Learning<br />Learning is acquiring new knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals and some machines. It is also the development of new knowledge, skills, or attitudes as an individual interacts with information and the environment.<br />
Types of Learning<br />Habituation<br />In psychology, habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which there is a progressive diminution of behavioral response probability with repetition stimulus.<br /> <br />
Types of Learning<br /> Sensitization<br />Sensitization is an example of non-associative learning in which the progressive amplification of a response follows repeated administrations of a stimulus (Bell et al., 1995). <br />
Types of Learning<br />Associative learning<br />Associative learning is the process by which an element is taught through association with a separate, pre-occurring element. It is also referred to as classical conditioning. <br />
Types of Learning<br />Classical conditioning<br />The typical paradigm for classical conditioning involves repeatedly pairing an unconditioned stimulus with another previously neutral stimulus. Following conditioning, the response occurs both to the unconditioned stimulus and to the other, unrelated stimulus (now referred to as the "conditioned stimulus"). The response to the conditioned stimulus is termed a conditioned response. <br />
Types of Learning<br />Imprinting<br />Imprinting describes any kind of phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior. <br />
Types of Learning<br />Observational learning<br />The learning process most characteristic of humans is imitation; one's personal repetition of an observed behavior, such as a dance. <br />
Types of Learning<br />Play<br />Play generally describes behavior which has no particular end in itself, but improves performance in similar situations in the future. <br />
Types of Learning<br />Enculturation<br />Enculturation is the process by which a person learns the requirements of their native culture by which he or she is surrounded, and acquires values and behaviors that are appropriate or necessary in that culture.<br />
Types of Learning<br />Multimedia learning<br />Multimedia learning is where a person uses both auditory and visual stimuli to learn information (Mayer 2001).<br />
Types of Learning<br />E-learning and augmented learning<br />Electronic learning or e-learning is a general term used to refer to Internet-based networked computer-enhanced learning.<br />
Types of Learning<br />Rote learning<br />Rote learning is a technique which avoids understanding the inner complexities and inferences of the subject that is being learned and instead focuses on memorizing the material so that it can be recalled by the learner exactly the way it was read or heard. <br />
Types of Learning<br />Informal learning<br />Informal learning occurs through the experience of day-to-day situations.<br />
Types of Learning<br />Formal learning<br />Formal learning is learning that takes place within a teacher-student relationship, such as in a school system.<br />
Types of Learning<br />Non-formal learning<br />Non-formal learning is organized learning outside the formal learning system.<br />
Types of Learning<br />Tangential learning<br />Tangential learning is the process by which some portion of people will self-educate if a topic is exposed to them in something that they already enjoy such as playing a musical instrument.<br />
Types of Learning<br />Dialogic learning<br />Dialogic learning is a type of learning based on dialogue.<br />
The Domains of Learning:<br />Benjamin Bloom has suggested three domains of learning:<br />Cognitive – To recall, calculate, discuss, analyze, problem solve, etc.<br />Psychomotor – To dance, swim, ski, dive, drive a car, ride a bike, etc.<br />Affective – To like something or someone, love, appreciate, fear, hate, worship, etc.<br />
Psychological Perspectives on Learning<br />Behaviorist Perspective <br />The behavior of an organism could be shaped by reinforcing , or rewarding, the desired responses to the environment.<br />
Psychological Perspectives on Learning<br />Cognitivist Perspective<br />Learners combine the information and skills in long term memory to develop cognitive strategies, or skills for dealing with complex tasks.<br />
Psychological Perspectives on Learning<br />Cognitivist Perspective<br />Schemata. Schemata (singular, schema) are the mental structures by which individuals organize their perceived environment.<br />Assimilation. Assimilation is the cognitive process by which a learner integrates new information and experiences into existing schemata.<br />Accomodation. The process of modifying existing schemata or creating new ones.<br />
Psychological Perspectives on Learning<br />Constructivist Perspective<br />It considers the engagement of students in meaningful experiences as the essence of learning. The role of instruction is not to dispense facts but to provide students with ways to assemble knowledge.<br />
Psychological Perspectives on Learning<br />Social – Psychological Perspective<br />Social psychologists look at the effects of the social organization of the classroom on learning.<br />
Media<br />Media refers to all modes of communication, including print and audio- visual forms and their accompanying technology.<br />
35 mm. slides. 35 mm. still camera permits the production of slide transparencies from actual objects. Properly equipped with macro-lens attachments can also produce visuals from flat pictures of standard book.<br />Overhead transparencies. The medium uses the overhead equipment by which 8x10 transparency materials are enlarged onto a screen through projection.<br />Moving films. Come in three gauges, namely in 35, 16, and 18 mm. sizes. 35 mm. films are more practical for educational purposes.<br />Types of Media<br />
Types of Media<br /><ul><li>Televisions or the beta-video system. The TV beta-video facility should not be seen merely as a boon to the families in the households.
Charts. Self- made charts and posters serve as a basic and universal aid for bringing fascinating and exciting experiences in the classroom.
Multimedia Presentation. Multimedia can mean either the use of media on a sequential arrangement on the use of various media presented simultaneously, as in the projection of several images, utilizing slides and moving films, on multiple screen. </li></li></ul><li>Method<br />
Method<br />Methods are the procedures of instruction selected to help learners achieve the objectives or to internalize the content or message.<br />
Ten Method Categories<br />Presentation. In the presentation method, a source tells, dramatizes, or otherwise disseminates information to learners.<br />Demonstration. In this method of instruction, learners view a real lifelike example of a skill or procedure to be learned.<br />
Ten Method Categories<br />Discussion. As a method, discussion involves the exchange of ideas and opinions among students or among students and teacher.<br />Drill-and-practice. In drill-and-practice learners are led through a series of practice exercises designed to increase fluency in a new skill or to refresh an existing one.<br />
Ten Method Categories<br />Tutorial. A tutor on the form of a person, computer software, or special printed materials- presents the content, poses a question or problem , requests a learner’s response, analyzes her response, supplies appropriate feedback, and provides practice until the learner demonstrates a predetermined level of competency.<br />
Ten Method Categories<br />Cooperative Learning. Learner’s need to develop skills in working and learning together because their eventual workplaces will require teamwork.<br />Gaming. Gaming provides a playful environment in which learners follow prescribed rules as they strive to attain a challenging goal.<br />
Ten Method Categories<br />Simulation. Simulation involves learners confronting a sealed down version of a real life situation. It allows realistic practice without the expense or risks otherwise involved.<br />Discovery. The discovery method uses an inductive, or inquiry approach to learning; it presents problems to be solved through trial and error.<br />
Ten Method Categories<br />Problem Solving. Problem solving involves placing the students in the active role of being confronted with a novel problem situated in the real world.<br />
Technology<br />The word technology does not necessarily imply the use of machines but refers to any practical art using scientific knowledge. Technology can make an ordinary person capable of superior performance and a means, either printed or electronic, to distribute that instruction. <br />
Types of Technology<br />1. Assertive Technology<br />It includes mechanical, electronic micro-processor based equipment, non-mechanical and non-electronic aids, specialized instructional materials services and strategies that people with disabilities can use either:<br /><ul><li>Assist them in learning
Otherwise improve their quality</li></li></ul><li>Types of Technology<br />2. Information Technology<br />Provides access to knowledge and resources on a wide web component is the most prominent example of information.<br />3. Technology of Teaching<br />Refers to instructional approaches that are very systematically designed and applied in very precise ways.<br />
Roles of Technology in Learning<br />Technology as tools to support knowledge construction<br /><ul><li>For representing learning ideas, understanding, and belief.
For producing organized multimedia knowledge bases by learners.</li></li></ul><li>Roles of Technology in Learning<br />Technology as information vehicles for exploring knowledge to support learning by constructing<br /><ul><li>For accessing needed information.
For comparing perspectives, beliefs, and world views.</li></li></ul><li>Roles of Technology in Learning<br />Technology as content to support learning by doing<br /><ul><li>For representing and stimulating meaningful real-world problems, situation and contexts.
For representing beliefs, perspectives, arguments, and stories of others.
For defining a safe, controllable problem space for student thinking.</li></li></ul><li>Roles of Technology in Learning<br />Technology as a social medium to support learning by conversing<br /><ul><li>For collaborating with others.
For discussing, arguing, and building consensus among members for a community.
For supporting discourse among knowledge-building communities.</li></li></ul><li>Roles of Technology in Learning<br />Technologyas intellectual partner to support learning by reflecting<br /><ul><li>For helping learners to articulate and represent what they know.
For reflecting on what they have learned and how they come to know it.
For supporting learners internal negotiations and meaning making.
For constructing personal representations of meaning for supporting mindful thinking.</li></li></ul><li>Education<br />
Education<br />Education in the largest sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character or physical ability of an individual. In its technical sense, education is the process by which society deliberately transmits its accumulated knowledge, skills and values from one generation to another. <br />
Education is the process by which people learn:<br /><ul><li>Instruction refers to the facilitating of learning, usually by a teacher.
Teaching refers to the actions of a real live instructor to impart learning to the student.
Learning refers to learning with a view toward preparing learners with specific knowledge, skills, or abilities that can be applied immediately upon completion.</li></li></ul><li>Educational Technology<br />
Educational Technology<br />Educational Technology is the development application and evaluation on systems, techniques and aids to improve the process of human learning. It is also a systematic way, a process or an application of the scientific knowledge to improve the efficiency of the process of learning.<br />
Roles of Educational Technology in Learning<br />
Roles of Educational Technology in Learning<br />Essentially, educational technology helps to improve the overall efficiency of the teaching learning process. This is done through the following ways:<br />1. Increasing the quality of learning or the degree of mastery.<br />
Roles of Educational Technology in Learning<br />2. Decreasing the time taken for learners to obtain desired learning objectives.<br />3. Increasing the efficiency of teachers in terms of numbers of learning taught without reducing the quality of learning.<br />4. Reducing educational cost without affecting educational quality. <br />