Pgtm Training For Conference


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Based upon the 2008 book by Conyne, Crowell & Newmeyer, called Group Techniques: How to Use Them More Purposefully, the presentation introduces the PGTM model (Purposeful Group Techniques Model) for selecting group interventions. Group leaders are challenged to know just how to deal with each situation until they gain experience and a lot of practice! This model helps group leaders to decide what to do, and the book includes a large number of actual techniques collected in the appendix for ease of use.

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  • Pgtm Training For Conference

    1. 1. GASGW Spring Conference May 17, 2008 Selecting Group Techniques Group Techniques: How to Use Them More Purposefully (2008) Conyne, Crowell & Newmeyer. Jeri L. Crowell, Ed.D., NCC, LPC
    2. 2. Purposeful Group Techniques Model <ul><li>Numerous variables affect a group’s ability to work well and sustain itself over time: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the effectiveness of the group’s leadership, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the size, type, and level of diversity of the group, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the environment in which the group exists, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and the motivation and commitment level of the group’s members. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Reflection Points Have you ever been a member of any group that just did not work well? What did the leader do or not do that may have contributed?
    4. 4. An Integrative Model of Theory, Research and Practice <ul><li>Intentional service delivery begins with a conceptual framework from which group work design should be realized. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on ecological counseling theory, the group leader views the group as a system of interconnections, in which members need to be supported and challenged appropriately. </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Purposeful Group Techniques Model (PGTM) </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 1: IDENTIFY Group Type & Purpose, Best Practice </li></ul><ul><li>Area, & Developmental Stage </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 2: ANALYZE the Presenting Situation by Applying </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 3: REVIEW Possible Group Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 4: SELECT “Best Fit” Technique, using decision- </li></ul><ul><li>making and evaluative criteria </li></ul><ul><li>STEP 5: IMPLEMENT and EVALUATE the technique </li></ul>
    6. 6. STEP 1: IDENTIFY Group Types <ul><li>Task Groups: Purpose - used to resolve issues or to enhance performance and production goals within a work group, through attention to team building, collaborative problem solving and system change strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychoeducation Groups: Purpose - to educate members and develop their skills and often are geared to prevention of future problems. Leaders impart information and train in skills, within an interpersonal milieu. </li></ul>
    7. 7. STEP 1: IDENTIFY Group Types <ul><li>Counseling Groups: Purpose - to help members improve their coping skills by focusing on interpersonal problem solving, feedback, and support within a here-and-now framework. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy Groups: Purpose - to help members learn to reduce psychological and/or emotional dysfunction by focusing on bringing past history to the present and incorporating diagnosis and assessment within an interpersonal orientation. </li></ul>
    8. 8. STEP 1: IDENTIFY Best Practice Area
    9. 9. STEP 1: IDENTIFY Group Stage <ul><li>In the Beginning stage group members are working on getting established and transitioning toward a higher level of functioning. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Middle stage the members are now seeking to be more connected and to become more productive. </li></ul><ul><li>In the End stage group members are consolidating their gains and forecasting their future beyond the group’s termination. </li></ul>
    10. 10. STEP 2: ANALYZE Ecological Concepts <ul><li>Context : External and group factors influencing the group and its members. For example, to begin a group in an elementary school, taking children out of class may be disallowed, so other approaches become necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Interconnection : Frequency and quality of member-to-member relationships. A group is dependent on inter-member relationships and their connections or disconnections. </li></ul>
    11. 11. STEP 2: ANALYZE Ecological Concepts <ul><li>Collaboration : Working together to move ahead. For instance, group rules and expectations become more accountable and reachable when all in the group are involved in setting them. </li></ul><ul><li>Social system maintenance : Developing and continuing a group culture, including clarity and integrity of rules, norms, expectations. A group involves creation and maintenance of a social system that has its own goals, rules, norms, and general culture. </li></ul>
    12. 12. STEP 2: ANALYZE Ecological Concepts <ul><li>Meaning making : Creating meaning from experience. Although experience and occurrences in the group is essential, what members learn from these events is at least as important. </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability : Transferring and generalizing learning and change. Group work, and all forms of helping, have been criticized when change is not carried forward outside the group. Applying learning and change to the “real world” is of high importance in group work. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Reflection Points <ul><ul><li>Traditional classrooms have students’ chairs arranged in rows facing the teacher. How would rearranging the chairs and other physical resources impact students’ interactions and learning? Can you describe other contextual factors that contribute to the way a group might function? </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. STEP 3: REVIEW Technique Focus <ul><li>Techniques can help group members: </li></ul><ul><li>think about their situation ( cognitive , thinking): “List 3 reasons why this might be a bad idea.” </li></ul><ul><li>explore their feelings ( affective , feeling): </li></ul><ul><li>“ How are you feeling about this option?” </li></ul><ul><li>develop or practice interpersonal skills ( behavioral , skills): “Try saying that now using ‘I’ statements”. </li></ul><ul><li>change the ongoing course of interaction ( structural , direction of flow): “Can we shift now, to go back to an earlier point in our discussion?” </li></ul>
    15. 15. STEP 3: REVIEW Technique Level <ul><li>At the individual level a member is the focus, who may be led to speak about self or someone else may direct comments at the member. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I am feeling very happy right now, I’ve learned so much!” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>At the interpersonal level interaction of members is important : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to promote members talking with each other the leader may ask Bill and Susan to listen to and paraphrase each other’s communications. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>At the group level the focus is on the group. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leader: “How are we doing today?” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perhaps one of the members: “We don’t seem to be getting anywhere today, but I’m wondering how the rest of you see this?” </li></ul></ul></ul>
    16. 16. STEP 4: SELECT <ul><li>Decision-making/Evaluation Criteria (A-A-E-E-S) </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriateness: which technique would best fit the culture of the group and its members? </li></ul><ul><li>Adequacy: which technique would be strong enough, but not too strong, to have the desired effect? </li></ul><ul><li>Effectiveness: which technique could most fully achieve the goal? </li></ul><ul><li>Efficiency: which technique would require the fewest resources? </li></ul><ul><li>Side effects: which technique would minimize negative side effects while maximizing positive side effects? </li></ul>
    17. 17. STEP 4: SELECT a Technique Using Decision-Making Steps <ul><li>Review and identify relevant tool box for technique possibilities (or develop your own techniques) </li></ul><ul><li>Weigh advantages/disadvantages of each technique by applying evaluative criteria: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A ppropriateness A dequacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E ffectiveness E fficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S ide effects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Select a “best fit” technique possessing greater advantages than disadvantages </li></ul>
    18. 18. STEP 5: IMPLEMENT / EVALUATE <ul><li>How did your choice work? </li></ul><ul><li>Was it effective in reaching the goal set? </li></ul><ul><li>Was it acceptable and appropriate for members? </li></ul><ul><li>What might be needed in the future to increase its benefits? </li></ul><ul><li>Was it of value? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>*Such questions offer significant growth points for leadership development. </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Critical Incidents adapted from Cohen and Smith (1976) <ul><li>Offer group leader trainees practice in critical thinking and decision-making skills related to a sound conceptual model… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… by weighing the advantages and disadvantages of various group techniques… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… in real world examples in which they are able to examine counseling, psychoeducation, psychotherapy, and/or task groups in an ecological and ethical way. </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Techniques Toolbox <ul><li>Toolbox concept organizes possible group techniques in a utilitarian collection of known interventions. </li></ul><ul><li>Less experienced leaders benefit while developing their awareness of multiple layers of decision-making skills needed to be an effective group leader. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Planning Technique Prototype Group Type Best Practice PLANNING Stage Ecological Concepts Focus Level Psyed Couns Hold a preliminary group session to orient potential members. Begin-ning Context Collaboration Social system Cognitive Interpersonal Group
    22. 22. Performing Technique Prototype Group Type Best Practice PERFORMING Stage Ecological Concepts Focus Level Psyed Couns Using any object, have the member who is speaking hold that object while all others are silent. She gives it to the next speaker who must address the very last thing said (careful listening skills). Begin-ning Social System Behavioral Structural Individual Interpersonal Group
    23. 23. Processing Technique Prototype: Within-Session Processing Group Type Best Practice PROCESSING Within-Session Stage Ecological Concepts Focus Level Psyed Couns “ Imagine yourself as you are now – silent – and it is the last session. What have you gotten from the group? How do you feel about your level of participation? Share this with the group.” Mid End Meaning making Sustainability Cognitive Affective Individual
    24. 24. Purposeful Group Techniques Model Ecological Concepts Therapeutic Factors Best Practice Guidelines Group Development Group Type Group Level Group Focus
    25. 25. Let’s Practice <ul><li>A critical incident to walk you through the model. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Let’s Practice <ul><li>Another critical incident to test your skill with the model. </li></ul>
    27. 27. “ All group work is multicultural” (Conyne, Crowell, & Newmeyer, 2008, p. 49) by the very nature of its unique collection of individuals, all of whom bring differing meanings and experiences to each group’s culture, or social system.
    28. 28. <ul><li>Three dimensions specifically attend to multicultural sensitivity: </li></ul><ul><li>Groups provide service delivery across </li></ul><ul><li>settings (school or community), </li></ul><ul><li>Populations (children to adult), and </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple counselor roles (school or </li></ul><ul><li>mental health). </li></ul>
    29. 29. Vital, is what we call the “ personhood ” of group leaders (i.e., their personal values, sense of self, and how they are perceived by others), and the presence and interaction of the members themselves.
    30. 30. Counselor Training <ul><li>Learners have the opportunity to compare and discuss their decision- making process and the technique they selected. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners have an opportunity to try out a technique, and get some feedback about how it is presented. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Self Assessment <ul><li>Your interpersonal and personal impact is unique within your group. </li></ul><ul><li>What have you learned about yourself as a group leader through studying the PGTM? What personal and interpersonal strengths have you noticed again, or for the first time? How has your knowledge of group leadership been affected? How will you put any of this learning into practice? Discuss with a partner . ( book, pages 216-217) </li></ul>
    32. 32. What kind of a person are you? Given that the “personhood” of the group leader is the most important variable of all, think about yourself. What do you value? How do others perceive you? How are you with others in group situations? What are your strengths? What areas do you need to improve? For your students: Write a 5-page, double-spaced essay in response to the questions above.
    33. 33. Group Techniques: How To Use Them More Purposefully <ul><li>Conyne, R.K., Crowell, J.L., & Newmeyer, M.D. (2008). Group techniques: How to use them more purposefully . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. </li></ul><ul><li>Also check out: </li></ul><ul><li>Association for Specialists in Group Work </li></ul>
    34. 34. Questions? Thank You!