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  1. 1. Sue Axtell READ 5493 July 23, 2011
  2. 2. Reading Motivation may be one of the key predictor of reading success. (Logan, et. Al., 2008) <ul><li>Bidirectional relationship between reading motivation and reading skills. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Motivation is critical to early literacy learning and reading success. This is especially true for the struggling reader.
  4. 4. (Applegate & Applegate, 2010) Motivation to read decreases with age, and the decline begins at, or about, the fourth grade year.
  5. 5. <ul><li>Low Motivation to read has even been proposed by researchers as a defining feature of reading failure. (Morgan, et al., 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Students having difficulty in reading are less motivated to read, practice less, become further behind. </li></ul><ul><li>Students who are more successful are more motivated to, practice more, become better readers, etc. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Matthew Effects: The rich get richer and the poor get poorer. (Stanovich, 1986) When faced with failure, children loose their motivation. They will choose not to engage in an activity that they do not feel successful in.
  7. 7. Intrinsic Motivation <ul><li>The disposition to read purely for the enjoyment, </li></ul><ul><li>interest, and excitement of reading. </li></ul><ul><li>(Becker, et al., 2010) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Extrinsic Motivation <ul><li>Relies on rewards and other external motivators. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Motivation Research shows: <ul><li>Intrinsic motivation to read had a positive direct association with positive academic performance. </li></ul><ul><li>More effort put forth. </li></ul><ul><li>(Logan, et al., 2011) </li></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic motivation has been shown to have a more negative effect and readers were more resentful and disinterested. Relates to lower reading skills </li></ul><ul><li>(Becker, et al., 2010) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Self Efficacy - Self Competency Refers to the basic human need to feel competent. A child’s perception of his or her competence is positively related to their own intrinsic motivation Perceived abilities/actual reading skills.
  11. 11. Gender Differences Distinct differences in reading motivation Value assigned to reading Time spent in reading activities Girls: Leisure Boys: in the present, for the future. Boys motivation is more closely tied to success.
  12. 12. “ I’d rather say reading is stupid than maybe have to admit that I might be stupid” (Smith, 2004)
  13. 13. Boys and Self Competency <ul><li>- affect on boys perceived ability </li></ul><ul><li>-Will avoid tasks they are not </li></ul><ul><li>successful in. </li></ul><ul><li>-No transference in literacy skills from outside to inside school activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Boys appear to be competent in what they know or feel they are “good at”. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Conclusion and Implications <ul><li>Teachers must be aware of the bidirectional relationship between intrinsic motivation and how a child perceives him /herself as a reader. </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers need to be mindful of giving students a “reason” to read and to bring in “the purpose and the joy that is reading”, (lever-Chain, 2009) </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Create engaged and intrinsically motivated readers by: </li></ul><ul><li>-provide opportunities for student choice (autonomy) </li></ul><ul><li>-use of interesting text </li></ul><ul><li>-Create literacy environments that are related to literacy but not identified with “reading” </li></ul><ul><li>-Create purpose for reading and immediate results </li></ul><ul><li>-Build on each child’s competencies. </li></ul>
  16. 16. REMEMBER: <ul><li>Intrinsic motivation has been firmly linked to the basic human need to feel competent. A child who thinks he is competent in an activity will continue with that activity even if it is difficult. </li></ul>