Ch.11: Issues and Concerns in Behavior Management Created by: Jerika Jenna G. Dee & Beridiana G. Balajadia ED457/G Behavior Management in Special Education Mrs. Cathy Cardenas
By the end of this presentation:❖ you will be able to : ❖ describe recent practices in school service delivery systems ❖ discuss potential impact of students from diverse ethnic, cultural, and linguistic groups on behavior management ❖ discuss the potential impact of students at risk for behavior problems ❖ describe continua of behavior management interventions ❖ explain behavior management as prevention
Integrated Framework and Behavior Management❖ Pyschodynamic❖ Biobehavioral❖ Environmental❖ Behavioral
Ecological Perspective On Behavior Management❖ According to Bauer and Sapona (1991) ❖ The role of the teacher in behavior managements is to facilitate the development of each student rather than simply to intervene in appropriate behaviors.
Ecological Perspective: Behavior Management❖ Teachers must . . . ❖ students makes a signiﬁcant contributions to the educational process ❖ learning occurs when students feel a need to change or learn ❖ Learning is holistic ❖ Power of social context of the classroom on learning ❖ Personal understanding of learning and development ❖ Care about what takes place in the classroom
Education Issues that Impact on Behavior Management❖ Inclusion ❖ deﬁned as the philosophy that all students, regardless of disability, are a vital and integral part of the general education system❖ Integration ❖ Refers to the placement of learners with disabilities in educational programs serving their peers
Basic Components of Inclusion❖ 1. Students attend their district school❖ 2. no more or no fewer learners with disabilities in a single school❖ 3. Zero-reject philosophy (no student could be excluded from receiving educational services, regardless of disability❖ 4. Placement would be age and grade appropriate❖ 5. Special Education services and support will be provided in the integrated environment❖ 6. Cooperative learning and peer instructions provided in the general education setting
Pre-referral Intervention❖ Purpose ❖ To assist the student in the regular classroom and to avoid identiﬁcation as at-risk for disabilities and referral to special education
Pre-referral Interventions . . .❖ Teacher Assistance Team ❖ General and special education teachers, school nurse, psychologist, social worker, administrator❖ Collaborative consultation develops interventions that increases school- wide commitment and involvement
Aggression and Resistance in❖ Aggression is deﬁne as School ❖ hostile, injurious,or destructive behavior or outlook especially when caused by frustration❖ Three essential elements in the development of and modiﬁcations of aggression: ❖ Modeling ❖ Positive Reinforcement ❖ Negative Reinforcement
Aggression . . .❖ According to Melloy (2000) ❖ Four Types of Aggressive and Violent behaviors: ❖ Situational Violence ❖ Relationship Violence ❖ Predatory Violence ❖ Psychopathological Violence
Aggression❖ Characteristics of the aggression students: ❖ Deﬁcits in social information processing ❖ Poor impulse control ❖ Low frustration tolerance ❖ Limited ability to generate alternative responses to stress ❖ Limited insight into the feeling of self and others
Aggression: Stages of Frustration❖ Stages of Frustration ❖ Appropriate Teacher Response❖ Defensiveness ❖ reminder of rules, conﬂict,❖ Physical Aggression resolution strategies, acknowledgement &❖ Tension reduction & regaining encouragement, redirecting self-control ❖ Safety for all, removal of student ❖ Punishment of supportive intervention
Diversity and Behavior Management❖ Beliefs: ❖ Responsible for their own poor academic performance or possess a defect ❖ Cultures or ethnic groups provide no academic support ❖ Schools do no diﬀerentiate their work to ﬁt the needs of various students ❖ Mismatch between students culture and that of the school ❖ Held to the same “high” standards
Cultural Issues, TeacherBehavior, and School Structures ❖ Social System Prospective: ❖ Schooling is generated through the interaction of the student, teacher, family, community, and school ❖ Culture awareness ❖ Community partnership
Learning Styles and Diversity❖ Learning Styles: ❖ According to Anderson (2001) ❖ Auditory ❖ Learning styles are ❖ Visual not bipolar, either one or the other ❖ Kinesthetic ❖ Rather, learning styles fall on a continuum
At Risk Students for Behavioral Problems❖ Who are at risk? ❖ disabled ❖ maltreated ❖ substitute care children ❖ children exposed prenatally to alcohol and drugs❖ Teachers need to be aware of potential impact of these conditions in behavior
❖ CHARACTERISTICS: Child ❖ fewer wordsMaltreatment ❖ feels unlovable / unacceptable❖ abused and neglected ❖ negative self image = decreased children (physical/ competency and academic mental,sexual,& neglected motivation under 18) ❖ anxious, inattentive, apathetic, and dependent ❖ disruptive,deﬁant,and aggressive ❖ conversely - overly compliant and wants to please others
Maltreated Children need to:❖ predict events in environment to facilitate organization of behavior ❖ develop trust through regulated, unambiguous,❖ achieved desired objectives and consistent experiences in socially acceptable ways ❖ develop self conﬁdence,❖ communicate openly with self motivation, and self others and use control needed to enjoy developmental language intellectual stimulation and cognitive skills
Substitute Care❖ when a primary caregivers are ❖ child can be moved from persons other than their place to place very often biological parents. ❖ approximately 600,000 are in❖ can be relatives, informal or foster care - 70% school age licensed foster parents, adoptive families, or group ❖ school records usually personnel incomplete due to constant mobility❖ sometimes temporary❖ most of the time , can be for long periods of time.
Activity: Family Tree Directions: 1. Create a simple family tree2. Present your family tree to the class
What teachers can do for children in substitute care:❖ get information on child ❖ recognize that their will be diﬃculty with peers and❖ help the child advocate his or adults due to past experiences her needs ❖ understand that there will be❖ establish positive educational gaps and delays relationships with the child’s foster family and social ❖ avoid giving school worker assignments that are insensitive to nontraditional❖ act as an advocate for the family structures. child
Children exposed to prenatal substance abuse (drug / alcohol) ❖ maternal behavior associated with drug-❖ exhibit more health care induced mental disorders problems (medical, dental, are: exposure to drugs, and lack of timely prenatal care) ❖ seizures❖ parents who use drugs neglect ❖ violent or aggressive children hence, the children behavior live in a dangerous environment ❖ harming self ❖ impaired motor coordination.
Eﬀects of Prenatal Alcohol Consumption❖ fetal alcohol syndrome & possible fetal alcohol effect.❖ prenatal and post natal growth retardations: weight, length, and head circumference❖ central nervous system involvements: signs of abnormality, developmental delay, and intellectual impairment❖ common facial characteristics with at least two symptoms: wide spaced eyes, microcephaly, poorly developed median groove, thin upper lip, ﬂattening of jaw
Possible Fetal Alcohol Eﬀect❖ when two or more symptoms are evident and if the mother is suspected of alcohol use during pregnancy
Characteristics of children prenatally expose to alcohol❖ persistent distractibility and ❖ impulsive and disorganized hyperactivity ❖ may experience stress❖ poor attention span ❖ may receive little feedback❖ longer reaction times ❖ experience lack of self esteem❖ deﬁcits in memory problem solving, focusing, and maintaining attention
Teacher and At Risk Student❖ general education teachers behave diﬀerently Relationship❖ at risk student feel: ❖ more teacher rejection ❖ low teacher expectations ❖ more negative and nonacademic teacher feedback ❖ less academically engaged time ❖ fewer accommodations for their behavioral and learning needs.
7 Principles for teachersimplementing prevention strategies❖ accommodate to the diﬀerences❖ assess students strengths and weaknesses (using functional assessment strategies)❖ apply a positive approach❖ select the most appropriate and eﬀective strategies❖ apply diﬀerent grouping❖ monitor strategies applied
Continua of Behavior Management Interventions❖ It has to be gradual. e.g.: rainbow❖ Unethical for practitioners to impose behavior management interventions if it is more restrictive than necessary❖ Suggest to create an inventory of interventions that are available❖ A continuum of behavioral management interventions ensures that the least restrictive intervention is considered
ActivityDirections: 1. Go to pg.330 of text book 2. look for anintervention that should be used according to Jacobs behavior
Behavior Management as prevention❖ can be used as a prevention of inappropriate behavior by systematically maintaining acceptable behavior❖ when a teacher understands and applies the principles of behavior management problems and conﬂicts can be avoided
What do you think?❖ How would you include maltreated students in your classrom?❖ What would do if you realize you have a child who lives in a foster home?❖ How would you use behavior management as a prevention?
Summary❖ As educational personnel, we want to create a classroom culture that supports and welcome our students and their families into the school setting.❖ As educational personnel, we need to bring about awareness in cultural diﬀerences in our lessons.❖ As educational personnel, we want to have innovative ways to address classroom management.❖ Overall, if foundation is established ..educational goals can be met!
Summary❖ Students at risk include children with disabilities, maltreated children, substitute care children, and drug/alcohol exposed children.❖ Child maltreatment is a general term that describes both child abuse and neglect and refers to physical and mental injury, sexual abuse, or neglect of a child.❖ Children who maybe maltreated maybe deﬁant and disruptive, or compliant and overtly concerned with pleasing.❖ Children are said to be in substitute care when their primary caregivers are persons other than their biological parents. Substitute care placement often includes foster care.❖ Families involved in substance abuse demonstrate disrupted parent-child interactions and a shift in priorities from the child to the substance of choice❖ Fetal alcohol eﬀects and fetal alcohol syndrome are related to maternal prenatal alcohol use.❖ A continuum of behavioral management interventions insures that the least restrictive intervention is considered
Resources❖ Walker,J.E. Shea,T.M., & Bauer A. M. (2007). Behavior Management: A practical approach for educators (9th ed.). Columbus, OH: Pearson❖ Anderson, J. (2001). Tailoring assessment to student learning styles. In L. Suskie (Ed.), Assessment to promote deep learning. Washington, DC: American Association for Higher Education.❖ Bauer, A.M., & Sapona, R.H. (1991). Managing Classrooms to facilitate learning. Upper Saddle River, NJ:Prentice Hall.❖ Melloy, K. (2000). Development of aggression replacement behaviors in adolescents with emotional disorders. Beyond Behavior, 10(2), 8-13.❖ 10 Classroom Managing Tips. retrieved on July 09, 2012 from http://www.youtube.com/watch?