Basic Human Anatomy Mr. Jeremy Schriner
Anatomy  <ul><li>The study of the structure and shape of the body and body parts and their relationships to one another.  ...
Physiology <ul><li>The study of how the body and its parts function or work. </li></ul><ul><li>Greek Root: physio (nature)...
Levels of Organization <ul><li>Atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul>...
Organ Systems <ul><li>Integumentary </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous </li><...
Functions of Organisms <ul><li>Maintain Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to Environ. </li></ul><ul><li>Take in & Diges...
Homeostasis <ul><li>Root: homeo (the same) stasis (standing still) </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li...
Anatomical Position
Planes of Reference : imaginary planes that may be used to &quot;section&quot; the body  <ul><li>Coronal (or Frontal) Plan...
 
Planes of Ref. cont. <ul><li>Sagittal Plane : divides the body into right and left portions  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>midsagi...
Planes of Ref. cont. <ul><li>Transverse (Horizontal) Plane:  divides the body into superior (top) and inferior (bottom) po...
 
Directional Terms for the Body   <ul><li>Anterior (front) </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior (back) </li></ul>
Directional Terms <ul><li>Superior (top) </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior (bottom) </li></ul>
Directional Terms <ul><li>Medial (toward the midline) </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral (away from the midline) </li></ul><ul><li>...
Directional Terms cont. <ul><li>Proximal (close to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the...
Homework: Complete table (Due tomorrow) Deep Superficial Distal Proximal Intermediate Lateral Medial Posterior Anterior In...
BODY REGIONS  <ul><li>Cephalic Region  or Head  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orbital  - eye  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal  - ...
BODY REGIONS cont. <ul><li>Neck  or  Cervical Region  (neck referred to as the cervix)  </li></ul>
BODY REGIONS cont. <ul><li>Thorax  or  Thoracic Region   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pectoral Region  –chest (subdivided into le...
BODY REGIONS cont. <ul><li>Abdominal Region - located below the diaphragm and above the top of the hips  </li></ul>
BODY REGIONS cont. <ul><li>Pelvic Region - inferior to the abdominal region, located between the hip bones </li></ul>
BODY REGIONS cont. <ul><li>Upper Extremity   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deltoid Region  - shoulder  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
BODY REGIONS cont. <ul><li>Lower Extremity   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Femoral Region  - thigh - from hip to knee </li></ul></...
BODY CAVITIES  - enclosed spaces within the body  <ul><li>1)  Cranial Cavity  (endocranium) - houses the brain </li></ul><...
Body Cavities cont. <ul><li>3)  Thoracic Cavity  (chest cavity) * bounded inferiorly by the diaphragm </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
SEROUS MEMBRANES <ul><li>Def:  composed of tissue and either cover/support/protect organs or line some body cavities * sec...
Serous Membranes – ex. <ul><li>Peritoneum – covers organs in abdominal cavity </li></ul>
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Anatomy Pre-College

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1 Intro

  1. 1. Basic Human Anatomy Mr. Jeremy Schriner
  2. 2. Anatomy <ul><li>The study of the structure and shape of the body and body parts and their relationships to one another. </li></ul><ul><li>Greek Root: tomy (cut) ana (apart) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Physiology <ul><li>The study of how the body and its parts function or work. </li></ul><ul><li>Greek Root: physio (nature) ology (study of) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Levels of Organization <ul><li>Atoms </li></ul><ul><li>Cells </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul><ul><li>Organ system </li></ul><ul><li>Organism </li></ul>
  5. 5. Organ Systems <ul><li>Integumentary </li></ul><ul><li>Skeletal </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous </li></ul><ul><li>Endocrine </li></ul><ul><li>Reproductive </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphatic </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary </li></ul>
  6. 6. Functions of Organisms <ul><li>Maintain Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to Environ. </li></ul><ul><li>Take in & Digest Nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Carry out Metabolic Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate Wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduce </li></ul><ul><li>Grow </li></ul>
  7. 7. Homeostasis <ul><li>Root: homeo (the same) stasis (standing still) </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>Always changing but balanced </li></ul>
  8. 8. Anatomical Position
  9. 9. Planes of Reference : imaginary planes that may be used to &quot;section&quot; the body <ul><li>Coronal (or Frontal) Plane : divides the body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) portions </li></ul>
  10. 11. Planes of Ref. cont. <ul><li>Sagittal Plane : divides the body into right and left portions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>midsagittal plane divides the body equally into right and left HALVES </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Planes of Ref. cont. <ul><li>Transverse (Horizontal) Plane: divides the body into superior (top) and inferior (bottom) portions </li></ul>
  12. 14. Directional Terms for the Body <ul><li>Anterior (front) </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior (back) </li></ul>
  13. 15. Directional Terms <ul><li>Superior (top) </li></ul><ul><li>Inferior (bottom) </li></ul>
  14. 16. Directional Terms <ul><li>Medial (toward the midline) </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral (away from the midline) </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediate (in between a more medial and lateral structure) </li></ul>
  15. 17. Directional Terms cont. <ul><li>Proximal (close to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk) </li></ul><ul><li>Distal (farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk) </li></ul><ul><li>Superficial (toward the body surface) </li></ul><ul><li>Deep (away from body surface) </li></ul>
  16. 18. Homework: Complete table (Due tomorrow) Deep Superficial Distal Proximal Intermediate Lateral Medial Posterior Anterior Inferior The forehead is superior to the nose. Toward the head Superior Example Illustration Definition Term
  17. 19. BODY REGIONS <ul><li>Cephalic Region or Head </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orbital - eye </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nasal - nose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral - mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal – forehead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occipital – back of head </li></ul></ul>
  18. 20. BODY REGIONS cont. <ul><li>Neck or Cervical Region (neck referred to as the cervix) </li></ul>
  19. 21. BODY REGIONS cont. <ul><li>Thorax or Thoracic Region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pectoral Region –chest (subdivided into left and right pectoral regions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mammary Region –breast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sternal Region - area of chest between left and right pectoral regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axillary Region - armpit </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. BODY REGIONS cont. <ul><li>Abdominal Region - located below the diaphragm and above the top of the hips </li></ul>
  21. 23. BODY REGIONS cont. <ul><li>Pelvic Region - inferior to the abdominal region, located between the hip bones </li></ul>
  22. 24. BODY REGIONS cont. <ul><li>Upper Extremity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deltoid Region - shoulder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brachium Region - arm - defined as from shoulder to elbow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antecubital (Cubital) Region - elbow region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antebrachium Region - forearm - between the elbow and the hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carpal Region – wrist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital- fingers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 25. BODY REGIONS cont. <ul><li>Lower Extremity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Femoral Region - thigh - from hip to knee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patellar Region - front surface of the knee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popliteal Region - back of the knee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crural Region - leg - from knee to ankle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tarsal - ankle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedal region –foot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plantar - sole of the foot </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 26. BODY CAVITIES - enclosed spaces within the body <ul><li>1) Cranial Cavity (endocranium) - houses the brain </li></ul><ul><li>2) Vertebral Canal – cylindrical opening formed by vertebral column and contains the spinal cord </li></ul>
  25. 27. Body Cavities cont. <ul><li>3) Thoracic Cavity (chest cavity) * bounded inferiorly by the diaphragm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) 2 Pleural - each houses a lung b) Mediastinum - area between lungs c) Pericardial - contains heart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4) Abdominopelvic Cavity : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Abdominal Cavity – digestive organs b) Pelvic Cavity - reproductive organs and bladder </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. SEROUS MEMBRANES <ul><li>Def: composed of tissue and either cover/support/protect organs or line some body cavities * secrete serous fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Parietal laye r of a serous membrane - lines internal surface of body wall </li></ul><ul><li>Visceral layer of a serous membrane - covers external surface of organs </li></ul><ul><li>serous cavity: potential space between parietal and visceral layer </li></ul>
  27. 29. Serous Membranes – ex. <ul><li>Peritoneum – covers organs in abdominal cavity </li></ul>

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