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Nonwestern Adult Learning

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Nonwestern Adult Learning Theory & Practice.

Four Korean Learning systems.
1. Confucianism
2. Buddhism
3. Sundoism
4. Dong-Hak

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Nonwestern Adult Learning

  1. 1. HRE 590: ADULT EDUCATION & PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Copyright © 2011 Integral Leadership Center. All right reserved (Jeonghwan Choi). NON-WESTERN LEARNING Four Korean Learning Disciplines Jeonghwan (Philip) Choi 2011 Ph.D. candidate, Human Resource Education, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)
  2. 2. <ul><li>Orientalism in learning has reinforced the marginalization and oppression of other learning systems of learning and knowing. Expansion of our understandings about different learning system can enrich our meaning-making processes, which can be beneficial for ourselves. </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Integral Leadership Center. All right reserved (Jeonghwan Choi). *Source: Merriam & Cafarella (2007) NON-WESTERN LEARNING What? Who? Theme? Thorndike et al. (1928) <ul><li>In Western paradigm, learning is emphasis on cognition, cognitive development, knowledge, information processing, intelligence measurement. </li></ul>Separation of the Mind and Body . <ul><li>Individual learning than collective learning </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy and Independence than interdependence </li></ul><ul><li>Flourishing rationality, reflective discourse, self-directed, transformational learning </li></ul>Consequence of Western paraigm Nah (2000) <ul><li>Independence, self-directed, and individual transformative learning are vised as “immaturity and selfish” in Korea. Collectivism, and collaboration are recognized as important learning outcomes. </li></ul>Korean case tells different paradigms Brooks (2000) <ul><li>Although Buddhism is a part of main stream in many Asian countries, it stands as an alternative to the mainstream in the West. </li></ul>Buddhism as transformational learning Merriam (2007) <ul><li>Orientalism in Learning reinforce the marginalization and oppression of other systems of knowing. </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of our understanding of learning to many different system will enrich out meaning-making process which can be beneficial for ourselves. </li></ul>Why Study other Ways of Learning and Knowing?
  3. 3. <ul><li>In non-Western learning, collective and indigenous learning are dominant while rationalism and individual learning are dominant in the Western learning paradigm. </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Integral Leadership Center. All right reserved (Jeonghwan Choi). *Source: Merriam & Cafarella (2007) CULTURAL DICHOTOMY (WESTERN VS. NON-WESTERN?) What? Who? Theme? Nisbett (2003) <ul><li>Mind vs. Body; Nature vs. Nurture; Emotion vs. Reason; Human vs. Animal. </li></ul><ul><li>False dichotomies can emerge as an effective ways of challenging and reforming assumptions and biases. </li></ul>Dichotomies in Western Paradigm Semali & Kincheloe (1999) <ul><li>“ Western epistemological tyranny and the oppressive educational practices that follow it” (p.31) </li></ul>Civilization? Or Colonization Abdullah (1996) <ul><li>Western vs. Eastern culture - Individualistic vs. Group oriented; Freedom and independence vs. Belonging, harmony, family security, guidance; Materialism vs. Relationship; Direct and Clarity vs. Subtle, indirect, employ a third party. </li></ul>Cultural Differences George (1999 <ul><li>Eastern culture value ‘indigenous learning.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Organic: story-telling, poetry, metaphor; myth, ceremony, ritual, arts. </li></ul>Indigenous Learning Merriam (2007) <ul><li>Confucianism; Hinduism; Maori Concepts; Islamic Perspective; African Indigenous Education. </li></ul>Five Non-western learning
  4. 4. <ul><li>Orientalism is the representation of Asia, esp. the Middle East, in a stereotyped way that is regarded as embodying a colonialist attitude (Oxford Dictionary). </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Integral Leadership Center. All right reserved (Jeonghwan Choi). Edward Said (1978) *Source: reagan (2000) . <ul><li>Orientalism can be discussed and analyzed as the corporate institution for dealing with the Orient— dealing with it by making statements about it, authorizing views of it, describing it, by teaching it, settling it, ruling over it: in short, Orientalism as a Western style for dominating, restructuring, and having authority over the Orient. … European culture gained in strength and identity by setting itself off against the Orient as a sort of surrogate and even underground self.” </li></ul>PHILOSOPHICAL STARTING POINT What? Who? Theme? Reagan (2000) <ul><li>Results in “distortion” and subjugation to preexisting values and norms. </li></ul><ul><li>Underscore the indigenous education. </li></ul>Orientalism approach . <ul><li>Legitimated “schooling” as education. </li></ul><ul><li>Tradition: historical tradition, the defined traditio (cultural), and the contemporary tradition (manifested in people’s lives today). </li></ul>Cultural and epistemological ethnocentralism . <ul><li>In, Stalin’s case, Meaning can be interpreted quite differently when a same text message is conveyed. </li></ul>Oral Tradition
  5. 5. TRADITIONAL KOREAN LEARNING 1. CONFUCIANISM Copyright © 2011 Integral Leadership Center. All right reserved (Jeonghwan Choi). ONE WORD OF CONFUCIANISM: “ 允執厥中 : Grasp the Center ” <ul><li>大學之 :  </li></ul><ul><li>道在明明 :  </li></ul><ul><li>德在親 ( 新 ):  </li></ul><ul><li>民在止 :  </li></ul><ul><li>於至善 :  </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Learning is:  </li></ul><ul><li>to enlighten the people's (inborn) brightness; </li></ul><ul><li>to refresh people's warmth of body and mind (virtue); </li></ul><ul><li>to cease people from going a wrong way; and   </li></ul><ul><li>to reach people to the ultimate goodness.  </li></ul><ul><li>格物 : </li></ul><ul><li>致知 : </li></ul><ul><li>誠意 : </li></ul><ul><li>正心 : </li></ul><ul><li>修身 : </li></ul><ul><li>齊家 : </li></ul><ul><li>治國 : </li></ul><ul><li>平天下 : </li></ul><ul><li>1) investigation of things </li></ul><ul><li>2) extension of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>3) sincerity of will   </li></ul><ul><li>4) rectification of the mind </li></ul><ul><li>5)  cultivation of one’s personal life (body) </li></ul><ul><li>6) regulation of the family </li></ul><ul><li>7) regulation of the nation </li></ul><ul><li>8) accomplish world peace. </li></ul>
  6. 6. TRADITIONAL KOREAN LEARNING 1-1. KOREAN CONFUCIANISM Copyright © 2011 Integral Leadership Center. All right reserved (Jeonghwan Choi). <ul><li>A conceptual discipline dominates material world – Learning should be a knowing process of the discipline. (Early 16C) </li></ul>Four hundred years debate “Conceptual World vs. Material World” <ul><li>Dynamics of material world shape a conceptual discipline – Learning should be a discipline shaping process (Late 16C). </li></ul><ul><li>Only the material world exists. The energy (Ki) is the world itself – Practical experiences of material world is the learning (Late 19C) . </li></ul>
  7. 7. TRADITIONAL KOREAN LEARNING 2. BUDDHISM Copyright © 2011 Integral Leadership Center. All right reserved (Jeonghwan Choi). <ul><li>Korean Buddhism is characterized as it’s unique “Inquiry based learning” (calling, Hwa-Doo.) </li></ul>ONE WORD OF KOREAN BUDDHISM: “ 中道 : The Way of Center” From Harvard to HwaGyeSa “ Shoot the Buddha ? ”
  8. 8. TRADITIONAL KOREAN LEARNING 3 . SUNDOISM Copyright © 2011 Integral Leadership Center. All right reserved (Jeonghwan Choi). <ul><li>Sundoism is focusing on ‘material world’ rather than conceptual world. And, it believes the material world is composed of unmaterializable ‘Energy / Force – Ki’ </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is the process of practicing the Energy. </li></ul>“ Shoot the Buddha ? ” ONE WORD OF SUNDOISM: “ 抱一守中 : Embrace the Center” 힘
  9. 9. TRADITIONAL KOREAN LEARNING 4. DONG-HAK Copyright © 2011 Integral Leadership Center. All right reserved (Jeonghwan Choi). <ul><li>Dong-Hak is a unique religion and epistemological practice in Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>The practice is invented with integrating Korean Confucianism, Buddhism, Sundoism, and Christianity in late 19 C. </li></ul><ul><li>The core discipline of Dong-Hak is “Respect Human as the God.” </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is treated as the “Lifelong process of awakening and cultivating internal Holy divine” </li></ul>ONE WORD OF DONG-HAK: “ 人乃天 : Human is the God”
  10. 10. DISCUSSION <ul><li>From ancient, Korean education has focused on integration of three philosophical and spiritual disciplines (Confucianism, Buddhism, and Sundoism). Koreans have viewed the learning is the most important thing to realize their beliefs and wants (being a righteous person, awakening, being a holy divine). Failing in ‘self-modernization’ and ‘late industrialization’ have hindered the evolution of Korean learning/education philosophies. </li></ul>Copyright © 2011 Integral Leadership Center. All right reserved (Jeonghwan Choi). What can HRD and Adult Education researchers do to expand knowledge about ‘unique’ non-western learning in a modern society? Question: Is is meaningful to revive and revitalize those old learning/education beliefs and philosophies in Korea? Why and Why not?
  11. 11. QUESTIONS? Copyright © 2011 Integral Leadership Center. All right reserved (Jeonghwan Choi). Jeonghwan (Philip) Choi, MBA, ME Ph.D. Candidate, Human Resource Education, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Homepage: Integral Leadership Center (http://leadershipcenter.tistory.com) E-mail: jchoi52@illinois.edu If you have any questions, please contact the author.
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