A Piece of Transgender History


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  • A few weeks after Stonewall, gay and lesbian activists organized the Gay Liberation Front (GLF).
  • The founders of the Gay Activists Alliance (GAA) were members of the Gay Liberation Front. In December 1969 they convened a group of approximately twenty people in the New York apartment of Evans's lover Arthur Bell and organized their new association.
  • In 1970 Rivera joined the Gay Activists Alliance (GAA) and worked on its campaign to pass the New York City Gay Rights Bill. She attracted media attention when she attempted to force her way into closed-door sessions concerning the bill held at City Hall. In spite of Rivera's (and other drag queens') participation in the GAA, the organization decided to exclude transgender rights from the Gay Rights Bill so that it would be more acceptable to straight politicians. Note that 19 years later, ESPA spurns trans inclusive language in SONDA.
  • Perhaps already sensing that transgendered people could not rely on the gay rights movement to advocate for their civil rights, in 1970 Rivera and Marsha P. Johnson had formed a group called Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries (S.T.A.R.). The members of this organization aimed to fight for the civil rights of transgendered people, as well as provide them with social services support. Douglas had been active in GLF-Los Angeles in 1969 and wrote extensively about sexual liberation issues for Southern California's counter-cultural press. In 1970 she founded TAO (Transsexual/Transvestite Action Organization), which published the Moonshadow and Mirage newsletters.
  • In July of 1973, during a “Gay is Good” rally, Sylvia Rivera was followed on the stage by lesbian separatist Jean O’Leary. She denounced transgender people as men who, by “impersonating women”, were exploiting women for profit. It was the beginning of a series of such high profile Transphobic attacks from the lesbian community. Lesbian Feminist Liberation (LFL) in 1973. One of the first clashes between the LFL and the wider gay rights movement was over the inclusion of transvestite entertainers at the 1973 gay pride parade in New York. Although drag queens had been at the center of the Stonewall uprising, LFL took the position that men dressing as women for profit demeaned women. The dispute resulted in a contentious confrontation at the post-parade rally.
  • Beth Elliott, aka: “Mustang Sally,” becomes vice-president of the Daughters of Bilitis. Soon after, she is ‘outed’ as transsexual and hounded out of the organization by Transphobic lesbian separatists.
  • Janice Raymond publishes The Transsexual Empire , a semi-scholarly Transphobic attack. In the book she cites Douglas’ Sister letter out of context as an example of transsexual misogyny and casts Sandy Stone’s involvement in Olivia Records as “divisive” and “patriarchal.”
  • BURKHOLDER, Nancy In 1991, Nancy Jean Burkholder was attending Michigan Womyn's Music Festival for the second year when she was asked by another attendee if she was a transsexual woman. She answered honestly "yes," which was reported to the festival security, leading up to her eviction from the festival ground. This incident drew attention to the festival's unwritten rule against transsexual women on the land, and became the rallying point for trans activists' protests against the "womyn-born womyn" policy
  • 1993: "March on Washington" organizers include bisexuals but refuse to include transgender in the name of the march.
  • Alaphabet Salad Kyle’s article
  • Alaphabet Salad Kyle’s article
  • A Piece of Transgender History

    1. 1. A transGENDER AGENDA Jerimarie LiesegangDirector, Ct TransAdvocacy Coalition
    2. 2. Agenda• Stonewall and the “Trans Revolution”• Post Stonewall in the Twentieth Century• Where are we today?• Where do we need to go?
    3. 3. Stonewall RiotsEarly Morning Hours of June 28, 1969
    4. 4. Post Stonewall 1970’s is a difficult Decade Despite key Trans involvement inStonewall, the 1970’s was a difficultdecade for the courageous ’60 and ’70’sTrans Activist’s like Louise Lawrence,Virginia Prince, Reed Erickson, SylviaRivera, Andrea Douglas, Beth Elliot,Marsha P. Johnson, Jude Patton,Joanna Clark, Mario Martino, JudyBowen and so many more.
    5. 5. Gay Liberation Front formed in 1969
    6. 6. Gay Activists Alliance formed in 1969
    7. 7. Post Stonewall Transgender Activism and Gay Liberation• 1970 – Sylvia Rivera, Marsha P. Johnson and Angela Keyes Douglas play pivotal roles in the Gay Liberation Front and the Gay Activists Alliance• 1971 – In spite of their involvement, GAA decides to exclude Transgender rights from the proposed NYC Gay Rights Bill. In Sylvia’s words: “It’s not us that they are afraid of — its you! Get rid of us. Sell us out. Make us expendable. Then you’re at the front lines. Don’t you understand that?”
    8. 8. Post Stonewall Transgender Organizations• 1970 – Sensing G&L Transphobia, Sylvia Rivera and Marsha P. Johnson form Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries (S.T.A.R.) Though STAR House only survived two years, it inspired the creation of other NYC shelters for homeless “street queens”• 1970 – Angela Douglass (CA) forms the Transsexual Activists Organization and began publishing “Moonshadow”, a quirky newsletter for and about Trans people and the struggle for legal rights. TAO moved to Miami in 1972 and became the first truly International Transgender Organization
    9. 9. Post Stonewall1973 – “Gay is Good” RallyWhere is the Gender Expression?
    10. 10. Post Stonewall 1973 – “Gay is Good” Rally• New York TransActivist Sylvia Rivera is followed at a Gay Pride Rally by Jean O’Leary who denounces transgendered people as female impersonators profiting from derision and oppression of women. This marked the beginning of a series of such high profile Transphobic attacks from the lesbian community
    11. 11. Post Stonewall Lesbian Backlash• 1973 - Beth Elliott, aka: “Mustang Sally,” vice-president of the Daughters of Bilitis is ‘outed’ as transsexual and hounded out of the organization by Transphobic lesbian separatists.
    12. 12. 1977 – San Francisco Transphobic Backlash Continues• Listener supported KPFA (Pacifica radio) broadcasts vitriolic, absurd and Transphobic comments• This was amplified in letters published in the feminist journal Sister• SF Parade Committee’s policies excluded “Drag Queens, Transvestites and Transsexuals”
    13. 13. Post Stonewall Anti-Transsexual Discourses• 1979 - Janice Raymond publishes The Transsexual Empire, a semi-scholarly Transphobic attack.• Janice Raymond casts Transwoman Sandy Stone’s involvement in Olivia Records as “divisive” and “patriarchal” forcing her to leave Olivia Records These views helped institutionalize discrimination against transsexuals in the ’80’s
    14. 14. Post Stonewall Womyn’s Music Festival In 1991, Nancy Burkholder was attendingMichigan Womyns Music Festival and wasasked by another attendee if she was atranssexual woman. She answered honestly"yes," and was evicted from the festivalground. This incident drew attention to thefestivals unwritten rule against transsexualwomen on the land, and became the rallyingpoint for trans activists protests against the"womyn-born womyn" policy
    15. 15. Post Stonewall90’s 2 steps forward, 1 step back• 1993– “Camp Trans” set up outside Michigan Womyn’s Festival to protest “Womyn-Born- Womyn” policy• 1993 – Jessica Xavier makes a brave though unsuccessful attempt to gain inclusion of Transgender in the “March on Washington”• 1993 – TransActivist’s working with Gay & Lesbian Activist’s pass MN law protecting Transgender people along with Gay & Lesbians
    16. 16. Post Stonewall90’s 2 steps forward, 1 step back• 1994 - Transsexual Menace founded by Riki Wilchins• 1994 – Gay games denied Trans participation unless individuals met the restrictive HBIGDA guidelines• 1994 – Transsexual Menace of NYC proclaims “Gay Games Message to Transgendered: Drop Dead!!” The uproar and embarrassment forced the Gay Games to drop their restriction
    17. 17. Post Stonewall90’s 2 steps forward, 1 step back• 1994 – Several Cities on the west coast pass anti-discrimination laws protecting Transgender people• 1994 ~ Phyllis Frye proclaims “HRC objects to Trans inclusion in ENDA”• 1994 - It’s Time, America is formed• 1995 ~ Oregon gay and lesbian group secretly strips out transgender protections in State ENDA bill• 1996 - GPAC is formed• 1999 - NTAC is formed
    18. 18. Post StonewallForward Progress Finally Occurs Due to increasing Transgender awareness, advocacy and activism the second half of the ’90’s saw organizations officially add transgender to their mission statements. And each year sees what started as inclusive lip service become real support
    19. 19. A Century comes to a closeAt the end of the 20th century, the Transgender Question inthe G&L community was still unsettled, and unsettling for themajority!
    20. 20. As of December 31, 1999 Legislative• State of Minnesota enacts law prohibiting discrimination based upon ones gender identity or expression (1993)• 26 Municipalities enact laws prohibiting discrimination based upon ones gender identity or expression• 4 States enact hate crime laws based upon one’s gender identity or expression (MN, CA, MO, VT)
    21. 21. As of December 31, 1999 Corporations• Two Corporations included protections based upon ones Gender Identity or Expression [Lucent Technologies and Apple]
    22. 22. Fast Forward to Present
    23. 23. Inclusive Anti-discrimination legislation Gender Identity or Expression• Five States (IL, CA, NM, RI, MN)• 17 States with rulings including CT• Ten Counties• 61 Cities
    24. 24. Inclusive Hate Crime Legislation Gender Identity or Expression• Eight States 1. Minnesota 1988 2. California 1998 3. Missouri 1999 4. Vermont 1999 5. Pennsylvania 2002 6. New Mexico 2003 7. Hawaii 2003 8. Connecticut 2004
    25. 25. Corporate Policies Gender Identity or ExpressionAetna Coors MotorolaAgere Dell NationwideAgilent Ford NCRAir Products & Chemicals Goldman Sachs New York TimesAmerican Airlines HarperCollins NikeAmerican Express Hewlett-Packard Owens CorningApple IBM PepsiCoAT&T Intel PfizerAvaya JP Morgan Chase PG & EBank One Keyspan PrudentialBausch & Lomb Kodak SC Johnson & SonBest Buy Kraft SprintBorders Group Lehman Brothers Sun MicrosystemsCapital One Levi-Strauss Tech Data Corp.Cargill Lexmark US Airways GroupCharles Schwab Lucent Wells FargoChubb MetLife Financial WhirlpoolCisco Miller Brewing XeroxCitigroup
    26. 26. Trans Organizations• National Trans Organizations – NCTE – NTAC – GPAC• State Trans Organizations – Multitude of State Organizations, some arising out of It’s Time, America• Many Trans Education/Legal/Medical Organizations and Support Resources
    27. 27. Washington DC Needs Assessment 1998- 2000 by Jessica Xavier• 42% Unemployment rate• 29% Have no income• 31% Incomes < $10,000• 47% Lack health insurance• 43% Victims of Transphobic violence• 45% Did not finish high school• 34% Had substance abuse• 35% Experienced suicidal ideation (16% act)• 25% HIV positive and 22% never tested
    28. 28. 2003 SF Trans Legal Needs Assessment by Shannon Minter & Christopher Daley • 50% experienced gender identity based employment discrimination • 33% experienced gender identity based public accommodations or housing discrimination • >30% experienced health care discrimination • >25% experienced law enforcement harassment or abuse • 20% experience service provider discrimination • 14% experienced incarceration discrimination
    29. 29. Issues facing GI/E in the 21st Century• Legislative [Federal and State] – Non-Discrimination Laws • Explicit Protections for GI/E • As part of Sex Discrimination and Title VII • Federal ENDA – Hate Crimes – Marriage – Definition of Woman & Man – Child Custody
    30. 30. Issues facing GI/E in the 21st Century• Medical – DSM Stigmatization – Though “Medical Condition” excluded from: • American with Disabilities Act of 1990 • Insurance Coverage – Progressive SOC [Waddell] – Outreach to Legal Community – Medicare and Medicaid – Health Care – Trans Knowledgeable Health Care Providers
    31. 31. Issues facing GI/E in the 21st Century• Service Providers – Domestic Violence Shelters/Counseling – Sexual Assault Crisis Centers – Homeless Shelters – Transitional Housing – Family Services – Youth Services – Adult Care
    32. 32. Issues facing GI/E in the 21st Century• Documentation – Driver License’s/State ID’s – Birth Certificates – Social Security Administration – Passport – Name Changes
    33. 33. Issues facing GI/E in the 21st Century• Employment – Job Readiness Training – Job Placement Assistance – Corporate Inclusion – Transitioning Policies – Small Business Outreach
    34. 34. Issues facing GI/E in the 21st Century• Law Enforcement – Training – Incarceration policies – Discharge processes – Policies – HRT and general medical services
    35. 35. Issues facing GI/E in the 21st Century• Education – Elementary, High School, Collegiate and Trade – Non Discrimination policies – Residence Housing – Bathrooms and Showers – Health Services – Trans Inclusive GSA’s
    36. 36. How do we effect this change • National Level • State Level • Coalitions • Organizing • Grassroots • Education • Visibility
    37. 37. Who is the Transgender Community?The following slides are a small sampling ofthe beauty, talent, diversity, braveness,wonder and courage of our Community.TRANS, OUT AND PROUD!!!
    38. 38. Georgina Beyer 1957 - Present Mayor of Carterton 1995 – 2000 Member of New Zealand Parliament 1999 - PresentFirst Transsexual in the world to be elected as a MayorFormer Mayor of Carterton District 1995 to Feb 2000First Transsexual to be elected to a Parliament in the world
    39. 39. Wendy Carlos 1939 - Present American Composer and Electronic MusicianWendy Carlos was one of the first famousperformers of electronic music usingsynthesizers. Notable works: Switched onBach, The Well-Tempered Synthesizer, AClockwork Orange Soundtrack
    40. 40. Caroline Cossey 1954 - Present Actress best known for her role as a Bond Girl in For Your Eyes OnlyBritish model Caroline Cossey, is sometimes known under herprofessional name Tula. Though she has achieved the titleonly through necessity, she is one of the worlds most famousmale-to-female transsexuals, and the first to ever pose forPlayboy http://tgmedia.enacre.net/lorna_lynne/tula.html
    41. 41. Dana International 1954 - Present World Famous Israeli Dancer and Singer. Voted Female Vocalist in 1995 and 1998.Dana has been a guest of honor in the Knesset,Israeli Parliament and of the education andculture committee. She tours Internationally.
    42. 42. Christine Jorgensen 1926 - 1989 First highly publicized Sex Reassignment Surgery in 1952.The publicity surrounding her surgery enabledJorgensen and medical professionals to educate thelarger public about the differences betweenhomosexuality, transvestism, and transsexuality. .
    43. 43. Billy Tipton 1914 - 1989 Successful Jazz Saxaphonist in the 1940’s and 1950’s.Tipton died in 1989 and was Outed by his coroner!
    44. 44. Lili Elbe 1886 - 1931 Well known Art Deco painter and illustrator along with her partner Gerda.Her marriage to Gerda was invalidated by theKing of Denmark in October of 1930. Outed inthe press, she may have faked her death in1931.
    45. 45. Sylvia Rivera 1952 - 2002 Ms. Rivera was the famous transgendered woman who was at the Stonewall Inn, New York City, on the night of 27th of June, 1969, the night that a riot at the bar.Touched off the open radicalization of the GayLiberation Movement. She literally led the charge,fought back against police harassment directed atthe most visible members of the community.
    46. 46. Jin Xing 1969 - Present One of China’s most celebrated modern dancer and choreographer.Jin Xing, (which means golden star) has acted,directed, choreographed, and danced into peopleshearts and to much public acclaim everywhere fromNew York to Rome to Brussels.
    47. 47. Parinya Charoenphol 1980 - PresentWorld famous transsexual Thai kickboxer.
    48. 48. Brandon Teena 1972 - 1993Brandon’s tragic murder is the onesuch incident that managed to strikea chord with the general public,raising the spotlight that anatomydoes not equal gender identity andthe tragic consequences.
    49. 49. Kate Bornstein 1948 -Gender Rebel, Deconstructionist,Activist, Performance Artist, Actorand Teacher.
    50. 50. Renee Richards 1934 - Present World renowned champion Tennis player, who transitioned during her career. She was also a practicing opthomologist.Reneé Richards wrote an autobiographyentitled Second Serve. Dr. Richardscontinues to practice medicine in New Yorkand serves on the editorial board of theJournal of Pediatric Ophthalmology &Strabismus
    51. 51. Joanna Clark 1938 - PresentAlso known as Sister Mary Elizabeth,Episcopal nun. Served in the US Navyas a man and in the US Army as awoman, though “booted out” 18 monthsafter enlisting.
    52. 52. "I know Im not a man...and Ivecome to the conclusion that Improbably not a woman,either...The trouble is, were livingin a world that insists we be oneor the other.“--Kate Bornstein in Gender Outlaw: On Men, Women, and the Rest of Us