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Alternative Learning System by Phoebe W. Taruc, mission, vision, EFA goals, underlying concept and theory of ALS


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Overview of Alternative Learning System, legal bases, mission, vision, goals; underlying theories and concept of ALS, BALS organizational structure, Significance of ALS in attaining EFA goals; Philippine EFA Plans; international perspectives on Non formal Education(NFE).

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Alternative Learning System by Phoebe W. Taruc, mission, vision, EFA goals, underlying concept and theory of ALS

  1. 1. Alternative Learning SystemPhoebe W. Taruc
  2. 2. Course Title : Doctor in Educational ManagementSubject: Administration of Alternative Learning SystemReporter: Phoebe W. TarucInstructress: Edith B. Lago-Ortega, Ph.D
  3. 3.    Every Filipino has a right to free basic education. But many Filipinos fail to avail of it, for various reasons. In attending to this issue, DepEd has set up the Alternative Learning System (ALS) to provide all Filipinos the chance to gain access to basic education in a mode that fits their distinct situation and needs.ALS is a learning system that provides a practical option to the existing formal instruction. For the out-of-school children, youth and adults who do not have access to formal education in schools, ALS lives up to its name - it offers an alternative. It offers non-formal sources of knowledge and skills.Overview
  4. 4. The Alternative Learning System (ALS) is a free education program implemented by the Department of Education (DepEd) under the Bureau of Alternative Learning System which benefits those who cannot afford formal schooling and follows whatever is their available schedule. The program provides a viable alternative to the existing formal education instruction, encompassing both the non-formal and informal sources of knowledge and skills.What is ALS?
  5. 5. Objective:ALS aims to open more educational opportunities for Filipino citizens of different interests, capabilities of demographic characteristics, socioeconomic origins and status as well as addressing the needs of marginalized groups.The program cuts the time needed to finish high school, hence, significantly cuts the expenses as well. Aside from giving hope to the less fortunate, it also provides opportunities to Out-of-School Youths (OSY) and adults elementary and secondary school drop-outs; industry-based workers; housewives; maids; factory workers; drivers; members of cultural minorities; indigenous people and the disabled/physically challenged.
  6. 6. Alternative Learning System implements three major programs , namely:         1) The Basic Literacy Program         2.) The Continuing Education Program         3.) The Sustainability & Lifelong ProgramAll three programs are modular and flexible: each one of them can take place anytime and anyplace, depending on the convenience and availability of the learners. Learning sessions are usually held in community learning centers following a schedule agreed upon by the learners and the facilitator. 
  7. 7. “Empowerment of the Filipino with desirable  knowledge, attitudes, values  and skills  that will enable him to think critically and creatively, act innovatively and humanely in improving the quality of his life and that of his family, community and country.” Vision
  8. 8. “It is envisioned that with the help of ALS, everyFilipino will be awakened, empowered, andtransformed into a productive, self-reliant,responsible, humane, and upright citizen who cancontribute to the betterment of the family,community and country. It is also envisaged thatALS will help alleviate poverty and sustain socialand economic growth via the development ofemployable skills and the generation of self-employment.”Mission
  9. 9. Vision:The BALS envisions itself to be the best producer of lifelong learners among Filipinos. Mission:In partnership with other producers of learning, the BALS will develop exemplary programs and open learning opportunities to achieve multiple literacies for all. 
  10. 10. 1. Learning to learn focuses in a combination of a broad general knowledge with the opportunity to work-in-depth on a small  number of subjects. 2. Learning to do pertains to the acquisition not only of an occupational skill but also, more broadly, the competence to deal with many situations and work  in teams. Underlying Concepts andTheories
  11. 11. Underlying Concepts andTheories3. Learning to live together deals on the development of an understanding of other people and appreciation of  interdependence in a spirit of respect for the values of  pluralism, mutual understanding and peace. 4. Learning to be is the development of one’s personality and ability to  act with ever greater autonomy, judgment, and personal responsibility.  
  12. 12. .1. Paulo Freireused “problem-posing” methods to raise awareness of social issues and to stimulate action by disadvantaged groups. Using a process of problem analysis, reflection, and action, his approach to education was based on the belief that community members need to be encouraged to think critically about problems in their daily lives in order to make decisions and take action.Underlying Concepts and Theories
  13. 13. .2. Howard GardnerGardner’s work on multipleintelligences has had an enormous impact on the field of education.Gardner posits at least seven intelligences (musical, spatial, linguistic, logical/mathematical, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal), and asserts that successful learning experiences should engage as many of these intelligences as possible.. Underlying Concepts and Theories
  14. 14. .Underlying Concepts and Theories. Malcolm KnowlesKnowles popularized adult learning theory and ffered ways to apply it in learning activities. Knowles elieved that the needs of adults in education differed a reat deal from the needs of children. He popularized he term andragogy, “the art and science of helping dults learn” to draw a sharp distinction between adult earning and pedagogy, the instruction of children. He uggested that because children had yet to assume esponsible, independent roles in society, teachers and arents tend to make the decisions about what and ow they should learn. But because adults have a ealth of life experience and have already assumed esponsible roles, it is important to respect slightly ifferent principles when engaging in adult education. 
  15. 15. .Underlying Concepts and Theories4. David KolbKolb popularized an awareness of learning styles, and created a model that suggests four different categories of learning—concrete experimentation, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation. Kolb created amethodology for incorporating these four categories into every learning experience—the “experiential learning cycle.”
  16. 16. .Underlying Concepts and Theories5.  Bernice McCarthyMcCarthy expanded on Kolb’s work and the research on left and right brain processes to create her 4MAT System. McCarthy suggested four learning types: imaginative learners, analytic learners,common sense learners, and dynamic learners
  17. 17.  Principles/Concepts/Theories Expect to be treated with respect and recognition.·Want practical solutions to real-life problems.Can reflect on and analyze individual experiences.Have different learning styles.·Are motivated by the possibility of fulfilling personal needs and aspirations.Are capable of making their own decisions and taking charge of their ownlearning.
  18. 18. 1. The 1987 Philippine Constitutionprovides for the recognition andpromotion of other forms of educationother than formal education. Art. 14,Sec.2, (par.1) declares that the stateshall establish, maintain, and support acomplete, adequate, and integratedsystem of education relevant to theneeds of people and society; andLegal Bases“(par.4) concisely encourages non-formal, informal, andindigenous learning systems, as well as self-learning,independent, and out-of-school study programs particularlythose that respond to community needs
  19. 19. .2. Executive Order No. 117,of 1987, decreed the creation of the Bureau of Non-Formal Education (BNFE). The Bureau focusedon teaching-learning in non-formal settings forthe marginalized sectors.Sec. 5 - prescribed the powers and functions of thereorganized ministry of education, culture andsports (signed by Pres. Corazon Aquino) toimplement and coordinate the policies, plans,programs and projects for non-formal andvocational/technical kinds of education, amongothers.Legal Bases
  20. 20. . 3. The governance Act for BasicEducation (R.A. 9155) stipulates theestablishment of ALS to provideout-of-school children, youth, andadult population with basiceducation. Section 12.1 Rules Xll ofR.A. 9155 stipulates that “thealternative Learning System is aparallel learning system to provide aviable alternative to the existingformal education instruction,encompassing both the nonformaland informal sources of knowledgeand skills”.Legal Bases
  21. 21. 4. Executive Order No. 356 of 2004The Bureau of Alternative LearningSystem (BALS) of the Department of Education(DepED) in its present form was created inSeptember 2004 under Executive Order No.356 – Renaming the Bureau of Non-FormalEducation to Bureau of Alternative LearningSystem.Legal BasesEO 356 reiterated the definition of ALS and it alsodirected BALS to “provide a systematic and flexibleapproach to reach all types of learners outside of the formalschool system.”
  22. 22. 5. BESRA - In 2006, DepED formulated theBasic Education Sector Reform Agenda(BESRA), a comprehensive package ofpolicy reforms that are expected to createcritical changes to accelerate, broaden,deepen and sustain the improvement ofbasic education in the country.It also formulated the correspondingnecessary guidelines to strengthen BALS asan institution entrusted to steward thedevelopment of ALS in the Philippines andaddress the national goal of universalaccess to quality education.Bases
  23. 23. Legal Bases6) DepEd Memo No. 101, s. 2001Passers can enroll in the post secondary schools takingup technical or vocational or even two, four or five-year courseof the Commission on Higher Education for private collegesand universities7.) DepEd Memo No. 344, s. 2000 - PASUC (for governmentowned/controlled)Agreement between the DepEd and the PhilippinesAssociation of State Universities and Colleges (PASUC) on theAlternative Learning System Accreditation and EquivalencyExam for the passers who prefer to enroll at governmentowned and controlled colleges and universities
  24. 24. 9.) DepEd Memo No. 110,s. 1999 – access toTESDA skills trainingprograms10.) DepEd Order No. 20,s. 2000 - a chance toacquire eligibility forgovernment employmentpositions under CSCResolution No. 499
  25. 25. It is a very important component in the PhilippineEducation to achieve quality and access to education asenvisioned in the EFA 2015 Phil. Plan of Action andspecifically on the reduction of illiteracy rate.Sec. 12.1 Rule XII of R.A. 9155 stipulates that the ALS is aparallel learning system to provide a viable alternative to theexisting formal education instruction, encompassing both thenon-formal and informal sources of knowledge and skills.One of the most important initiatives in Non-formaleducation is the ALS which is a major component of basiceducation with a clearly defined role within the overalleducational goal. Thus the Bureau of Non-formal Education isrenamed to Bureau of Alternative learning SystemThe Bureau of Alternative LearningSystemThe Bureau of Alternative LearningSystem
  26. 26. The BALS is mandated to address the needs ofBasic education of the OYS and adults in the countryparticularly in far flung and isolated communities, toraise the level of literacy in the target areas andimprove the quality of life of individuals and familiesin remote and underserved communities.Why is BALS Placed in ourEducational System?
  27. 27. BALS OrganizationalStructureBureau of AlternativeLearning SystemLiteracyDivision (LD)ContinuingEducationDivision (CED)StaffDevelopmentDivision (SDD)
  28. 28. 1. Literacy Division (LD) A community-based programfor illiterate out-of-school youth and adults to developbasic literacy skills: reading, writing and numeracy.2. Continuing Education Division (CED) as defined bythe 1986 meeting of the Asia and the Pacific Programmeof Educational Innovation for Development (APEID),covers all educational opportunities taking place outsidethe literacy and primary education programs, includingthe enrichments of the learning environment to activateand sustain motivation for learning. It provides extra-curricular activities which further enhance the learningprocess.
  29. 29. 3. Staff Development Division (SDD)formulates policies, plans andprograms to upgrade the quality ofteaching and non-teaching staff in non-formal education.
  30. 30. International Perspectives of Non-formalEducation
  31. 31. The original version of NFE emerged inthe late 1960s and early 1970s. Coombs (1968) andCoombs and Ahmed (1974) defined NFE as an alternativeform of education for adults and children that occurredoutside of the traditional classroom environment. The needfor NFE arose in the context of the widespreaddisillusionment with formal schooling in the 1970s (Illich1973). NFE was then seen as a panacea for the ills ofeducation in developed and developing countries (Freire1972), and Aid gencies made substantial investments inNFE from the late 1960s to the 1980s.International Perspectives of Non-formal Education
  32. 32. The 1990s witnessed a growing ambivalencetoward NFE programs as they became associatedwith second rate educational programs catering tothe needs of poor and marginalized groups. Becauseaccreditation frameworks were weak or non-existentin most countries, NFE students suffered adisadvantage vis-àvis those from the formaleducation stream in either not being certified or in notgetting absorbed in the job market.International Perspectives of Non-formal Education
  33. 33. More recently, NFE has undergone aresurgence in developing countries because of therealization that formal schooling, in its present form,has limited reach. Furthermore, it is now recognizedthat the educational needs of young people and adultsare varied and should be addressed through suitableprograms. In developed countries, NFE has assumedimportance in the context of lifelong learning, whichsees learning as taking place not only in schools andcolleges, but throughout the lifespan, in many differentlocations and times and in formal, non-formal, andinformal modes.International Perspectives of Non-formal Education
  34. 34. The current emphasis on creating ‘knowledge-based’societies has made ‘learning’ throughout life moreimportant, which in turn requires an education system tohave greater flexibility to enable learners to enter and leavethe system at different points. Thus, accreditation andequivalency and other synergies between the formal andthe non-formal learning sectors have become essential.Moreover, a wide range of education providers, includinguniversities, NGOs, government agencies, and the privatesector, needs to be involved, particularly because learners,who have diverse learning styles, would need differentkinds of skills from formal, non-formal, informal, anddistance and open learning institutions.International Perspectives of Non-formal Education
  35. 35. A joint research project undertaken by memberinstitutions of the Asia Pacific Programme of Education forAll (APPEAL) Resource and Training Consortium (ARTC) todocument and disseminate innovative approaches to NFEand lifelong learning in the region classifies NFE innovationsin the region under three broad categories (UNESCO2002):International Perspectives of Non-formal Education
  36. 36. 1. Functional literacy and adult education for povertyalleviation, as illustrated by case studies from Bangladeshand China. The Bangladesh case study with contributions from16 NGOs gives considerable attention to linking literacy witheconomic activities. On the other hand, the study from Chinahighlights that inter-sectoral coordination is critical for lifelonglearning and also for linking education with poverty alleviation.International Perspectives of Non-formal Education3 broad categories (UNESCO2002):
  37. 37. 2. Non-formal education for sustainable development,as in case studies from India, Indonesia, the Philippines,and Thailand. The Indian study focuses on the importanceof linking NFE programs to demand from the localcommunity and developing locally relevant curricula. In theIndonesian and Philippines case studies, it is theequivalency of the NFE program with the formaleducational system that forms the basis for sustainabledevelopment, viewed as lifelong learning linked toeconomic improvement. The case study from Thailanddemonstrates an effective approach to sustainabledevelopment through building the capacity of the ruralpopulation for community-based action in marketing.International Perspectives of Non-formal Education3 broad categories (UNESCO2002):
  38. 38. 3. NFE as lifelong learning,as in case studies from Australia, Malaysia, and South KoreThe Australian case study highlights an innovative educationprogram that enabled farmers in Queensland to assess their currensituation and improve their confidence in their own ability to makestrategic choices, resulting in a better quality of life, more profitablefarming, and improvements in the management of land and othernatural resources. The Malaysian case study focuses on theeffectiveness of a lifelong learning project for capacity-buildingamong rural youth and adults through a massive computer literacytraining program. The South Korean case study describes the CredBanking System (CBS), an open education system that recognizesdiverse learning experiences not only in school but also out ofschool. Thus, when a student accumulates the requisite CBS-approved credits, she or he can obtain an associate or bachelor’sdegree. Thus, CBS provides citizens with greater access to variouseducational opportunities and fosters lifelong learning.
  39. 39. 1. Non-formal education promises to be a more effectiveapproach to relating education to national development.”2. Non-formal approaches offer education that is functional andpractical, i.e., related to the life-needs of the people.3.Non-formal education seeks to maintain a benefit/costconsciousness of what it does in order to provide the mosteffective and purposeful consequences with the mostefficiency.”International Perspectives of Non-formal EducationT.W.Ward, et al., cited by Claudio Zaki Dib
  40. 40. 4. Non-formal education is the inherent commitment to seekinnovative means to achieve the goals.”5. Non-formal education offers a more eclectic, multidisciplinaryapproach to the problem of development in a country6. Non-formal education promises to produce short-term effectsas well as long-term achievements.”7. Non-formal education assists in the decision-making ofeducational and development funding agencies on both anational and international level.”International Perspectives of Non-formal Education
  41. 41. The PhilippineEducation For All (EFA)2015 is a vision and aholistic program ofreforms that aims atimproving the quality ofbasic education for everyFilipino by 2015.
  42. 42. .In 1990, there was a World Declaration onEducation for All (EFA) in Jomtiem, Thailand, whichprescribed that Basic Learning Needs shall be met for all byvarious means. As a response, the Philippines crafted andimplemented the 10-year EFA Philippine Plan of Actioncovering 1991-2000. The EFA plan articulated the country’snational goals, objectives, policies and strategies, as wellas the regional programs for implementation for the firstdecade of the EFA movement. Under the 1991-2000Plan (EFA 1), the thrusts included:
  43. 43. 1. Early Childhood Development• Expansion of self-sustaining community-based ECCD• Use of innovative approaches to parent education• Promotion of preparatory education• Accreditation of private pre-school programs and institutions• Differentiated approaches for special categories of children• Strengthening of health, nutrition and other allied services• Socio-cultural adaptation of curriculum, materials andapproaches• Single agency to coordinate programs for ECCD
  44. 44. 2. Universalization of Quality Primary Education• Enhancing the holding power or student retention ofschools• Using alternative teaching-learning delivery modes• Strengthening home-school partnership• Emphasis on higher-level thinking skills• Upgrading teacher competencies3. Alternative Learning Systems• Eradication of illiteracy in selected areas• Promotion of continuing education and development• Implementation of integrated programs
  45. 45. In 2000, the Philippines, as a reaffirmation of thevision set in the 1990 World Declaration, committeditself to the 6 EFA 2015 Goals at the World EducationForum in Dakar. Based on the Dakar Framework forAction, the country came up with the PhilippineEFA 2015 National Action Plan entitled “FunctionallyLiterate Filipinos, An Educated Nation.”
  46. 46. Though the government officiallyapproved the Philippine EFA 2015 Plan only in2006, it was already used by the DepEd as itsoverall planning and policy framework as earlyas 2003 and was already integrated in theformulation and updating of the MTPDP 2001-04 and 2005-2010.
  47. 47. The 2006 Philippine EFA National Action Plan wasdesigned with the end goal of achieving functionalliteracy for everyone. To achieve this goal the planincorporates ALS-related commitments such as thefollowing:1. Develop and strengthen BALS and mandate it toserve as the government agency to guide thedevelopment of the country’s ALS.2. Make available public funds for ALS programs ofGOs and NGOs subject to the guidelines of BALS.Philippine Education For All (EFA)National Action Plan of 2006
  48. 48. 3. Build and develop a constituency for ALS development.4. Conduct research and studies to test cost-effective optionsfor delivering quality ALS.5. Undertake an inventory of available resources in localities forliteracy interventions outside the school system.6. Ensure a vigorous and credible system for reliably assessing,measuring, validating and communicating competenciesacquired through NFE and informal education.[10]The EFA 2015 plan established the crucial role of BALS assteward in the still developing discourse on ALS. Severalsystemic improvements were prioritized in order to facilitate thefulfillment of that mandate.Philippine Education For All (EFA) NationalAction Plan of 2006
  49. 49. The EFA 2015 Plan emphasizes the need to provide basiceducation for all and add a dimension to what has been thus faralmost exclusively school-based education. It points to an “urgentneed to respond to the learning needs of youth and adults that areeither have never been to school, have dropped out, reverted toilliteracy, or need basic or advanced skills to find jobs.” It suggestsa “viable alternative learning system” to formal schooling thattogether with the schools can ensure that “minimum learningachievement will be a reality for all Filipinos.” Thus, the EFA 2015Plan emphasizes that educational opportunities are channels oflearning which can become effective conduits of valuesorientation, consciousness and information useful and relevant toa wide range of social goals.What is EFA Plan
  50. 50. Overall Goals & Objectives of Philippine EFA20151. Universal Adult Functional Literacy:All persons beyond school-age,regardless oftheir levels of schoolingshould acquire the essential competenceto be consideredf unctionally literate intheir native tongue, in Filipino or inEnglish.2. Universal School Participation andElimination of Drop-outs and Repetitionin First Three Grades: All children agedsix should enter school ready to learnand prepared to achieve the requiredcompetencies from Grade 1 to 3instruction.
  51. 51. 3. Universal completion of fullcycle of basic education schoolingwith satisfactory achievementlevels by all at every grade oryear.*All children aged six toeleven should be on track tocompleting elementary schoolingwith satisfactory achievementlevels at every grade, and allchildren aged twelve to fifteenshould be on track to completingsecondary schooling with similarlysatisfactory achievement levels atevery year.Overall Goals & Objectives of Philippine EFA 2015
  52. 52. 4. Total community commitment to attainment of basiceducation competencies for all.- Every community should mobilize all its social,political, cultural and economic resources and capabilitiesto support the universal attainment of basic educationcompetencies in Filipino and English.Overall Goals & Objectives of Philippine EFA 2015
  53. 53. Significance of ALS in attaining EFA goals:One of the country’s urgent tasks in order to attain the objeabove is to transform non-formal and informal interventions intoalternative learning system yielding more EFA benefits. The firstmost urgent step is to make fully functionally literate the core populof adults and youth outside schools who do not as yet possess essefunctional literacy. The actions required for this include:a)the national government finances the integration of alternlearning options as an essential and routine part of every public, prand civil society socio-economic development initiatives and make tavailable to disadvantaged persons and communities; andb)adult literacy organizations work more closely withorganizations already involved in community development and poalleviation.
  54. 54. The Medium Term Philippine DevelopmentPlan 2001-2004 also guided theimplementation of alternative learningsystems in the country to allow flexible entryof learners in both formal and non-formal/informal streams of basic educationand ensure their upward social mobility.More importantly, it is expected todemonstrate the social and economicviability of non-school-based learningchannels
  55. 55. The first four sections of RA 9155 (w/c definessome critical features of ALS) clearly recognizes the roleof ALS as complement to the formal education system inorder to achieve the stated goal of quality education forall. . It is an indispensable component of a lifelonglearning system. It is the only effective way of providingeducation to the millions of out-of-school youths andadults to enable them to participate more effectively in thevarious development programs of the government.Moreover, it is in the Implementing Rules and Regulationsof RA 9155 where the intent to operationalize ALS wasmentioned.
  56. 56. RA 9155 also defined several critical features of ALS such as:1. Alternative Learning System (ALS) is a parallel learning system to pra viable alternative to the existing formal education instruction. Itencompasses both the non-formal and informal sources of knowledge askills;2. Informal Education (INFED) is a lifelong process of learning by whichevery person acquires and accumulates knowledge, skills, attitudes andinsights from daily experiences at home, at work, at play, and from life i3. Non-Formal Education (NFE) is an organized, systematic, educationaactivity carried outside the framework of the formal system to provideselected types of learning to a segment of the population.4. Learner is an individual seeking basic literacy skills and functional lifeskills or support services for the improvement of the quality of his/her lif
  57. 57. 5. Learning Facilitator is the key learning supportperson who is responsible for supervising andfacilitating the learning process and activities of thelearner.6. Learning Center is a physical space to houselearning resources and facilities of a learningprogram for out-of-school youth and adults. It is avenue for face-to-face and multi-media learning andactivities and other learning opportunities forcommunity development and improvement of thepeople’s quality of life.
  58. 58. OF EDUCATIONMENT(i) the Basic Literacy Program which offers community-basedlearning for illiterate youth and adults to develop basic literacyskills; and(ii) the Accreditation and Equivalency Program for literates whohave not completed 10 years of basic education. It is acertification of learning for out-of-school youth and adults aged15 years old and above who are unable to avail of formalschooling or who have dropped out of formal elementary orsecondary education.As a parallel learning system, ALS has gradually andeffectively evolved in different schools all over the country.Recognizing its crucial role, DepED through the AlternativeLearning System Division , implements two major programsnamely :Significance of ALS in attainingEFA goals:
  59. 59. ALS plays an important role in achieving the goal ofation for All (EFA) 2015, which is the “Universal Coverage off-School Youth and Adults in the provision of Basic Learnings”. With the stakeholders’ participation in this endeavour,will certainly uplift the economic situation of the Filipinoe.Former Secretary Jesli A. Lapus dubbedLS as the lifeblood of our EFA efforts.Without it, we can never achieve ourducation for All targets- at least not withine timeframe that we have set for ourselves.he limitations of our public school system,nd the limited resources we have for ourublic schools, prevent us from reallyddressing the needs of many of our people”.Significance of ALS in the attainment of EFA Goals & Objectives
  60. 60. “Education is the keyto unlock the goldendoor of freedom.”George WashingtonCarver
  61. 61. Be the change you want tosee in the worldThanks fordropping by!