Define Token Economy Understand steps/components of the method Identify Advantages and Disadvantages of Token Economy Describe 3 studies that supports the effectiveness of the method
It is a system of exchange in which the individual earns tokens, as reinforces and exchanges them for tangible and social reinforces
Token Program involves distribution of tokens Tokens can be stickers, stars, smiley face, fake money, etc. Tokens can be accumulated throughout the day and exchanged at a later time
Tokens are flexible Tokens can be used for several needs There is no delay giving tokens after the desired behavior has been shown It does not matter who gives the tokens It can be consistently applied by multiple teachers in multiple settings Prevent Boredom
Takes a lot of Parental follow preparation and through does not tracking of the always occur behavior, tokens, and Can lead to rewards. dependency Not everyone will Maybe easily abused respond to token Can be expensive system. Require organization Once the system is and structure implemented in one class, it may not followed through
11 Basic Rules when establishing Token Economy Select the Target Implement the token Behavior economy Present the target Provide immediate behavior reinforcement for Post the Rules and acceptable behavior Review it frequently Gradually change from Select a token continuous to variable Establish Reinforcers schedule of reinforcers which the tokens can Provide Time for child be exchanged to exchange token Develop a reward Revise the reward menu menu frequently.
The token system has been the most widely researched and validated behavioral intervention in the schools. A token is given when a desired behavior is displayed. (According to McLaughlin & Williams (1988), Swain & McLaughlin (1998)
Purpose of this investigation was to determine if a token reinforcement program could decrease three inappropriate behaviors (out of seat, talking out, and poor posture) of an elementary student with learning disabilities. The effects of the token program were examined using a multiple baseline design across behaviors. The results indicated that awarding tokens for the absence of the three target behaviors was an effective procedure.
Study investigated the effect of social and token economy reinforcements on academic achievement of ten, 9th grade boys with Intellectual disabilities in three junior high school. Age range from 13-17 and their IQ was between 60-70 were randomly selected. Each assigned in one of the three groups: Token Economy, Social reinforcements and control group. Used a teacher-made test and the Wechsler Intelligence test Token Economy and social reinforcements increase the academic achievement of students with ID.
Results: Token economy and social reinforcements increased the academic achievement of student with ID Token economy reinforcements even resulted in an increase in academic achievement than the social reinforcements
A study examined the effectiveness of a combined token economy and self-monitoring package for a 13 year-old male displaying a major mental illness and severe aggressive and persistent disruptive behavior. Diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder and Conduct Disorder
The student received points for lower rates of aggressive/disruptive behavior and ‘bonus’ points for accurately self-monitoring and recording his own behaviors.Results: The results replicated previous research on the effectiveness of token economy in reducing minor, disruptive and aggressive classroom behaviors.Retrieved on 7/12/12 fromhttp://educ6725group2.wikispaces.com/file/view/Token+Economy+Plus+Self-Moni
Summary Token economy involves distribution of tokens which can be accumulated and exchanged for a reward. Research Bases data has shown Token Economy is an effective method in decreasing undesirable behaviors. The Token Cycle is a four step process: Identifying the undesirable behavior, the child displays the desirable behavior and is given a token. Establish a plan, preparing, and executing is crucial for a successful plan for the child.
Walker, J.E. Shea, T.M. & Bauer A.M. (2007). Behavior Management: A practical approach for educators (9th ed.). Columbus, OH: Pearson Case 1 (According to McLaughlin & Williams (1988), Swain & McLaughlin (1998) Case 2 Mirzamani, Ashoori, Sereshki (2011) Retrieved on 7/12/12 from http://www.sid.ir/en/VEWSSID/J_pdf/109520110105Case 3 Retrieved on 7/12/12 from http://educ6725group2.wikispaces.com/file/view/Token+Economy+Plus+Se YouTube. Retrieved on July 11, 2012 from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ybIr6NCfA2U