Ch 8 PP


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Powerpoint outline for Chapter 8 in The Beat Goes On: Popular Music in America

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Ch 8 PP

  1. 1. Chapter 8Latin Music in the U.S.<br />
  2. 2. First Half of 20th Century <br />Latin music = any Spanish sounding music<br />Music for dancing <br />Originated in US (musicians within the Hispanic culture) <br />Outside Latin community (non-Hispanic musicians) <br />Using Latin elements<br />
  3. 3. Slave trade brought Africans to US, Caribbean and Brazil<br />Unlike southern slaves, Latin/Caribbean kept their culture <br />Slaves in southern US were not allowed to have drums<br />Mixture of culture/religion/more rhythmic texture/percussion instr.<br />
  4. 4. Latin elements in American pop music3 Phases<br />Exotic novelties – up to 1940<br />Hybrid/transformed styles – grew out of interpretations 1930-50<br />Part of the fabric of pop music – 1950s onward<br />
  5. 5. First Stage: Exotic Novelty <br />Latin dance music/rhythm entered US by Cuban habanera<br />This is one of the first recorded instances of African influence on European music<br />
  6. 6. 1st Dance Fad <br />Tango was first dance fad <br />Irene and Vernon Castle<br />
  7. 7. Don Azpiazu (1930) <br />“El Manisero” (the Peanut Vendor) <br />Similarities to swing/sweet touched off widespread enthusiasm for Latin music<br />
  8. 8. 2nd Latin Dance Fad <br />Rumba grew out of “son”<br />“Son” – most characteristic style of Afro-Cuban music<br />Rural song/dance form with African/Hispanic elements<br />Rumba – simplified for social dancing<br />Cuban radio – live performers – allowed Afro-Cuban to perform<br />
  9. 9. Clave rhythm <br />Is to Cuban music what back-beat is to rock<br />
  10. 10. Second Stage Hybrids and Transformations<br />By 1930s Latin influence was prominent in pop music<br />;feature=related<br />
  11. 11. Xavier Cugat (1900-1990) <br />Helped establish a commercial Latin style<br />Latin music’s Paul Whiteman<br />Musicians wore ridiculous uniforms, campy routines, entertainment <br />;feature=related<br />
  12. 12. “Begin the Beguine” (1935) <br />Written by Cole Porter<br />Latin rhythm <br />Very long song <br />Sophisticated melodic construction <br />Percussion give a Latin flavor<br />
  13. 13. Latin generated transformations<br />Development of a Latin district<br />Consequence of Spanish-American War <br />Uptown Latin style for Latinos <br />More African sounding<br />Heavier percussion<br />Dense, complex rhythms <br />
  14. 14. 3rd Latin Dance Fad: Mambo<br />First to develop on US soil <br />Merged authentic Afro-Cuban son with big-band horns and riffs.<br />Mambo caught on with non-Latin audience 1940s <br />As the mambo entered the mainstream, it watered down<br />
  15. 15. Mambo thrived <br />Rumba was not as popular<br />Reason: Presence of a stable, enthusiastic US audience for Afro-Cuban music <br />1930 was too small to support it<br />
  16. 16. Tito Puente – “Mambo King” <br />Appealed to Latin audiences<br />Heavy brass, full Cuban rhythm section<br />
  17. 17. “Complicacion” (1958) <br />Successful blend of American and Afro-Cuban elements<br />Chachacha became more popular dance than mambo – simpler, slower<br />
  18. 18. 1959 Castro assumed leadership in Cuba<br />US/Cuba severed ties<br />Music/musicians not able to come to US <br />Ideas, influences stopped<br />
  19. 19. Bossa nova <br />Brazilian slang for “something new and different”<br />Emerged in Rio 1950s as sophisticated alternative to samba<br />
  20. 20. Antonio Carlos Jobim and Joao Gilberto <br />Blended harmonic sophistication of west coast jazz with Brazilian rhythms<br />Bossa craze peaked during the 1960s <br />Lasted only a few years<br />
  21. 21. “Girl From Ipanema” <br />Landmark recording 1963 Gilberto and Stan Getz<br />Cool, flat, low-pitched voice <br />Complex offbeat rhythms<br />
  22. 22. Tango<br />Dance from Argentina <br />Was first dance craze in US<br />Buenos Aires is to tango what New Orleans is to jazz <br />Music grew in low-life areas<br />Bandoneon – accordion from Germany – signature sound<br />
  23. 23. Tango became first Latin dance to achieve a permanent place in American pop music<br />
  24. 24. Astor Piazzolla ( 1921-1992) <br />Born in Argentina grew up in NYC<br />Studied in Paris <br />Stretched the boundaries of tango <br /><br />
  25. 25. “Oblivion”<br />Bass is heart-beat of tango – remains constant<br />Emotional quality similar to the blues – vocal like expression<br />
  26. 26. Tejano Music<br />Parallels country music <br />Unlike Cuban music <br />Seldom has percussion complex rhythms<br />Characteristic sounds <br />Accordion bajosexto<br />Oversized 12- string<br />Influenced by Germans – polkas<br /><br />
  27. 27. “En elcielo no hay cerveza” (“In Heaven, There is No beer”) <br />Flaco Jimenez <br />Traditional tejano styles mixed with modern elements<br />Fun loving party song <br />Contemporary instr. elecgtr/bass<br />