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Applied linguistics final project

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**English Words Used In Korean Songs**
As a final project for Applied Linguistics course that I took back in 2012, I analyzed the underlying factors of the increasing usage of English words in Korean songs(K-pop). It is a pretty interesting topic. Feel free to enjoy it :)

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Applied linguistics final project

  1. 1. APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     ENGLISH  WORDS  USED  IN   KOREAN  DANCE  SONGS  
  2. 2. APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     Preface:  Reasons,  Aim,  and  Schedule                1   Introduc)on                2   Methodology  &  Results                3   Discussions  &  Conclusions                4   Bibliography                  5  
  3. 3. APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT    
  4. 4. APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     Change  of  English  Word  Usage    in  Korean  Dance  Songs   from  1997  to  2011   <<  SUPERFICIAL   Observa)on  of  Specific  Word  Appearance   PROFOUND  >>  
  5. 5. that the project would go smoothly without a delay or aAPPLIED  Figure 1 states theINAL  PROJECT     problem. LINGUISTICS:  F schedule plan for the final project. Schedule Plan May ~ June 2012 Sun 13 Mon 14 Tue 15 Wed 16 Thu 17 Fri Sat 18 19 25 26 31 1 2 7 8 9 Data Collection (1) 20 21 22 23 24 Data Collection (2) 27 28 29 30 Data Analysis 3 4 5 6 Presentation & Research Paper <Figure 1> Schedule Plan The data, all the lyrics of Korean dance songs from 1997 to 2011, for the
  6. 6. APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     Preface:  Reasons,  Aim,  and  Schedule                1   IntroducKon                2   Methodology  &  Results                3   Discussions  &  Conclusions                4   Bibliography                  5  
  7. 7. APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     Code   Switching   Code   Mixing   English  Usage  in  Non-­‐English  Speaking  Countries’  Music  
  8. 8. APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     From  1997  to  2011   Top  20  Korean  Dance  Songs   1)  ConKnuous  Increase  of  English   Words   2)  Words  in  “Self”  &  “Love”  Categories  
  9. 9. APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     Preface:  Reasons,  Aim,  and  Schedule                1   Introduc)on                2   Methodology  &  Results                3   Discussions  &  Conclusions                4   Bibliography                  5  
  10. 10. APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     Step  1.   SelecKng  Criteria  of  Korean  Pop  Songs   Step  2.   Using  “Melon”  to  Collect  Lyrics   Step  3.   Making  Text  Files  of  Each  Year’s  Lyrics   Step  4.   Using  “AntConc”  to  Discover  the  Frequencies  of  English  Words  
  11. 11. APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     Step  1.   SelecKng  Criteria  of  Korean  Pop  Songs  
  12. 12. 100 rankings from Melon had fewer than 20 dance songs. Overall, approximately 300 dance songs were used as the data for the project. Using “Melon” to Collect Lyrics APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     Step  2.   Using  “Melon”  to  Collect  Lyrics   Melon, a well-known Korean music chart website, was used in order to find out the top 20 dance songs of each year, from 1997 to 2011, and gather the lyrics. !"#$%&#$'($)*+,-&"$.'/0&$-*$1'/#2*$3'4$5'*+&$ !"#$%&' •  6**72,$1'/#2*$3'4$5'*+&$829*+$:2;2$(/'<$=)>?@A$ <Figure 2> Melon
  13. 13. Making Text Files of Each Year’s Lyrics APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     After collecting the lyrics of top 20 Korean dance songs from 1997 to 2011, the procedure of sorting the songs that covered at .   Step  3 least one English word was carried out. Preceded by Making  Text  Flyrics of f  Each  Year’s  Linto text files. Thus, the classification, the iles  o each year were saved yrics   15 text files were created.
  14. 14. APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     Step  4.   Using  “AntConc”  to  Find  Out  the  Frequencies  of  English  Words  
  15. 15. APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     Step  4.   Using  “AntConc”  to  Find  Out  the  Frequencies  of  English  Words   <Figure 5> Results of 1997-2011 by Using AntConc
  16. 16. APPLIED   INGUISTICS:   however, the number of type reveals a changeable result so thatLit is hard to FINAL  PROJECT     generalize. ! Year 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Token 213 544 982 522 656 Type 96 190 371 122 165 Year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Token 821 885 1406 1305 1118 Type 243 198 337 364 319 Year 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Token 1194 2470 2760 3003 1989 Type 271 503 368 426 249 <Table 1> Token And Type of Each Year In terms of the token, which shows the overall usage of English words in
  17. 17. APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     From 2007 tof  Token  from  1997  to  2011   Number  o 2010, a rapid growth of tokens came in sight again, followed by a radical decrease from 2010 to 2011. !"#$%& &#!!" &!!!" %#!!" %!!!" $#!!" '()*+" $!!!" #!!" !" <Graph 1> Number of Token from 1997 to 2011 The largest increase of tokens between the years was from 2007 to 2008. The largest
  18. 18. APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     Number  of  Type  from  1997  to  2011   !"#$% (!!" '!!" &!!" %!!" )*+," $!!" #!!" !" <Graph 2> Number of Type from 1997 to 2011
  19. 19. APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     Similarly, the type results also suggest that there is an incessant increase, which is different from the each year’s results. Therefore, both the frequency and the variety Token  &  Type  of  Every  Five  Years   have increased from every five years. ! Year 1997-2001 2002-2006 2007-2011 Token 2917 5535 9427 644 879 1056 Analysis of Overall Years Type Summing up all the numbers Five Years <Table 2> Token and Type of Everyof token and type respectively, Korean dance songs have used 19879 English words in their lyrics. On top of that, 1777 types of Token  &  Type  of  Overall  Years   words were used. Year 1997-2011 Token 19879 17 Type <Table 3> Token and Type of Overall Years 1777
  20. 20. Analysis of Words of Overall Years APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     As a result of examining the ranking of English words of the overall years, all the words have their alternative Korean words. The very top four words were all Token   you, me, it. Exclamation, such as pronouns: I, of  Upper  Ranking  Words   oh, uh, huh, ah, also appeared on the upper rank. Words that belong to the “love” category also came up on the upper rank. These words contain love, girl, baby, boy, heart. Ranking Word Tokens 1 I 849 2 You 594 3 Me 452 4 It 403 6 Oh 309 <Table 4> Tokens of Upper Ranking Words 18
  21. 21. APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     Token  of  Upper  Ranking  Words   9 Love 222 15 Baby 171 18 Hey 166 27 Girl 106 34 Uh 96 44 Ah 81 45 Yeah 81 63 Boy 65 <Table 4> Tokens of Upper Ranking Words (Continued)
  22. 22. APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     Preface:  Reasons,  Aim,  and  Schedule                1   Introduc)on                2   Methodology  &  Results                3   Discussions  &  Conclusions                4   Bibliography                  5  
  23. 23. APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     Out-­‐of-­‐ Korea   Aspect   Personal   Aspect   In-­‐Korea   Aspect  
  24. 24. APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     Personal  Aspect:  Self-­‐AsserKon  
  25. 25. APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     In-­‐Korea  Aspect:  Cultural  Toadyism  
  26. 26. APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     Out-­‐of-­‐Korea  Aspect:  GlobalizaKon  
  27. 27. APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     Preface:  Reasons,  Aim,  and  Schedule                1   Introduc)on                2   Methodology  &  Results                3   Discussions  &  Conclusions                4   Bibliography                  5  
  28. 28. APPLIED  LINGUISTICS:  FINAL  PROJECT     Bibliography   Anthony,  Laurence.  “AntConc  (Windows,  Macintosh  OS  X,  and  Linux).”   Laurence  Anthony’s  Website.  n.d.  Web.  4  June  2012.   Ho,  Judy  Woon  Yee.  “Code-­‐mixing:  Linguis)c  form  and  socio-­‐cultural   meaning.”  The  InternaBonal  Journal  of  Language  Society  and  Culture.   2007.  Web.  1  June  2012.   Lee,  Jamie  Shinhee.  “Linguis)c  hybridiza)on  in  K-­‐Pop:  discourse  of  self-­‐ asser)on  and  resistance.”  World  Englishes,  Vol.  23,  No.  3,  p.  429-­‐450,   2004.  Web.  4  June  2012.   O’Toole,  Kathleen.  “Pop  music  at  core  of  youth  culture:  Rock  &  Roll:  Does  it   influence  teens’  behavior?”  Stanford  Report.  Stanford  University.  12  Nov.   12  1997.  Web.  10  June  2012.   Poplack,  Shana.  “Code-­‐switching.”  An  internaBonal  handbook  of  the  science  of   language,  2nd  ediBon.  2004.  Web.  1  June  2012.   Ravina,  Mark.  “Introduc)on:  conceptualizing  the  Korean  Wave.”  Resource   Library.  CBS  Interac)ve.  2008.  Web.  20  May  2012.  

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