child takesthe Body of Christ for the first time. Before the First Commun- ion day, the child’s parents prepare the child by buy- ing them a special First Communion dress or tux- edo. Later on, they take photos on the beach or by the Chapel. On the First Communion day, there is a big mass in the chapel with all the other First Communion children. After this mass, each First Communion child has a very big party with his or her family and friends for the whole day. Normally, there is a First Communion lunch and, later on, they have coffee. Some parties start at the ending of the mass until three or four in the morning of the next day. The First Communion child receives many valuable gifts from family and friends for this very, very special day. Diego Pérez—1st E.S.O.
Page 8 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILEFree timeMy free time starts at three o’clock, in the afternoons Ido homework and study, I have to study every day. When I fin-ish homework, I can use the computer and relax, chat with friends,watch videos...At 8:30 in the evening, I go to karate training. Training is very hard for me, we do too judoand kobudo.When I have much free time in the afternoon, I and my father go to the gym to get strong andmeet girls.At weekends I like meeting my friends and going to the beach, there we play beach soccer.On Saturday I go to the scouts, it is fun and I have a good time.Finally, on Sundays I usually go to church with my father.
Page 9 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILE SUCEAVA, ROMANIA SECONDARY SCHOOL NO 10
Page 10 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILE SUCEAVA, ROMANIA The students from the first level class are celebrating Hallowen, together with their teacher, Mrs. Daniela The students from the third level together with their teacher, Mrs. Livia Hutan, are preparing some schoolbags for some of their colleagues from the villages af- fected by the flood. Giving to the others is a way to show kindness and humanism. The students from the fourth class celebrated at Mc’Donalds, with their teacher, Mrs. Vio- leta Grigoruta. They enjoyed the activity, as it was preceded by a history In fact, at 25th October is a historical day for us, as it is the The Army Day, the day in which the last fascist soldiers left our territory.
Page 11 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILE SUCEAVA, ROMANIA “Playing chess with my father” - a very nice activity in which the 4th form pupils invited their fa- thers to play chess. The activity was part of the activities organ- ized within the extracurricular ac- The teacher, Mrs. Daniela Babii, is explaining them the activity’s main aim, to have a nice time spent with their fa- thers, in the school, to be their fathers’
Page 12 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILE SUCEAVA, ROMANIA “Spring Day in Europe” - exhibi- tion of different things done by recyclable materials. Very nice sculptures made by Iulia Ciobanu, one of our pupils
Page 13 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILE SUCEAVA, ROMANIA Easter celebration. Easter is the biggest religious event for the Christians.
Page 14 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILE SUCEAVA, ROMANIA Summer is the season that asks everybody to leave all the daily worries and to take a break. A trip is the most interesting way to mix the pleasure of learning and the nice at- mosphere of joy and happiness. And with the activities to protect the nature. The school year is over. We worked hard, and it is time for a well- deserved holiday.
Page 15 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILE SUCEAVA, ROMANIA We learn about cooking. Tradi- tional cakes are made and it is all so much fun! Outdoors lessons: how to protect and help the birds - preparing them a winter house within the school project, “I have my own house, too”. Nowadaysday’s technique’s supporters, tomorrow’s technique experts.
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Page 21 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILE Vatra Dornei has a 5 km ar-ea designed for skiing on 3 slopes that contain lifts, tele-skis and baby– skiThe best climbing area from this region is in Rarau Massif - The Lady`Stones. The mainpart of the traks is professionally prepared. All the track are protected with Fixe ma-terial.
Page 22 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILEThe ambition to succed and to defeat your own fears and the courage to try new sensation ,but only under close supervising. Via ferata and the flying fox crossing a valley, river ortrack at height, using cables, cords, etc.
Page 23 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILEFor equestrian tourism we recommend Calimani National Park ar-ea wichhas some very intristing mountain tracks, special for rides that have wich so-me experience and wish to discover something new. The routes also offer theopportunity to visit 12 Apostoles` Geological Re-serve, Calimanul Cerbului and other spe-cial placesFor the peoples hwo loves montains activities Dorna Region hosts a series of competitions,live concerts and related courses. The most important elements in the event area are: the
Page 24 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILE River rafting This wonderful activity offers you the pleasure to enjoy a relaxing walk in a de- lightful scenery and to take a rest on the river banks around a camp fire Boating on BistritaBoating is the most economical and ecological means of transport wich offers the touriststhe possibility to admire the scenery of Dorna Region, the picks of Bistritei and GiumalauMontains.
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Page 26 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILE FREE TIME in TURKEY Free time activities vary from country to country and era to era. Ten years ago Icould give much more examples but now because of the technology, people have lesshobbies and less physical activities. We all spend much more time watching TV andsurfing on the net.I guess the situation is the same for all our partner countries.SOCCER The most popular free time activity for a male Turk is playing soccer. No matter the age,each male is thefan of one of the four dominating soccer team; Galatasaray, Fenerbahçe, Beşiktaş or Trabzonspor. Even for aten minutes break, most male pupils prefer playing soccer.They can be very creative; even an empty plastic bot-tle may be a soccer ball for them.Symbolized by a lion figure a canary an eagle no symbol Though both playing and watching soccer are still the dominating activities in Turkey, basketball hasbeen incresing its popularity as Turkish players Mirsad Turkcan, Hidayet Turkoğlu, Mehmet Okur started toshow up at NBA.SURFING ON THE NET As a global trend, most Turkish people spend their time on the net. Especially the teens create an onlineworld for themselves. They either chat or play games. Facebook is indispensable for the people. Even a pri-mary school child can find his “old friends” on Facebook. The ones who have no internet connection at homego “internet cafe”. A photo from an internet cafe
Page 27 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILESHOPPING MALL Especially in winter, people spend time by wandering around a shopping mall.Only in Ankara, there are 37 shopping malls. People prefer the malls as it is thecheapest way of spending time. But of course it is open to question whether would ithelp to satisfy someone pysically or mentally. Panora Mall – AnkaraMUSIC Turkish youth is fond of music. Teens listen to both Turkish and foreign music. The most popular sing-ers are Tarkan, Sezen AKSU, Sertap ERENER, Ajda PEKKAN, Kenan DOĞULU etc. A good point to start learning about our music is ; tarkan -kiss song
Page 28 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILEHANDCRAFTS Though it is not as popular as it was before, most adult females (especiallyhousewives) like lacework and kntting. A simple thread ball becomes a piece of art in their hands.. In recent years, females are greatly interested in making jewellery.
Page 29 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILETURKISH TEA Families prefer drinking tea especially after dinner while watching TV. It is atradition here. Turkish tea is famous in the world. It is planted in the Black Sea Region . You should drink it ina “thin waisted” glass. It is generally preferred as well-steeped by tea addicts.PICNIC Turks like going on a picnic at the weekends especially in Spring and Summer. We have a good taste andthe barbecue is the base of the picnic. Children play games. It is really an enjoyable activity for all age groups.
Page 30 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILEGAMES Turkish culture has a wide range of games some of which are; OKEY ( RUMMY ) It’s a very popular traditional board game in Turkey. People like playing it in their free time. There arealso many online okey sites on the net. It’s played with 4 players and 106 tiles. The faces of the tiles are numbered from 1 to 13, with the num-bers printed in various colours. The distrubuter mixes and hands out the tiles. He has 15 tiles. Other threeplayer has 14 tiles for each. The game is played counter-clockwise. The object is, by drawing and discarding tiles, to be the first to form a hand that consists entirely of setsof equal numbered tiles, and runs of consecutive tiles of the same colour.
Page 31 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILE TAVLA ( BACKGAMMON ) Backgammon is another popular board game. It is played with two players. Each player has fifteencheckers of his own color. Each player throws dice. This determines both the player to go first and the num-bers to be played. A player moves his checkers according to the numbers showing on a dice. The object of the game is to move all your checkers into your own home board and then bear them off.The first player to bear off all of his checkers wins the game. There is a funny tradition at the end. The loserputs the board into his armpit which symbolizes that there is a long way for him to become a master. MARBLES It is still a popular game among children in Turkey. The child who has much more marbles(both in sizeand colour) is the most popular one.
Page 32 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILE BEŞ TAŞ ( FIVE STONES ) This is my favourite one. I strongly recommend you to try. It’s a traditionalgame played with 2 or more players. All necessary equipment is 5 small Stones. Thegame consists of 5 steps. Each step has its own rules and object. The player who completes all the steps firstwins the game. UZUN EŞŞEK ( LONG DONKEY ) It is pretty popular among male teens. According to the teachers it seems dangerous for health and theyquit the game in the garden but as soon as the teacher moves away, the pupils immediately start playing again JYou need two group of students. One group forms “the long donkey” as in the photo;
Page 33 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILEThe other group members run and jump over them. The object of the game is to make them fell down. As a result; though developing technology and modern world changesour likes and hobbies, the Turkish Culture still has a colorful mosaic of FreeTime Activities.
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Page 35 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILE Leisure activities in Slovenia There are many things you can do and see in Slovenia. Slovenian winter is a fine time to practice sports. You can ski or snowboard in on the many ski resorts. In spring or summer, you can kayak on the lakes or rivers, go sports fishing, horseback riding, hiking, rock climbing, cycling or play golf. If you like sailing, you can hire a sailboat, go to the beach and visit coastal cities like Izola, Piran and Koper. If you like cultural tourism, you can visit many castles, churches, cathedrals, and various museums in some of the oldest cities in the country (i.e. Ljubljana, Bled, Ma- ribor, Celje and Koper).
Page 36 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILE SLOVENIAN SPORTThe most popular team sports in Slovenia are football, basketball, ice hockey, and handball. Individual sportsincluding tennis, cycling, athletics and skiing are also popular. Slovenia has competed in eleven summer andwinter Olympic Games. Slovenia is also famous for its extreme sports athletes, such as ultramarathon swimmerMartin Strel and Davo Karničar, the only person to ski down Mount Everest.Team sportsFootballSlovenia national football team is ranked fifteenth in the world and has qualified for two FIFA World Cups (2002,2010) and one UEFA European Football Championship (2000) in the past decade. Slovenia qualified for the 2010FIFA World Cup by upsetting heavily favored Russia in the qualifying tournament. Slovene football stars includeSamir Handanovič, Robert Koren, Milivoje Novakovič, Josip Iličič, and Zlatan Ljubijankič.BasketballThe Slovenian national basketball team has qualified for eight Eurobaskets, including a fourth place finish in 2009, and 2 FIBAWorld Championships in 2006 and 2010. Famous Slovene basketball players include Goran Dragić, Sasha Vujačić, RadoslavNesterović, Beno Udrih, Matjaž Smodiš, Marko Milič, Ivo Daneu, Peter Vilfan, Vinko Jelovac, Aljoša Žorga, Primož Brezec, SaniBečirović, and Jaka Lakovič.Ice hockeyThe Slovenia mens national ice hockey team is currently ranked seventeenth in the world and has qualified for five IceHockey World Championships. One of Slovenias most famous athletes is Anže Kopitar, who plays in the United Sta-tes for the Los Angeles Kings of the National Hockey League. His €34.7 million (USD $47.6 million) seven-year con-tract is the largest contract held by any Slovene athlete. Other famous Slovene hockey players include Robert Kristan,Jan Muršak, David Rodman and Marcel Rodman, Rok Tičar, Žiga Pance, Žiga Jeglič, Tomaž Vnuk, Dejan Kontrec,Bojan Zajc, Igor Beribak, Valerij Šahraj, Stanley Reddick, Ed Kastelic, and Nik Zupančič.HandballHandball is also very popular in Slovenia. Slovenia has played at five handball world championships, ranking as high as tenth place atthe 2007 championships in Germany. Slovenia has played in the European handball championships eight times, winning second placethe 2004 championship in held in Slovenia. Slovenia has missed just one European championship, in 1998.
Page 37 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILE Traditional Ljubljana marathon.Slovenia’s diverse geography allows for numerous sporting activities. Slovenes are very fond of recreationalsports, and certain surveys show that no less than forty per cent of Slovenes practise a sport in one way oranother. They are well catered for, as there are many recreational sporting events held throughout the yearacross the country. Naturally, sporting activities also exist at institutional and professional levels. This year, ski jumping in Slovenia has received fresh impetus. In all competitions, Slovenian jumpers are ranked among the world ski jumping elite. Ski jumping has spread throughout Slovenia with over 1,000 boys and girls practising the sport.The Slovenian Sportspersons of the Year were the Alpine skier, Tina Maze, thewhite water slalom kayaker, Peter Kauzer, and the award for best team went tothe ski jump team, who won bronze at the World Championships in Oslo. Many sports lovers ask: where does little Slovenia, with its population of just two million, get such a fantastic team of ath- letes, competing in almost all disciplines and winning numerous medals? Particu- larly in winter sports, Slovenia is incredi- ble.
Page 38 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILE SLOVENIAN ENTERTAINMENT AND EVENTS A great many entertaining events take place across the Gorenjska re- gion during the summer moths. Among the most popular are Sum- mer in Kranjska Gora, Bled Days with the traditional Bled Night, Kranj Night, the Škofja Loka Fes- tival of Sport and Culture for Children and Youth, Family Days at Ribčev Laz beside Lake Bohinj. In September, there is Farewell to Summer in Železniki and Cheery Autumn each November in Duplje. Listen to traditional local dance and folk music at Bled’s Alpine Night –or visit the Avsenik Festival na-med after the legendary fathers of such music in Begunje near Radovlji-ca.Open-air New Years Eve celebrations are organised in the region’s larger towns. Kranjska Gora’s VitrancCup competition is accompanied by X-plosion of Fun with the participation of local and international musicstars.The farewell to winter encompasses traditional Shrovetide carnivals whilst spring is marked by the May FirstMeet in Šobec (near Bled) as well as the traditional Oldtimer Parade in Naklo.Hrast Memorial – an international race of vintage cars over the old Ljubelj/Loibl Pass – is organised every
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Page 40 Leisure and free time Comenius project ACT FILESpanish and Slovenian teenagers love spendingtheir free time in the company of their peers whiletheir Romanian colleagues prefer listening to mu-sic, the Turkish being somewhere in between. On-ly a small part of them spends their free time pla-ying video games and an insignificant part enjoysreading.Not long ago it was presumed that young peoplecan spend their entire free time by watching TVonly. The latter has been successfully replaced bycomputer and internet. 75% of Slovenian studentsclaim computer and internet as the most impor- dents have a boyfriend or a girlfriend. In othertant. The item they would all miss the most after schools 20 % of the students are involved roman-internet is the mobile phone. TV is not important tically. We cannot talk about serious relationshipsanymore as only 5 to 10% of the students of all at this age as, according to students, the relations-nationalities place TV in the first place. hips change daily. Turkish students seem to want to get married younger than elsewhere. There isPartying seems to be very important to young no doubt about the fact that Romanian studentspeople. We wanted to find out how often alcohol are in a hurry to get independent and live differen-is consumed at parties. There are legal restrictions tly than their parents. About 70% of Romaniansagainst selling alcohol to the underaged in every are going to be independent before the age of 25partner country. However, there are significant and about the same percentage of Turkish stu-inconsistencies in applying the law. 80% of Roma- dents think they are going to be independent bet-nian students have never tried alcohol as well as ween the age of 25 and 30. Slovenia is the countryabout 50% of Turkish students. 20% of Romanian where young people get independent relatively la-students Satu Mare drink regularly at parties, a few te. 80% of 28- year-olds still live with their parentsless Slovenians and less than 10% elsewhere. The- as well as 60% of up to 35-year-olds. Slovenianre are more boys than girls among those who students hope to get independent a little bit earlier.drink. Spanish students stand out in a negative Hopefully, they will not change their minds whenway – 90% of boys and 30% of girls regularly the time comes.drink at parties.Spanish students live in a renowned wine region. Half of the parents encourages their children toWine is always on the table and nobody seems to travel and meet new countries and cultures. Tur-worry about that being a poor behaviour pattern. kish students consider travelling a bit more com-Next problem lies in street partying. Young people plicated – the reason beeing their non-cannot afford expensive drinks in bars and clubs membership in EU. Sex is still a taboo and is mos-so they gather in car parks and squares, bring their tly discussed with peers and friends and not withown drinks and the party is ready. Sometimes they parents.get prosecuted but mostly they are tolerated and Abridged from a 2010 Comenius reportthe drinking is believed to be just a part of gro- (schools from Jerez-Spain, Iasi-Romania, Ljubliana-Slovenia and Ankara-Tukey), bywing up. the students in 3rd ESO Nuestra Señora delTeenage years bring along first romantic relations. Perpetuo Socorro (Rota-Cádiz-Spain)Half of the Romanian and a third of Turkish stu-