Prenatal development and birth


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Prenatal development and birth

  1. 1. By: Patricia Marie Manuel Kathrina Nadora Justine Rei Valenzuela
  2. 2. <ul><li>Prenatal  or  antenatal development  is the process in which an embryo or fetus is carried in the womb during pregnancy, from fertilization until birth. </li></ul><ul><li>The prenatal period is one of the most important parts of the lifecycle </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>This is the first stage of development, and it is divided into three periods, or trimesters. </li></ul><ul><li>Often, the terms fetal development, foetal development, or embryology are used in a similar sense. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Prenatal development is divided into three trimesters. </li></ul><ul><li>The First Trimester are the first, second and third months. </li></ul><ul><li>The Second Trimester are the fourth, fifth sixth months. </li></ul><ul><li>The Third Trimester are the seventh, eighth and ninth month. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>During the first two months the developing human is referred to as an embryo. The embryo has three layers from which all body organs develop. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Fertilization, descent of ovum from tube to uterus. Early cell division and formation of embryonic disc from which new organism will develop. </li></ul><ul><li>Early formation of three layers of cells: </li></ul><ul><li>the ectoderm, from which sense organs and nervous system will develop </li></ul><ul><li>the mesoderm, from which circulatory, skeletal and muscular systems will develop </li></ul><ul><li>the endoderm, from which digestive and some glandular systems will develop. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Special layer of cells formed in the uterus which will become the placenta and through which nutritive substances will be carried to the new organism and waste products carried away. </li></ul><ul><li>Special layer of cells forms the amnion or water-sac, which will surround the developing embryo except at umbilical cord. </li></ul><ul><li>Heart tube forms and begins to pulsate and force blood to circulate through blood vessels in embryonic disc. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Nervous system begins to arise, first in form of neural groove. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of intestinal tract, lungs, liver and kidneys begins. By end of one month, the embryo is about one-fourth inch long, curled into a crescent, with small nubbins on sides of body indicating incipient arms and legs. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Embryo increases in size to about 1½ inches. </li></ul><ul><li>Bones and muscle begin to round out contours of body. </li></ul><ul><li>Face and neck develop and begin to give features a human appearance. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Forehead very prominent, reflecting precocious development of brain in comparison to rest of body. </li></ul><ul><li>Limb buds elongate. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles and cartilage develop. </li></ul><ul><li>Sex organs begin to form. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Beginning of fetal period. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual differentiation continues, with male sexual organs showing more rapid development and the female remaining more neutral. </li></ul><ul><li>Buds for all 20 temporary teeth laid down. </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal cords appear; digestive system shows activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach cells begin to secrete fluid; liver pours bile into intestine. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Kidneys begin functioning, with urine gradually seeping into amniotic fluid. Other waste products passed through placenta into mother's blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Bones and muscles continue development, and by end of third month spontaneous movements of arms, legs, shoulders and fingers are possible </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>During the second trimester the developing human is referred to as a fetus </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Lower parts of body show relatively accelerated rate, so that head size decreases from one-half to one-fourth of body size. </li></ul><ul><li>Back straightens, hands and feet are well-formed. </li></ul><ul><li>Skin appears dark red, owing to coursing of blood showing through thin skin and wrinkles, owing to absence of underlying fat. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Finger closure is possible. Reflexes become more active as muscular maturation continues. </li></ul><ul><li>Fetus begins to stir and so thrust out arms and legs in movements readily perceived by the mother </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Skin structures begin to attain final form. </li></ul><ul><li>Sweat and sebaceous glands are formed and function. </li></ul><ul><li>Skin derivatives also appear -- hair, nails on fingers and toes. </li></ul><ul><li>Bony axis becomes quite straight and much spontaneous activity occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Fetus is lean and wrinkled, about one foot long and weighs about one pound.  </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Eyelids which have been fused shut since third month, reopen; eyes are completely formed. </li></ul><ul><li>Taste buds appear on tongue and in mouth and are, in fact, more abundant than in the infant or adult </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>During the third trimester, the individual is a baby which if born prematurely could survive with extra support. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Organism capable of independent life from this time on. </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebral hemispheres cover almost the entire brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Seven-month fetus can emit a variety of specialized responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally is about 15 inches long and weighs about three pounds. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>During this time, finishing touches are being put on the various organs and functional capacities. </li></ul><ul><li>Fat is formed rapidly over the entire body, smoothing out the wrinkled skin and rounding out body contours. </li></ul><ul><li>Dull red color of skin fades so that a firth pigmentation of skin is usually very slight in all races. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Activity is usually great and he can change his position within the somewhat crowded uterus. Periods of activity will alternate with periods of quiescence. Fetal organs step up their activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Fetal heart rate becomes quite rapid. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Digestive organs continue to expel more waste products, leading to the formation of a fetal stool, called the meconium, which is expelled shortly after birth. </li></ul><ul><li>Violent uterine contractions begin, though milder ones have been tolerated earlier, and the fetus is eventually expelled from the womb into an independent physiological existence. </li></ul>
  23. 24. First Trimester (first 3 months) Conception to 4 weeks 8 weeks 12 weeks • Less than 1/10 inches long • Spinal cord, nervous system, gastrointestinal system, heart and lungs begin to develop • Amniotic sac envelopes the body • Less than 1 inch long • Face is forming with rudimentary eyes, ears, mouth and teeth • Arms and legs are moving • Brain is forming • Fetal heartbeat is detectable with ultrasound • About 3 inches long, weighs 1 ounce • Can move arms, fingers and toes • Fingerprints are present • Can smile. frown, suck and swallow • Sex is distinguishable
  24. 25. Second Trimester (middle 3 months) 16 weeks 20 weeks 24 weeks • About 5 1/2 inches long and weighs 4 ounces • Strong heartbeat • Thin, transparent skin formed • Downy hair (lanugo) covers body • Fingernails and toenails are forming • Coordinated movements; is able to roll over in amniotic fluid • 10 to 12 inches long and weighs 1/2 to 1 pound • Heartbeat is audible with stethoscope • Sucks thumb • Hiccups • Hair, eyelashes, and eyebrows have formed • 11 to 14 inches long and weighs 1 to 1 1/2 pounds • Skin is wrinkled are covered with protective coating • Eyes are open • Has strong grip
  25. 26. Third Trimester (last 3 1/2 months) 28 weeks 32 weeks 36-38 weeks • 14 to 17 inches long and weighs 2 1/2 to 3 pounds • Adding body fat • Very active • Rudimentary breathing present • 16 1/2 to 18 inches long and weighs 4 to 5 pound • Periods of sleep and wakefulness • Responds to sounds • May assume birth position • Bones of head are soft and flexible • Iron is being stored in liver • 19 inches long and weighs 6 pounds • Skin is less wrinkled • Less active • Gaining immunities from mother
  26. 29. <ul><li>Begins at the onset of labor and ends when the cervix is 100 percent effaced and completely dilated to 10 centimeters. </li></ul><ul><li>Average length ranges for a first-time mother is from ten-to-fourteen hours and shorter for subsequent births. </li></ul>
  27. 30. <ul><li>Begins when the cervix is completely effaced and dilated and ends with the birth of the baby. </li></ul><ul><li>Average length for a first time mother ranges from 1 to-2 hours and shorter for subsequent births. </li></ul>
  28. 31. <ul><li>Begins with the birth of the baby and ends with the delivery of the placenta. </li></ul><ul><li>Average length for all vaginal deliveries ranges from five-to-fifteen minutes. </li></ul>
  29. 33. <ul><li>The delivery of a fetus by surgical incision through the abdominal wall and uterus. </li></ul>
  30. 35. <ul><li>Infant mortality rate (IMR) indicates the number of deaths of babies under one year of age per 1,000 live births. </li></ul><ul><li>The infant mortality rate is also called the infant death rate ( per 1,000 live births). </li></ul>
  31. 37. <ul><li>Congenital malformations, deformations, and chromosomal abnormalities. </li></ul><ul><li>Disorders related to short gestation and low birth weight </li></ul><ul><li>Sudden infant death syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Newborn affected by maternal complications of pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory distress of newborn </li></ul>137.6 109.5 55.5 37.3 25.3