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Anatomy of vertebrate (basic biology) unm


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Anatomy of vertebrate (basic biology) unm

  1. 1. RATIFICATION PAGE Complete report of basic biology practicum with title ’’Anatomy of Vertebrate’’ that arranged by : Name : Jeny ayu hardiah ningrum Registrasion Number : 1114040162 Group : III (Three) Class : ICP A After checked by assistant and assistant coordinator so this report was accepted Makassar, November 4th 2011 Assistant Coordinator Assistant Djumarirmanto,S.Pd. Firdaus ID.091404183
  2. 2. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background I know about frogs, while I am still little, frogs one of amphibian animal that we can find in place get water or swampy, and frogs can lie at near house, I have heard one myth about fogs which is "while is sounded frogs, will rain" I know while I am still little, but it just myth at society, frogs has latin name, ordinary also at mention Rana cancarivora, frogs comes from egg, and reproduction method frog constitutes interesting for me, because female frogs to get on the back male`s frogs on it, and it constitutes funny t for me, and I knows about frogs which is skin which typical, having blot at surface skinned and skin color from frogs so medley, there is interesting eye available also that dark. The life cycle of a frog starts with an egg. A female generally lays gelatinous egg masses containing thousands of eggs in water. Each anuran species lays eggs in a distinctive, identifiable manner. An example are the long strings of eggs laid by the common American toad. The eggs are highly vulnerable to predation, so frogs have evolved many techniques to ensure the survival of the next generation. This practicum we will try to see thing or organ that exist outside frog or in frog, as mouth, any more thigh and organ as deep as reproduction system, exkretory system, digestion system, and mouth interior and knows benefit in frogs body ,and to know that part we will do dissection the frogs, we can see all a part frogs, this thing first divides to do frogs dissection, and it not such thing which horribly, but it clears a root to add science and finally this information gets we give to common society, therefore from that we will do prakticum that gets title is anatomy of vertebrate or frogs dissection, and system part. B. Purpose
  3. 3. The purpose of practicum is the student can know shapes, color and location of the organ, and its relationship with other organ in an organ system. C. Benefit The benefit of the practicum is the student of university could know shapes, color, and location of the organ and relation, and expecially the anatomy of vertebrate. CHAPTER II PREVIEW OF LITERATURE
  4. 4. Animal body consist of various organs. Organ that work together to perfom higher functions forming organs. In this practicum will be completion frogs, anatomy structure of frog (Rana cancarivora). Frog anatomy to provide an overview of the main organs in vertebrates. Anatomical observations are treated surgically to facilitate observing the shape. Position and relationship with other organs. To be observed in this practicum is the digestive system, blood circulation, respiration, excretion and reproduction (Tim Pengajar, 2011). Frogs are amphibians in the order Anura, formerly referred to as Salientia Most frogs are characterized by a short body, webbed digits (fingers or toes), protruding eyes and the absence of a tail. Frogs are widely known as exceptional jumpers, and many of the anatomical characteristics of frogs, particularly their long, powerful legs, are adaptations to improve jumping performance. Due to their permeable skin, frogs are often semi-aquatic or inhabit humid areas, but move easily on land. They typically lay their eggs in puddles, ponds or lakes, and their larvae, called tadpoles, have gills and develop in water. Adult frogs follow a carnivorous diet, mostly of arthropods, annelids and gastropods. Frogs are most noticeable by their call, which can be widely heard during the night or day, mainly in their mating season. The distribution of frogs ranges from tropic to subarctic regions, but most species are found in tropical rainforests. Consisting of more than 5,000 species described, they are among the most diverse groups of vertebrates. However, populations of certain frog species are declining significantly. A popular distinction is often made between frogs and toads on the basis of their appearance, but this has no taxonomic basis. (Members of the anuran family Bufonidae are called true toads, but many species from other families are also called toads.) In addition to their ecological importance, frogs have many cultural roles, such as in literature, symbolism and religion, and they are also valued as food and as pets. Many frogs are able to absorb water and oxygen directly through the skin, especially around the pelvic area. However, the permeability of a frog's skin can also result in water loss. Some tree frogs reduce water loss with a waterproof layer of skin. Others have adapted
  5. 5. behaviours to conserve water, including engaging in nocturnal activity and resting in a water-conserving position. This position involves the frog lying with its toes and fingers tucked under its body and chin, respectively, with no gap between the body and substrate. Some frog species will also rest in large groups, touching the skin of the neighbouring frog (Anonymous, 2011). The body (like that of most animal) consist of several organ system, each specialized by structure and function to carry on some essential physiological process such as digestion, circulation, etc. the system are integrated to work harmoniously with each other, each system is composed of several organs, which individually perform some part of the general function, in the digestive system, the mouth is for food taking, the stomach for strage and digestion and so on. The head and trunk are broadly joined and there are broadly joined, and there are two pairs of legs or limbs, there is no neck region or tail. The entire animal is covered by soft smooth moist skin. The head bears a wide mouth for taking food, two small nostrils (external nares) near the tip of the snout that serve in respiration, two large spherical eyes ( organ of sight) and behind each eye a flat eardrum or tympanic membrane that receives sound waves. Each eye has a fleshy opaque upper eyelid and a lesser lower lid. Within the upper and lower jaws is the broad mouth cavity. This narrows behind as the pharynx, which connect to the gullet, or eshopagus. The flat tongue is attached anteriorly to the mouth floor but notched and free behind and has taste buds in small papillae on it is upper surface. The muscus coated posterior and can flip forward through the open mouth to capture food. Swallowing is accomplished by raishing the mouth floor, in wich a flat hyoid cartilage is embedded and is aided by depressing the eyeballs. The upper jaw is margined by fine conical maxillary teeth, the roof of the mouth has two patches of vomerine teeth. The thin flexible skin over the entire animal provides physical protection, excludes disease organisms, serves in respiration as a frog does not drink (Grow, 1957). Is characteristic of evolution that the amphibians did not evolve from late, specialized, progressive or perfected osteichthyans, such as the teleosts, but from
  6. 6. primitive froms that lived near the beginning osteichtyan history. It has usually been true that when a radical adaptive change occurs and a new major group arises, it iriginates from primitive and not from advanced members of the ancestral group. With progressive adaption to any one of life. Among modern ampibhians, the salamanders although specialized or degenerate in many respects, have most nearly retained the ancestral habits, fishlike undulatory movement of the body as a whole. They go trought a larval stage in which they resemble adults rather closely except that, among a view other details, they have gills that are lost when metamorphosis occurs. The larvae of frogs and toad, familiar to everyone as tadpoles, are also fish like, perhaps even more so than salamander larvae, because in early stages they lack legs. Their metamorphosis is more drastic, and an adult frog or toad is completely unlike a fish (Simpson,1965). A frog is not always easy to distinguish from a toad. Although frogs generally have smooth, moist skins and long hind legs, whereas toads usually have warty, relatively dry skins and short hind legs, during the spring and summer, large number of eggs of frogs and toads maybe found in shallow puddles and along the edges of ponds and streams . the egg occur as masses of jellylike transparent material in which they are numerous small black spots. They egg of toads are deposited in strings, the egg being held together by their jelly like sheats. Frog eggs also occur in groups, but each egg is separate from the others. The eggs of amphibians normally hact into immature forms or larvae which are entirely aquatic. Some amphibians, among them many of the salamanders, remain aquatic and never venture on lend. Others, including frogs,toad, and salamanders are terrestrial as adults. For an aquatic larva to become adapted to an existence on land it must undergo a transformation metamorphosis which involves many structures of the body (Slate, 1974). CHAPTER III PRACTICUM METHOD A. Time and Place or
  7. 7. Day / Date : Monday/November 14th 2011 Time : 10.00 A.M until 12.30 P.M Place : Biology laboratory 3rd flour at FMIPA UNM B. Tool and Material 1. Tool a. Bottle killer or Toples b. Surgical tray c. Surgical consist: 1) Scissors 2) Straws limon 3) Tweezers 4) Needles 5) Scalples 2. Material a. Frog (Rana cancarivora) b. Cotton c. Chloroform (ether) / anesthetist C. Work produce 1. External observation a. Deadly frogs Grab a piece of cotton (for joint masters of finger). Wet with either / chloroform and enter into bottle killer, also soon the frogs into the bottle, cap tightly, leave until the frog fainted. b. Remove the frog that was not moving and put it into the surgical tray, leave the cotton in a bottle and seal tighly. c. Observed the outside of the frog : 1) The eyes, eyelids and membranes of sleep 2) Beyond the nostrils 3) Tympanum, membrane listener
  8. 8. 4) Slit mouth 5) Front legs : a) Upper arms (Branchium) b) Forearm (Ante branchium) c) Palm (Manus) d) The fingers (Digiti) 6) Rear leg : a) Thigh (Femur) b) Calves (Erus) c) Palm together (Pes) d) Webbed fingers swimming 7) Cloaca 8) Touch the surface of the skin and note the color d. Picture of the back area and name the parts. 2. Surgery a) Put the frog on his back on the surgical tray, nail the four feet with a needle on the wax, so it is not easy to shake. b) With tweezers, nippers lengthwise near the light, lifting slightly, cut crosswise under the skin tweezers to form slits in the skin c) Put the frog of it back body in above sexy board. Nailed the fourth it is foot with swing until can not move again. d) With tweezwers clamp stretch out skin stomach pat, raise, cut stretch at in below tweezers so form gap of skin stomach e) Gaily that skin, put poin cut and cut that skin to way head till cut pounded next, cut to way branch skin second thight. f) Cut skin to way beside left and right, so skin stomach can unveil. inspection adhering skin of muscle tissue. Only of place certain skin adhere of mucle, so from like a pocket (Saccus).
  9. 9. g) Play attention part middle stomach mucle, be seen white line stretch out as long as stomach muscle (is called line alba). h) Calm tweezers mucle stomach beside linea alba and stretch ,so form gap, put poin cut to in gap of mucle stomach and begin cut to way head till below jaw continue cut still branch thigh. i) Unveil mucle tissue stomatch beside left and right so opened stomatch hole and appear internal organ. Picture`s procedure 3. Observated of digestion system a) Opened gap mouth with scalpel and tweezers, so hole of mouth opened observated from teeth, feel with digiti geligi of jaw bellow and vomer teeth oaf. b) With tweezers pull it tongue out, observated form and adhering c) Continued observated stomatch hole that exist internal organ. Observated form and it is colour 1) Liver beside right that consist of lohus, empedu pocket, and how the colour. 2) Stomatch beside regleft of liver sees the duodenum and pancreas 3) Inspection instine soft till intestine thick. Attention is meeting. 4) Rectum that muddy to kloaka. 4. Observated of blood circulation system
  10. 10. a) Way of heart from liver, appear heart in membrane. b) Stick membrane cover of heart with point scalpel till broke, observated form and part: 1) Ventricle 2) Antrium left and right 3) Truncus arteriosus and aorta (left and right) 4) Drew part heart and give name 5. Observated of breathing system a) Inspection part beside right liver and beside left stomatch, and part of lungs b) With the pipette that’s is point is to put into the hole branch esophagus c) Cut he heart to lose it. So that was appear trachea d) Drew the breathing system of frog 6. Observated of urogenitali and that system a) Lose the organ of digestion begin of stomatch till of rectum, with mesenterium b) Will appear coupe of kidnet that adhere of part back hole stomatch observated: 1) Kidney with adrenal gland 2) Body lipid (Corpus adiposum) 3) Kidney of tract (Uretra) of kidney to urine c) Fore the male frog, urethra called ductus urospermaticus the place of testis was above landney with kidney undergo vasa evvernsia d) For the female frog,exis couple oviduct like as tract is curve white into the place of kloaka, the point like as fanel (Ostiom) exist in near heart e) Drew the part of vrogenitala and give name with the part.
  11. 11. Notes : Mouth (Cavum oris) External nose (Nares ateriores) head Eyes (Oculi) Membranes sleep (Membrane nictitans) Fingers (Digiti) Thigh (Femur) Soles united calf (Crus) Pes Trunk CHAPTER IV OBSERVATION RESULT Foot membrane A. Observation result 1. Morphology observation (dorsal) Fore arm (Ante barachium) Upper arm (Branchium) Tympanum membrane (Tympanum)
  12. 12. comparson picture 2. Morphology observation (Ventral) Notes: Digiti Forlimb Stomatch Thigh Crus Pes Foot membran cloaca
  13. 13. Comparason picture Notes: External nares (Nares anteriores) Maxillaries teeth (Dentes maxillaries) Entrance to eshopagus 3. Mouth Glottis (Glottidis) Opening to vacal sac (Saccus vocaiis) Opening to Eustachian tube (Tuba auditiva eustachii) Vomarine teeth ( Dentes vomer) Internal nares (nares posteriors)
  14. 14. From internet 4. Respiratory system Notes: Pharyns Trachea Right lung Left lung Glottis
  15. 15. From internet 5. Digestive system Notes: Esophagus (Oesophagus) Liver Duodenum Stomatch (Ventriclus) Small intestine (Intestinum tennue) Cloaca
  16. 16. 6. Excretory system Notes: Kidney Ureter Urinary bladder Cloaca Bladder
  17. 17. Comparason picture 7. Reproduction system Notes: Ovary Oviduct Kidney Ureter
  18. 18. From internet 8. Cyrculatory system Notes: Aortic Right auricle Left auricle Wall of ventricle
  19. 19. B. Discussion 1. Morphology observation (Dorsal) Many frogs are able to absorb water and oxygen directly through the skin, especially around the pelvic area. However, the permeability of a frog's skin can also result in water loss. Some tree frogs reduce water loss with a waterproof layer of skin. Others have adapted behaviours to conserve water, including engaging in nocturnal activity and resting in a water-conserving position. This position involves the frog lying with its
  20. 20. toes and fingers tucked under its body and chin, respectively, with no gap between the body and substrate. Some frog species will also rest in large groups, touching the skin of the neigh bouring frog. This reduces the amount of skin exposed to the air or a dry surface, and thus reduces water loss. These adaptations only reduce water loss enough for a predominantly arboreal existence, and are not suitable for arid conditions. 2. Morphology observation (Ventral) The part of ventral: Digiti, Forlimb, Stomatch, Thigh, Crus, Pes, Cloaca. Camouflage is a common defensive mechanism in frogs. Most camouflaged frogs are nocturnal, which adds to their ability to hide. Nocturnal frogs usually find the ideal camouflaged position during the day to sleep. Some frogs have the ability to change colour, but this is usually restricted to shades of one or two colours. For example, White's tree frog varies in shades of green and brown. Features such as warts and skin folds are usually found on ground-dwelling frogs, where a smooth skin would not disguise them effectively. 3. Mouth If you closely examine the head of a frog, you will find the following: eye sockets, eyes, mouth, tongue, vomerine teeth, maxillary teeth, gullet teeth, external nostrils, internal nostrils, the glottis opening, eustachian tube openings, the tympanic membranes and the esophagus. The eyes, the mouth and the nostrils are all examples of a frog's external structures. In addition, a frog's external structures also include the webbed feet and the cloaca opening. Below the part of mouth: a. External nares (Nares anteriores) b. c. Maxillaries teeth (Dentes maxillaries) Entrance to eshopagus d. Glottis (Glottidis)
  21. 21. e. Opening to vacal sac (Saccus vocaiis) f. Opening to Eustachian tube (Tuba auditiva eustachii) g. Vomarine teeth ( Dentes vomer) h. Internal nares (nares posteriors) 4. Respiratory system In amphibians, respiratory organs include buccopharygeal lining, skin, gills and lungs. While the gills are present in larval stage, the adults breathe by lungs or lungs as well as gills. Respiration by skin is called cutaneous while the one by lungs is termed pulmonary. Gills are absent in all reptiles, birdsand mammals, and the only respiratory organs in these vertebrates are the lungs. Below the parts of frog`s respiratory: a. Pharyns b. Trachea c. Right lung d. Left lung e. Glottis 5. Digestive system Digestion begins in the mouth. The teeth break the food into small pieces and mix it thoroughly with saliva. An enzyme in the saliva starts converting any starch in the food into sugar. After being chewed, the food is swallowed, and passes down a tube called the esophagus into the stomach. Muscles in the wall of the esophagus force the food down. The stomach produces another enzyme, which starts to break down proteins. The stomach also contains hydrochloric acid, which makes this enzyme active. A second stomach enzyme clots (solidifies) the protein in milk. This is particularly important for babies, who rely on milk for food. Below the parts of frog`s digestive system: a. Esophagus (Oesophagus): Tube leading the stomach
  22. 22. b. Pancreas: make insulin c. Liver d. Duodenum e. Stomatch (Ventriclus) f. Small intestine (Intestinum tennue) g. Cloaca 6. Excretory system The main organ of excretion is a pair of kidneys. These are compact, dark red and bean like structures situated little posteriorly in the body cavity on both sides of vertebral column. The frog excretes urea thus, is a ureotelic animal. It is carried by blood into the kidney where it is separated and excreted. Each kidney is composed of several structural and functional units called uriniferous tubules or nephrons. Ureter emerges from the kidney as urinogenital duct in the male. A common ureter opens into the cloaca. A thin-walled urinary bladder in present ventral to rectum, which also opens into the cloaca. A thin-walled urinary bladder in present ventral to rectum, which also open in the cloaca. Below the part of frog`s excretory: a. Skin b. Kidney c. Pulmo d. Hepar e. Bladder 7. Reproduction system Once adult frogs reach maturity, they will assemble at a water source such as a pond or stream to breed. Many frogs return to the bodies of water where they were born, often resulting in annual migrations involving thousands of frogs. In continental Europe, a large proportion of migrating frogs used to die on roads, before special fences and tunnels were built for
  23. 23. them. Male and female Common toad (Bufo) in amplexus Male and Female common toad in amplexus. The black strands are eggs released into open water minutes after birth. Once at the breeding ground, male frogs call to attract a mate, collectively becoming a chorus of frogs. The call is unique to the species, and will attract females of that species. Some species have satellite males who do not call, but intercept females that are approaching a calling male. 8. Cyrculatory system Circulatory system is closed type and represents single circulation, which means that both the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood enters the heart and get mixed in ventricles. The heart lies enclosed by a thin, transparent, two layered sac, pericardium. Frogs heart is a three chambered structure made of two upper auricles and a single lower ventricles. The two additional chambers connected to the heart of frog are sinus venosus and truncus arteriosus. Frogs also possess two well developed portal system : Renal portal system and Hepatic portal systems. Frog has two pairs of lymph hearts. Below the part of frog`s circulatory : 1. Heart 2. Aorta 3. Veins CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. Conclusion Anatomy of vertebrate have give us information about the specific organs of vertebrate animals. Digestive system, circulation system, breathing or respiration system, excretion system, and reproduction system are the organs have we observed. They are the frog body consisted of head, neck, and
  24. 24. body. At head there is couple of eyes with sleep membrane, nose, cavum oris, neck is abstrack, at the body, there are brancheum, antebrancheum, manus, digiti, thigh, femur, crus, pest, and webbing radius. Frogs digestive system consist of cavum oris, oesophagus, hepar, cardiac, vesica velia, pancreas, fundus, pylorus, lntestinum, rectum, and cloaca. Circulation system to frog is closed entangling heart. Heart of frog consist of aorta, pericardium, atrium, (left and right) and ventricle. B. Suggestion 1. Suggestion for laboratory I hope for next practicum tools and materials that need for practicum must complete and better in order practicum is success. 2. Suggestion for Assistant I hope assistant could give attention for practican about function frog`s part 3. Suggestion for the all friends I hope all practicans could understand,and did not make noise in the laboratory and do not scare with frog. BIBLIOGRAPHY Anonymous, 2011. Frog. Accessed at November 7th 2011. Simpson, George Gaylord. 1965. Life An Introduction to biology. New York: Harcourt Grow, Mc. 1957.Hill book coporation.New York: Slate, Audrey nelson. 1974. Principles of biology. New York: Harper and Row Publisher Tim Pengajar, 2011. Penuntun praktikum biologi dasar.Makassar: UNM