2 Anatomy – Cell Biology Review

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2 Anatomy – Cell Biology Review

  1. 1. Anatomy – Cell Biology Review Check out: www.cellsalive.com
  2. 2. BASIC CELL COMPOSITION <ul><li>Plasma Membrane (Cell Membrane) - surrounds cell and gives it form </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm - consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) cytosol : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) organelles : </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nucleus - contains DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) </li></ul>
  3. 3. PLASMA MEMBRANE <ul><li>Structure: double layer of phospolipids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>glycoproteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>glycolipids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selectively permeable </li></ul><ul><li>What are some benefits and some disadvantages of having a selectively permeable membrane? </li></ul>
  4. 4. CYTOPLASMIC ORGANELLES <ul><li>A. Mitochondria         * make ATP (adenosine triphosphate)         * contains its own DNA     </li></ul>
  5. 5. CYTOPLASMIC ORGANELLES - cont <ul><li>B. Ribosomes - involved in protein synthesis (synthesis = production)         * two kinds: Free ribosomes or ribosomes attached to Rough ER </li></ul>
  6. 6. CYTOPLASMIC ORGANELLES - cont <ul><li>C. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) - a network of tubules used to transport & synthesize         (produce) materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Rough ER - has ribosomes on walls             * synthesizes & distributes proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Smooth ER - has no ribosomes             * synthesizes lipids, mainly steroids               </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. CYTOPLASMIC ORGANELLES – cont. <ul><li>D. Lysosomes - contain digestive enzymes   </li></ul><ul><li>E. Centrioles - involved in cell division </li></ul>
  8. 8. NUCLEUS     <ul><li>Contains DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) --when cell is NOT dividing, DNA in the form of chromatin </li></ul><ul><li>Some nuclei have a nucleolus         * makes the &quot;parts&quot; that form ribosomes </li></ul>
  9. 9. CELL CYCLE    <ul><li>Cells divided into: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Sex cells (sperm and oocytes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Somatic cells (all other cells) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell cycle subdivided into 2 phases: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Interphase - cell not dividing             * DNA is duplicated during this time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Mitosis (cell division for somatic cells)             or Meiosis (cell division for sex cells) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. MITOSIS <ul><li>1) Prophase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA in form of double-stranded chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>double-stranded (duplicated) chromosomes consist of 2 chromatids joined at a centromere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( chromatid = each half of the duplicated chromosome) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spindle fibers go from centrioles to chromatids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>breakdown of nuclear membrane     </li></ul></ul><ul><li>    2) Metaphase (&quot;Middle&quot;)         * chromosomes along center (middle) of cell   </li></ul>
  11. 11. Mitosis – cont. <ul><li>3) Anaphase ( &quot;Apart&quot;) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>chromatids split apart at centromere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>each set of chromatids (now called single-stranded chromosomes) pulled to opposite ends of cell   </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4) Telophase (&quot;Two&quot;) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nuclear envelope reforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nucleolus reappears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cleavage furrow develops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cytokinesis occurs   </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  Cell now re-enters Interphase </li></ul>
  12. 12. Meiosis - Def: cell division where gametes (sperm cells or oocytes) are formed - <ul><li>  Differences between mitosis and meiosis: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Mitosis produces 2 cells containing 46 chromosomes (23 pairs)             * daughter cells identical to original (parent) cell </li></ul><ul><li>            * cells are diploid : they have 2 of each chromosome   </li></ul><ul><li>        2) Meiosis produces 4 cells containing only 23 chromosomes             * daughter cells genetically different from parent cell </li></ul><ul><li>            * these cells have a haploid number of chromosomes (only 1 of each                 chromosome) </li></ul><ul><li>    -- Start off with one cell that has 23 pairs of chromosomes         * one set of chromosomes came from MOTHER, the other from FATHER   </li></ul><ul><li>    -- Interphase : DNA is duplicated         * DNA will form double-stranded chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>        * cell now contains 23 pairs of double-stranded (duplicate) chromosomes   </li></ul>
  13. 13. Mitosis vs. Meiosis <ul><li>1) Mitosis produces 2 cells containing 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>daughter cells identical to original (parent) cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cells are diploid : they have 2 of each chromosome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2) Meiosis produces 4 cells containing only 23 chromosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>daughter cells genetically different from parent cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>these cells have a haploid number of chromosomes (only 1 of each chromosome) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start off with one cell that has 23 pairs of chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>one set of chromosomes came from MOTHER, the other from FATHER   </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>    -- Interphase : DNA is duplicated         * DNA will form double-stranded chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>        * cell now contains 23 pairs of double-stranded (duplicate) chromosomes </li></ul>
  14. 14. Meiosis <ul><li>1st meiotic prophase , homologous chromosomes pair up     </li></ul><ul><li>Crossing Over: process by which genetic material is exchanged between homologous chromosomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>occurs during 1st prophase   </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell finishes 1st meiotic division, producing 2 daughter cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>daughter cells each have 23 double-stranded chromosomes (each chromosome consists of 2 chromatids) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parent cell had 23 PAIRS of chromosomes, but daughter cells have only 23 chromosomes  </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cells go through 2nd meiotic division: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 cells produced, each with 23 single-stranded chromosomes (each chromosome has only 1 chromatid now) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>these 4 cells are gametes   </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. For EXAM 1 <ul><li>Apendix A: p. 564 Misc., p. 565 Prefixes A-C p. 566 Suffixes A-C </li></ul><ul><li>Handout p. 30-31 Anatomy of a Generalized Cell (Structure, Location, Function) </li></ul><ul><li>Planes of Reference and Directional Terms </li></ul>

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