DBA-HEM 10th Anniversary Simon Marginson


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Power-point presentation prof. Simon Marginson (University of Melbourne), Bath, 17 September 2012

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DBA-HEM 10th Anniversary Simon Marginson

  1. 1. DBA 10th Anniversary Conference, University of Bath:Disruptive Change and Innovation in Higher Education Globalization and higher education: Taking stock Simon Marginson Centre for the Study of Higher Education University of Melbourne
  2. 2. Taking stock• Early (c. 1990) expectations of globalization• How it has worked out• New spatiality in higher education• Rise and rise of North East Asia/Singapore• Concluding thoughts
  3. 3. Early (c. 1990) expectations of globalization
  4. 4. Globalization: ‘the widening, deepening and speedingup of all forms of world-wide interconnectedness’ - David Held and colleagues, Global Transformations 1999, p. 2
  5. 5. Neo-liberal expectations of globalization Weakened national sovereignty and national regulation Integrated world-markets, removal of trade barriers One Anglo-American political culture Reduced global poverty, advancing prosperity all-round In higher education: WTO-GATS agenda in national systems, global market in student places, e-Universities
  6. 6. Arjun Appadurai’s expectations *Globalization as extended and intensified modernizationGlobalization manifest in distinctive ‘scapes’—financescapes, ethnoscapes, technoscapes,mediascapes, ideoscapes—with uneveness anddisjuncture between themNation-state in decline and crisisDeterritorialization of identities* Modernity at large: Cultural dimensions of globalization (1996)
  7. 7. How it has worked out
  8. 8. A strong nation-state survives(but cannot control cultural globalization, and isnow more globally referenced than before)
  9. 9. Economic globalization is incoherent, incomplete, WTO-GATS falters
  10. 10. Cultural globalization has exceeded mainstream expectationsGlobal English, Internet subjectivities, organizational uniformityacross the world, ideology of universal capitalism, one-world sciencesystem, research university template, rankings, etc
  11. 11. Technologial globalization in higher education: From e-U’s to MOOCS
  12. 12. A new spatiality in higher education• One (imagined) university world with universal ranking• Spread of capacity in higher education and research to a growing number of countries• Regionalisation as a response to globalisation• Rise of East Asia and, to an extent, rise of Latin America• Global projects in national systems and institutions: Partnerships, consortia, hubs, education theme-parks, knowledge cities, cross-border campuses, etc
  13. 13. Countries with 1000+ science papers p.a. US National Science Foundation data for 2009 ANGLO- EUROPE EUROPE ASIA LATIN SPHERE EU NATIONS NON-EU AMERICAAustralia Austria Italy Croatia China ArgentinaCanada Belgium Netherlands Norway India BrazilN. Zealand Czech Rep. Poland Russia Japan ChileUK Denmark Portugal Serbia Malaysia MexicoUSA Finland Rumania Switzerland Pakistan France Slovakia Turkey Singapore M.EAST /AF Germany Sweden Ukraine South Korea Egypt Greece Spain Taiwan Iran Hungary Sweden Thailand Israel Ireland Sth. Africa Tunisia
  14. 14. R&D investment by world region 2009Region Investment in R&D (US National Science Foundation data)North America $433 billion (33.9% of world total)East, SE & South Asia $402 billion (31.5%)Europe $319 billion (25.0%)Middle East & Africa $35 billion (2.7%)South & Central America $32 billion (2.5%)Australia & Pacific $22 billion (1.8%)
  15. 15. Rise of North East Asia and Singapore
  16. 16. Asian middle class to 2030 (millions) Source: European Union Institute for Strategic Studies Middle class is defined as persons living on USD $10-100 per day PPP
  17. 17. Gross National Income per head 2010 World Bank, CIA Fact Book for Taiwan data only Country/system Population GNI PPP per year (millions) (USD $s)Singapore 5.1 55,790Hong Kong SAR 7.1 47,480Macau SAR (GNI 2009) 0.5 45,220Taiwan (population 2012) 23.2 35,700Japan 127.5 34,640South Korea 48.7 29,010China (mainland only) 1338.3 7640Vietnam 86.2 3070India 1224.6 3550
  18. 18. Top ten school systems OECD PISA 2009 (mean student scores, Post –Confucian education systems in red) Reading Mathematics Science Shanghai China 556 Shanghai China 600 Shanghai China 575 South Korea 539 Singapore 562 Finland 554 Finland 536 Hong Kong 555 Hong Kong 549 Hong Kong 533 South Korea 546 Singapore 542 Singapore 526 Taiwan China 543 Japan 539 Canada 524 Finland 541 South Korea 538 New Zealand 521 Liechtenstein 536 New Zealand 532 Japan 520 Switzerland 534 Canada 529 Australia 515 Japan 529 Estonia 528 Netherlands 508 Canada 527 Australia 527 Australia 15th 514 UK equal 25th 424 UK 28th 492 UK 16th 514 USA equal 15th 500 USA equal 31st 487 USA 23rd 502
  19. 19. Gross Tertiary Enrolment Ratio, 2010 UNESCO Institute for Statistics & Taiwan Ministry of Education
  20. 20. Growth of science papers, 1995-2009 (1995 = 1.00) US National Science Foundation
  21. 21. Research papers per year, 1995-2009 China, Japan, India & Korea US National Science Foundation data
  22. 22. Research papers per year, 1995-2009 Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Thailand US National Science Foundation data
  23. 23. Science papers in global journals, East, SE and South Asia, 2009 US National Science Foundation UK 45,649China inc SARs 74,019 Japan 49,627 South Korea 22,271 India 19,917 Taiwan 14,000 Singapore 4187 Other Asia 5820 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 80000
  24. 24. Shanghai JTU top 500 universities Chinese systems 2005 & 2012 2005 2012China mainland 8 28Hong Kong SAR 5 5Taiwan China 5 9Total 18 42
  25. 25. High citation rate Asia Pacific universitiesUniversity / nation Number of science Proportion (%) of papers 2005-2009 papers in top 10% in (Leiden CWTS data) field by citationU Cambridge UK 14,046 16.7Hong Kong UST HONG KONG SAR 3568 14.9Pohang U SOUTH KOREA 3264 14.1National U Singapore SINGAPORE 11,838 13.8Nankai U CHINA 4211 13.4U Science & Technology CHINA 6789 13.0ANU AUSTRALIA 5551 12.9City U Hong Kong HONG KONG SAR 3903 12.7Lanzhou U CHINA 3531 11.9U Melbourne AUSTRALIA 9724 11.9U Queensland AUSTRALIA 9088 11.8U Hong Kong HONG KONG SAR 6820 11.5Korea Advanced IS&T SOUTH KOREA 5319 11.4
  26. 26. ‘Quantity of quality’ in science papers number of papers in top 10% in their field by cite rate, 2005-2009University / nation Number of top 10% papers world 2005-2009 (Leiden) rankU Cambridge UK 2351 12U Tokyo JAPAN 1873 23National U Singapore SINGAPORE 1635 31Kyoto U JAPAN 1424 39Tsinghua U CHINA 1242 47Zhejiang U CHINA 1188 50U Melbourne AUSTRALIA 1159 53Seoul National U KOREA 1158 54U Queensland AUSTRALIA 1074 62U Sydney AUSTRALIA 1026 68National Taiwan U TAIWAN 1000 72Osaka U JAPAN 993 73Peking U CHINA 953 79
  27. 27. Relative research quality World share of research papers/ highly cited papers, 2010 US National Science Foundation United China Japan Asia-8* StatesShare of world 27.8% 7.5% 7.0% 7.4%science papersShare of top 1% 48.9% 3.6% 4.3% 2.7%most highly citedpapers* Asia-8 countries are the significant research producers South Korea, India, Taiwan,Singapore and Thailand plus Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines
  28. 28. The patterns vary by discipline World share of highly cited papers, 2010 US National Science FoundationShare of top 1% USA China Japan Asia-8most highlycited papersEngineering 38.5% 12.3% 4.7% 8.5%Chemistry 34.2% 10.6% 6.7% 6.0%Mathematics 40.7% 8.7% 2.1% 3.4%
  29. 29. Rapid improvement in China and Asia-8 Share of world’s top 1% most cited papers, Chemistry, 2000 & 2010 US National Science Foundationshare of top 1% USA China Japan Asia-8papers inChemistry2000 48.6% 0.6% 9.3% 1.5%2010 34.2% 10.6% 6.7% 6.0%
  30. 30. Science papers per year, 1995-2009 five Latin American nations US National Science Foundation data
  31. 31. Concluding thoughts
  32. 32. Neo-liberal expectations of globalizationWeakened national sovereignty and NOT REALLYnational regulationIntegrated world-markets, removal of INTEGRATION HAStrade barriers FALTERED: CRISISOne Anglo-American political culture NO WAY (IN YOUR DREAMS, GWB)Reduced global poverty, advancing STAGNATION, GROWINGprosperity all-round INEQUALITYIn higher education: WTO-GATS agenda WTO-GATS FAILED, BUTin national systems, global market in GROWTH OF TRADE. E-U’S FAILEDstudent places, e-Universities
  33. 33. Arjun Appadurai’s expectations (1992)Globalization as extended and CORRECT CALLintensified modernizationGlobalization manifest in distinctive YES, MEDIASCAPES AND‘scapes’—financescapes, ethnoscapes, TECHNOSCAPES ARE MORE ADVANCED THANtechnoscapes, mediascapes, THE OTHERSideoscapes—with uneveness anddisjuncture between themNation-state in decline and crisis WRONG CALLDeterritorialization of identities BOTH GLOBAL AND LOCATED IDENTITIES
  34. 34. More than one modernityConvergent capitalist political economies and the growth ofglobal science are not ‘one thing’. They are articulatedthrough several distinctive political-cultural configurations
  35. 35. ‘For 300 years, all of humanity has certainly become moreclosely linked to one another through colonialism, unequaltrade and technological development. Yet a common pathhardly exists between the colonizer and thecolonized, between Africa and the US, or between Chinaand the European powers.’- Wang Hui, The End of the Revolution: China and the limits ofmodernity, 2009, p. 85.
  36. 36. Failure to evolve global governance, neglect of global public good
  37. 37. The research university form hasnever looked stronger than it is rightnow, but it could become debundled
  38. 38. http://www.cshe.unimelb.edu.au/people/staff_pages/Marginson/Marginson.html Cambridge UP, Cambridge, May 2010Springer, Dordrecht,September 2011 Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, Routledge, New York, September 2011 August 2011