IRRI.ORGIRRI, or the International Rice Research Institute, is a nonprofit independent research and trainingorganization. IRRI is a member of the CGIAR Consortium.IRRI develops new rice varieties and rice crop management techniques that help rice farmers improvethe yield and quality of their rice in an environmentally sustainable way. We work with our public andprivate sector partners in national agricultural research and extension systems in major rice-growingcountries to do research, training, and knowledge transfer. Our social and economic research alsoinforms governments to help them formulate policy to improve the equitable supply of rice.Our missionTo reduce poverty and hunger, improve the health of rice farmers and consumers, and ensureenvironmental sustainability through collaborative research, partnerships, and the strengthening ofnational agricultural research and extension systems.Our goalsReduce poverty through improved and diversified rice-based systems.Ensure that rice production is sustainable and stable, has minimal negative environmental impact,and can cope with climate change.Improve the nutrition and health of poor rice consumers and rice farmers.Provide equitable access to information and knowledge on rice and help develop the nextgeneration of rice scientists.Provide rice scientists and producers with the genetic information and material they need todevelop improved technologies and enhance rice production.IRRIs goals contribute to the United Nations Millennium Development Goals to eradicate extremepoverty and hunger and ensure environmental sustainability. They are also aligned with the objectivesof the Global Rice Science Partnership that help deliver internationally coordinated researcheffectively and efficiently with our partners.Rice basicsRice is the staple food for more than half of the human population. Learn about rice, its history, and role infood security and poverty.Rice productionRice goes through a lot before it finally reaches your dinner plate (or bowl). Learn about where and howrice is produced.Where is rice grown?Rice is grown in more than a hundred countries, with a total harvested area in 2009 ofapproximately 158 million hectares, producing more than 700 million tons annually (470 million tons ofmilled rice). About 90% of the rice in the world is grown in Asia (nearly 640 million tons). Sub-Saharan
Africa produces about 19 million tons and Latin America some 25 million tons. In Asia and sub-SaharanAfrica, almost all rice is grown on small farms of 0.5−3 hectares.Where rice is grown around the world - showing the three major rice growing environments.Rice yields range from less than 1 ton per hectare under very poor rainfed conditions to morethan 10 t/ha in intensive temperate irrigated systems. Small, and in many areas shrinking, farm sizesaccount for the low incomes of rice farm families.Rice grows in a wide range of environments and is productive in many situations where othercrops would fail. Rice-growing environments are based on their hydrological characteristics and includeirrigated, rainfed lowland, and rainfed upland.PHILRICE.GOV.PHR&D PROGRAMSCorporate Strategic PlanPhilRice takes a holistic approach in attaining self-sufficiency. In our medium (2010-2013) andlong-term (2020) corporate plans, PhilRice focuses on helping to attain and sustain rice self-sufficiency;reducing poverty and malnutrition; and achieving competitiveness in agricultural science and technology.We have expanded the meaning of development to human development. More than helping thecountry become rice sufficient, PhilRice pursues a more aggressive development work for our ricefarmers, addressing not just their yields, but all other equally important facets of their lives. Prioritzing theconsumers and our own rice workers, the Institute will help widen people’s choices; provide more optionson enjoying long, healthy, and decent life; and to further education or trainings of rice workers.
To achieve the goal of helping to sustain rice-self sufficiency, PhilRice is set to accomplish,among others, the development of next-generation inbred and hybrid rice varieties, climate change-readyvarieties, and season and environment-focused technologies; and further improvement of production andpost-production machines.Rice farming households will be trained to be entrepreneurs to help reduce poverty.Furthermore, PhilRice will generate hybrid and inbred varieties with pro-vitamin A, high in zinc and iron,and nutraceutical to help reduce malnutrition by 50 percent.Promoting the welfare of the rice science workers, PhilRice will implement more dynamic staffdevelopment plans and modernize its research and development facilities.By making our work more innovative and our technologies on the cutting edge, we would achievemore for the rice farmers and reach our ultimate goal – attaining rice self-sufficiency and sustaining it inthe years to come.TRICHODERMATrichoderma is a genus of fungi that is present in all soils, where they are the mostprevalent culturable fungi. Many species in this genus can be characterized as opportunistic virulent plantsymbiontsCharacteristicsCultures are typically fast growing at 25-30°C, but will not grow at 35°C. Colonies are transparentat first on media such as cornmeal dextrose agar (CMD) or white on richer media such as potato dextroseagar (PDA). Mycelium are not typically obvious on CMD, conidia typically form within one week incompact or loose tufts in shades of green or yellow or less frequently white. A yellow pigment may besecreted into the agar, especially on PDA. Some species produce a characteristic sweet or coconutodor.Conidiophores are highly branched and thus difficult to define or measure, loosely or compactlytufted, often formed in distinct concentric rings or borne along the scant aerial hyphae. Main branches ofthe conidiophores produce lateral side branches that may be paired or not, the longest branches distantfrom the tip and often phialides arising directly from the main axis near the tip. The branches mayrebranch, with the secondary branches often paired and longest secondary branches being closest to themain axis. All primary and secondary branches arise at or near 90° with respect to the main axis. Thetypical Trichoderma conidiophores, with paired branches assumes a pyramidal aspect. Typically theconidiophore terminates in one or a few phialides.
HabitatTrichoderma species are frequently isolated from forest or agricultural soils atall latitudes. Hypocrea species are most frequently found on bark or on decorticated wood but manyspecies grow on bracket fungi (e.g. H. pulvinata), Exidia (H. sulphurea) or birds nest fungi (H. latizonata)or agarics (H. avellanea).Medical usesCyclosporine A (CsA), a calcineurin inhibitor produced by the fungi Trichodermapolysporum and Cylindrocarpon lucidum, is an immunosuppressant prescribed in organ transplants toprevent rejection.Industrial useTrichoderma, being a saprophyte adapted to thrive in diverse situations, produces a wide array ofenzymes. By selecting strains that produce a particular kind of enzyme, and culturing these insuspension, industrial quantities of enzyme can be produced.T. reesei is used to produce cellulase and hemicellulaseT. longibratum is used to produce xylanaseT. harzianum is used to produce chitinase.