PLC Cycle:Formative Assessment falls as the third step in the PLC Cycle.Formative Assessment addresses question 2: How do we know when a student has learned something?What is formative assessment?After establishing what we are going to teach students (learning targets), and then teaching it (through varied instructional strategies), we must assess student understanding.This assessment occurs in a variety of ways: discussion, q &a, exit slips, bell work, homework assignment, quiz, etc.When an assessment is used for learning, when it is used to inform a teacher’s instruction, then it is formative. Best practice is to not grade formative assessments because it is practice for students. Typically, teachers: assess student understanding of the learning target formatively determine their next instructional steps as a result of student performanceeither re-teach or enhance the initial learningeventually administer a summative assessment
What are the 7 Strategies?Jan Chappuis has developed 7 Strategies of Assessment for Learning. These 7 strategies revolve around 3 questions (for the students):1) Where Am I going?- Strategy 1 (Captain Target: Learning Target); Strategy 2 (Model Master: Models or examples of the continuum of quality)2) Where Am I Now?, - Strategy 3 (Flash Feedback: Effective Feedback); Strategy 4 (Goal Guard: Student Self-Assessment & Goal Setting)3) How do I Close the Gap?- Strategy 5 (One-der-Woman: focus on 1 target at a time); Strategy 6 (Robin Revision: focused revision); Strategy 7 (Reflecto Man: Tracking learning and Self-Reflection)Why are we going to study the 7 Strategies?LT is going to engage in the study and application of these 7 strategies of assessment this school year because research has demonstrated:“Innovations that include strengthening the practice of formative assessment produce significant and often substantial learning gains.” (Black & Wiliam, 1998b)“formative assessment practices greatly increase the achievement of low-performing students” (p. 3)7 strategies are “designed to meet students’ information needs to maximize both motivation and achievement, by involving students from the start in their own learning” (Chappuis, p. 11). These 7 strategies facilitate meta-cognition, which strong learners already engage in, but low-level learners need to be taught explicitly to think about their thinking.All 7 Strategies have been learned this year, but today we are going to focus on following-up on our most recent strategies: 2, 3, and 6.
MODEL MASTER represents strategy 2.Talking Points:Strategy 2 is intended to answer the question: Where am I headed?It works in conjunction with strategy 1. The idea is that you present the models of the strong and weak work in order to further communicate your learning target or vision of the intended learning.Oftentimes teachers present models of work to demonstrate project expectations rather than to communicate a learning target. This strategy involves using the model to clarify and communicate the learning target.If used in this way, then models of work can:Clarify your vision of the intended learningShape the student’s continuum of qualityCommunicate your expectationsAssign meaning and relevance to quality levels“[Prepare students to understand] your feedback to them and to engage in peer-and self-assessment.”Strategy 2 is considered an enabling strategy because it enables the students to understand your feedback (which is provided with strategy 3).
This rubric was developed to achieve two skill based learning targets.It is on page 3 of your packet.It is used frequently to engage the students in a review of their homework, and an opportunity to practice conversing and defending one’s answer in Spanish.Prior to engaging the students in a Homework Review, the teacher models an extraordinary dialogue and an I could be better dialogue. She analyzes her dialogue referring to language in the rubric….MODELING THE SKILL BASED LEARNING TARGETS.
This rubric is on page 5 of your packet.It is used in Child Development. The rubric communicates the components of an effective and developmentally appropriate preschool bulletin board.
In order to model the learning target, which is “I can identify and explain the components of a developmentally appropriate preschool bulletin board”, the teacher asks students to Evaluate Sample Bulletin Boards using the rubric.On page 6 of your packet, you will see a table in which students score each sample and justify their score with language from the rubric.An example for bulletin board B appears on the screen.
Quality feedback:Communicates to the student what they did well (supportive) & guides them towards improvement (interventionist)Coaches the studentInspires hopeEFFECTIVE FEEDBACK:“maximizes the chances that student achievement will improve as a result” (Chappuis, p. 56)Is about quality notpresenceIs about progress & how to proceed notthe personemphasizes effort notperfection provides opportunity for practice not a summative judgment on what has yet to be practiced5 Characteristics of Effective Feedback:Communicates performance without being evaluative. Creates a relationship between the student/ teacher, student/student and student/learning. It helps students identify where they are now with respect to where they are headed and prompts further learning. Individualizes and customizes learning. Takes place in the classroom.
This example is on page 7 of your packet.In order to provide effective feedback using a rubric,students:self-assess their work and determine which column they are currently performing withinMatch the teacher feedback to the rubric columnCompare their rating to the teacher feedbackThe teacher provides symbols in the margins rather than circles on the rubric and bulleted interventionist comments so the student must read the rubricWhen the student engages in another Spanish conversation, he/she will be asked to pull out this rubric, review it, and focus on improving the targeted areas
This example is on page 8 of your packet.
Strategies 5 & 6 work in tandemStrategies 5 & 6 work to answer the question: How do I close the gap in learning?Strategy 5 should be viewed in relation to the question How do I close the learning gap? It encourages the student to focus on the one aspect of the target that he/she has a misconception about, an incomplete understanding, and a partially developed skill.Strategy 5 = focused instructionInstruction is focused on the aspect of the learning target that each student misunderstands or partially understandsStrategy 6= focused practiceOpportunities to practice the one portion of the learning target that is misunderstood are developed and completed
This is a rubric used for Dimensional Analysis in Chemistry.
This example is on page 13-16 of your packet. First, students engage is an activity related to Strategy 2. They must evaluate sample solutions with the rubric language; thereby identifying solutions that are correct and incorrect.
Once the students have completed their evaluation of samples, it is inevitable some students will have errors. If a student has a reoccurring area, identify the problem with the rubric.In this case the problem is UNITS.
Then provide the student with additional instruction (Strategy 5) concerning the problem area and then provide them with additional practice (Strategy 6).In this particular case:the students examines where they currently are in their understanding of units on the rubric and where they need to bethe student gains additional instruction and practice with conversions by completing a handoutthe student then corrects their original work by writing the new units into the problems in a new colorthe student resubmits their work
Follow up table talk march 18
FOLLOW-UP TABLE TALK:
FACILITATING STRATEGIES 2, 3, AND 6 WITH RUBRICS
March 18, 2014
I will be able to:
• explain how rubrics can be used to facilitate
strategies 2, 3, and 6
• obtain quick strategies for implementation
• ask questions and brainstorm ideas
concerning strategies 2, 3, and 6
The 7 Student-Centered Strategies of
Where Am I Going?
Where Am I Now?
How do I Close the Gap?
Use examples and
models of strong
and weak work
• “Developing learning
goals in students
• Clarifying learning
targets of all types
• Communicating targets
to students” (Chappuis, 5)
Classroom Conversation Rubric
Skill-based Learning Targets:
1) I will be able to converse in Spanish.
2) I will be able to explain and justify my answer.
EXTRAORDINARY I COULD BE BETTER
CONTENT I identify and explain my
answer completely and
clearly and explain why I
arrived at that answer.
I identify my answer but I
may not explain it complete
or explain why I arrived at
LISTENING I listen to and understand
my partner’s answer and
provide feedback or ask a
follow up question to my
I listen to my partner’s
answer but I do not give
feedback or ask follow up
A B C
This bulletin board has a clear theme, which is represented
by a relevant yet simple design with one focal point (which
is Humpty Dumpty). The yellow border is present and the
edges are cleanly cut and posted. The words on the bulletin
board are spelled correctly.
• “Understanding the characteristics
of effective feedback
• Selecting feedback options suited to
students’ grade level and kind of
learning to be addressed
• Preparing students to give each other
feedback” (Chappuis, 12)
Using the Rubric to
• “Keeping students in
touch with their growth.
• Providing time and
structure for students to
reflect on their learning.
• Offering opportunities for
students to share their
progress.” (Chappuis, 24)
Using the Rubric to Zero-In on the
1) Identify the problem & relevant portion of the rubric.
2) Complete activity designed to provide review of the
3) Redo your work- make sure to correct all previous
4) Resubmit your work.
Using the Rubric to Zero-In on the
Problem Area in English
attempts, the student
will not describe the
the problem area.
descriptions in text
• Completed orally
development to that
in the classroom text
• Revision &
actions to your work
The goal as
Using the Rubric to Zero-In on
the Problem Area in Chemistry
• Use your equalities handout to fill in the missing units on
• Write the missing units in a new color into your original
work & resubmit your work.
• Complete your next assignments with special attention to
Using the Rubric to Guide Focused Revision
NEED TO BE
• Strategy 2: Use examples and
models of strong and weak work
• Strategy 3: Offer regular
• Strategy 6: Teach students focused
• How have you used rubrics to model the learning
target? …to communicate the expected vision of
• How have you used rubrics to
provide effective feedback?
• How could you adapt the Classroom Conversation
Rubric example to fit your content?
• How have you guided student
practice (on a previously
identified area of weakness) with
• What could you do to facilitate