A Guide to the               Accreditation Management                       Body of Knowledge                             ...
A Guide to theAccreditation Management        Body of Knowledge                                (AMBOK® Guide)         b   ...
PUBLISHED BYdialogue bound press1601 159th AVE NEBellevue, Washington 98008-2753Copyright © 2012All rights reserved. This ...
TABLE OF CONTENTSSECTION 1 – ACCREDITATION MANAGEMENT ........................................... 1          Introduction ...
Page ii      AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
SECTION 1 – ACCREDITATION MANAGEMENTIntroductionThe Accreditation Management Body of Knowledge (AMBOK®) Guide representsth...
AccreditationDefinitionAt the most fundamental level accreditation can be defined as evidence incapability. It provides ev...
Examples of Accreditation through Concise Use CasesTo further illustrate the application of accreditation as evidence of c...
Use Case 3 – The Public Sector Security ClearanceConsider the security clearance found in the public sector. The proposed ...
Use Case 5 – The Wood Products IndustryConsider the wood products industry. We live in a rapidly changing world ofbiodiver...
Use Case 7 – The Telecommunications IndustryConsider the telecommunications industry. A large telecommunicationscompany ne...
Use Case 10 – The Dietary Supplements IndustryRainbow Light Nutritional Systems introduced their trademarked VeganGuard™in...
Use Case 12 – The Project Management ProfessionConsider project management. Often considered a strategic competency inconc...
Benefits of AccreditationThese case studies provide an illustration that supports many applications inaccreditation: evide...
Product and Services AccreditationAccreditation from a product and services perspective has to do with meetingperformance ...
Accreditation Management     Definition     Accreditation management formally justifies, develops and sustains an     accr...
Mission, Goals, Objectives and Strategy Mission, goals and objectives, and strategy reflect the awareness of: how,when an...
Organizations may use tangible and intangible assets as part of an accreditationas a means of competitive advantage, e.g. ...
Feedback Loop              Customer        Supplier          Customer        Supplier         Customer      Supplier      ...
SummaryRobert Reich (2007), former U.S. secretary of labor and best-selling author,addressed educators from 51 countries t...
SECTION 1 - Endnotes1   Project Management Institute (PMI), A guide to the project management body of                     ...
20   PMI, Project Management Institute completes successful ANSI audit, 10 October    2006, < http://www.pmi.org/AboutUs/P...
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SECTION 2 – KNOWLEDGE AREASKnowledge Area MapKnowledge can be defined as “facts or procedures that individuals or teams of...
According to Princeton University’s WordNet (2006), a goal is “the state ofaffairs that a plan is intended to achieve and ...
1. ASSESSMENT Goal: to appraise, estimate, evaluate, judge or determine the amount, content, quality, size, or value of so...
Human: a behavioral assessment “measures personality traits in a more             comprehensive way [than personality asse...
1.7 Performance    Performance has to do with execution efficiency and effectiveness;    recognizing performance gaps or d...
1.10 Survey    Survey and Inspection are very similar with the following two exceptions in    taxonomy:          Research ...
2. CERTIFICATION Goal: to attest, confirm, state or validate the authenticity, fact, statement or truth of something.Figur...
example, a University Registrar may issue an official document that    validates dates of attendance, student status, and ...
2.4 Product    A product has met the requirements of a particular certification that may    include specific minimum crite...
2.7 Sales    A measure that relates to the activities involved in selling goods or services,    for example, customer feed...
3. COMPETENCY Goal: to establish areas of capability, and levels of proficiency, in which something can be successfully ex...
3.2 Relational    Those capabilities and proficiencies, in addition to Core Competency, that    are complementary and may ...
4. CORRELATION Goal: to establish a complementary, parallel or reciprocal relationship, with qualitative correspondence, b...
compensation models, competency models, thought-leadership to                build human capital, etc.4.2 Affiliation    A...
4.4 Endorsement    A promotional statement; act of approval; formal or explicit approval;    sanction as a means to suppor...
Vancouver Aquarium, SETI (Search of Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) Institute,    Simon Fraser University, Stanford Univer...
5. EDUCATION Goal: to obtain knowledge or skill of a specified degree, kind or level through an instruction or learning pr...
“education is a learning process that deals with unknown outcomes, andcircumstances which require a complex synthesis of k...
normally smaller in scale and more select in character - features    which tend to facilitate the exchange of information....
Product/Service Launch: the process of speaking to a group introducing             a new product/service or the improvemen...
specialty. Better yet, the scalable impact would come when those            "students," in turn, sought to reinforce their...
Page 40      SECTION 2      AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
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What Happens When a Fortune 500 Company takes on a new source of accreditation in building their human capital? …It encouraged the Project Management Institute (PMI) to host a Business Roundtable in London, U.K. (August 2007), “which was attended by 20 high-level executives from aerospace and defense, engineering, construction, the oil and gas industries,” helping to form a career framework influenced by half-a-decade of field experience in accreditation at one of the worlds most recognized companies. See how accreditation can help your organization place and promote your most valuable resource—human capital; create a measurable competitive advantage; move the dial in serving your customers. This text book helps sets the foundation to help you leverage innovation capital; customer capital; organizational capital.

ISBN-13: 978-0-9645638-2-7

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AMBOK Guide 2012 Edition

  1. 1. A Guide to the Accreditation Management Body of Knowledge (AMBOK® Guide)2012 EDITION
  2. 2. A Guide to theAccreditation Management Body of Knowledge (AMBOK® Guide) b d ™ dialogue p bound press enabling the vision of mind and ideas™
  3. 3. PUBLISHED BYdialogue bound press1601 159th AVE NEBellevue, Washington 98008-2753Copyright © 2012All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should beobtained from the author prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrievalsystem, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights andPermissions Department, or email; jensenPMP@hotmail.com.Library of Congress Cataloging-in Publication DataJensen, Christian A. A Guide to the Accreditation Management Body of Knowledge: AMBOK® Guide / Christian A. Jensen Includes endnotes, glossary and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-9645638-2-7 ISBN-10: 0-9645638-2-7 1. Accreditation. 2. Assessment. 3. Capability. 4. Certification. 5. Competitive Advantage. 6. Intellectual Property. 7. Product Management. 8. Corporate Universities. 9. Credentialing. 10. Customer Driven-Focused Development. 11. Human Resources. 12. Performance Engineering. 13. Human Capital.Printed in the United States of America. ®AMBOK is a registered trademark; the Accreditation Management Framework™ (AMF) andAVediaControls™ are trademarks; AMBOK.COM and AMBOK.ORG are registered Internetdomains; property of Christian A. Jensen, Bellevue, Washington, 98008.The author offers discounts on this textbook when ordered in quantity; also available in alicensed portable document format (PDF) for businesses that prefer their own on-premiseprinting and binding; also available in .DOC format for further customization.Production coordination and printing: Cover Art:Production coordination—Guy M. Ricci Artist—Omar ValdesPrinting—Paragon Media Titled: What we see…what we knowBindery—Letterpress Services 425.698.761755 South Atlantic, Suite 100 valdesomar@Hotmail.comSeattle, WA 98134206.808.7600www.ParagonGroup.com .First printing, October 2011
  4. 4. TABLE OF CONTENTSSECTION 1 – ACCREDITATION MANAGEMENT ........................................... 1 Introduction ......................................................................................................... 1 ® The Purpose of the AMBOK Guide ..................................................................... 1 ® Audience for the AMBOK Guide ......................................................................... 1 Accreditation ....................................................................................................... 2 Definition ...................................................................................................... 2 Examples of Accreditation ............................................................................ 2 Examples of Accreditation through Concise Use Cases ................................ 3 Benefits of Accreditation .............................................................................. 9 Individual Accreditation ................................................................................ 9 Organizational Accreditation ........................................................................ 9 Product and Services Accreditation ............................................................ 10 AMBOK® Guide Focus: the Accreditation Provider .................................... 10 Accreditation Management ............................................................................... 11 Definition .................................................................................................... 11 Example of Organizational Accreditation Management ............................. 11 Summary ............................................................................................................ 15SECTION 2 – KNOWLEDGE AREAS ............................................................ 19 Knowledge Area Map ........................................................................................ 19 1. ASSESSMENT ..................................................................................... 21 2. CERTIFICATION .................................................................................. 25 3. COMPETENCY .................................................................................... 29 4. CORRELATION .................................................................................... 31 5. EDUCATION ....................................................................................... 35 6. ETHICS................................................................................................ 41 7. EXPERIENCE ....................................................................................... 43 8. LICENSE .............................................................................................. 49 9. REGISTRATION ................................................................................... 53 10. REGULATION ...................................................................................... 59SECTION 3 – PROCESS AREAS .................................................................. 67 Accreditation Delivery Framework™ (ADF) ....................................................... 67 The ADF and other Frameworks and Methodologies ........................................ 68 0. ASSURANCE AND GOVERNACE .......................................................... 71 1. DEFINITION PHASE ............................................................................ 73 2. IMPLEMENTATION PHASE ................................................................. 79 3. SUPPORT PHASE ................................................................................ 85 External & Supplementary Documentation ....................................................... 87SECTION 4 – GETTING STARTED ............................................................... 91 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 91 Accreditation Proof-of-Concept......................................................................... 91 Summary ............................................................................................................ 96GLOSSARY .............................................................................................. 99INDEX ................................................................................................... 105 AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  Page i
  5. 5. Page ii  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  6. 6. SECTION 1 – ACCREDITATION MANAGEMENTIntroductionThe Accreditation Management Body of Knowledge (AMBOK®) Guide representsthe collective knowledge in the domain of accreditation. Domain referring tothe field of influence and action applied at an individual level and/or at abusiness level. While the concept of accreditation seems to date back to theseventeenth century, its practice has been mostly limited to academic andprofessional interests. It is often based on problems and opportunities such as amarket demand; a business need; a customer request; a technological advance;a legal requirement; or a social need.1 The AMBOK® Guide helps delineateaccreditation so that its application fits many interests and when routinelyapplied, regardless of industry, products or services: it creates a foundation forquality with regard to scope of application and specification; recognition; andfor many organizations a distinct competitive advantage.The Purpose of the AMBOK® GuideThe purpose of the AMBOK® Guide is to identify areas of knowledge thatrepresent proven, recommended and emerging practices in the field ofaccreditation. The AMBOK® Guide is a reference textbook for whichaccreditation, and its management, is structured and practiced. The AMBOK®Guide does not replace or challenge any accreditation body practices, rather,provides a framework for understanding how to create, operate, improve orapply such a body given a common body of knowledge.Audience for the AMBOK® GuideThe audiences for the AMBOK® Guide are individuals wanting to understandhow accreditation is envisioned, and implemented throughout industry;organizations looking to distinguish capability through accreditation as a meansof performance engineering in human capital or as a way of distinguishing goodsand services; or as an avenue to a sustainable competitive advantage. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 1  Page 1
  7. 7. AccreditationDefinitionAt the most fundamental level accreditation can be defined as evidence incapability. It provides evidence that a person, place, thing, quality, or action hasexplicit capability, i.e. the “qualities, abilities, features, etc., that can be used ordeveloped; potential.”2 Accreditation can further be defined as a way “to makeauthoritative, creditable, or reputable; sanction; to regard as true.”3 Accreditation establishes that a person, place, thing, quality, or action holds evidence of capability.Examples of AccreditationConstantly, various forms of accreditation are the topic of news headlines: City granted accreditation as a housing agent; City Program accredited by the National Trust for Historic Preservation; Company obtains ISO 9001/2000 accreditation; Corrugated box manufacture earns Sustainable Forestry Initiative certification; Garage door manufacturer to receive accreditation for testing facility; GetWellNetwork® endorsed by the American Hospital Association; Higher Learning Commission revokes College of Business accreditation; Million records sold—singer receives award of the Platinum® Record; Movie transfer will carry “studio experience” through its THX-certification; NASA grants accreditation for space shuttle coverage; Nurses hold one license in their state of residency; Nursing home fails accreditation to meet standards in clinical care; Reseller accredited to resell and manage camera products and services; State laboratory receives accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025.These examples provide an illustration that accreditation can be attained andlikewise revoked--both actions discussion points in this book. This suggests thata gain or loss of accreditation could impact: enrollment status; entry into a newmarket; financial funding; product or service quality; safe operation of aproduct; securing a vendor position in a bid; terms and conditions ofemployment; etc., i.e. capability yields immediate and sustainable value throughaccreditation. These examples also reinforce the many themes in accreditation:that a person (such as the nurse); a place (such as the laboratory), a thing (thecorrugated box), a quality (the testing facility), or action (the studio soundexperience)—all accredited with evidence of capability. Hence, accreditationgoes far beyond just academic and professional interests and opens new vistasof possibility in providing evidence in capability.Page 2  SECTION 1  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  8. 8. Examples of Accreditation through Concise Use CasesTo further illustrate the application of accreditation as evidence of capabilityeach of the following concise use cases (you may wish to become familiar withTable 2-0, the Table of Knowledge Areas and Accreditation Elements). Use Case 1- The Automobile IndustryConsider the automobile industry. According to the U.S. Department ofTransportation (2011), national transportation statics point out that there were10.6 million new vehicle sales in 2009; contrast that with 35.5 million usedvehicle sales.4 This certainly indicates that there is a prosperous market forlesser priced used vehicles in contrast to purchasing a new model. Two popularsport utility vehicle manufactures provide certified pre-owned accreditations toattract the used vehicle consumer (see Table 1-1): note that both are verysimilar in what they offer to the consumer. Here accreditation is single-fold:both companies have created their own programs of inspection (using theAssessment knowledge area)—this service offering is accredited in this case. 5 6 Brand Jeep Land Rover Service Certified Pre-Owned Vehicle Certified Pre-Owned Land Rover Offering - 125-point inspection - 140-point inspection - 8-year / 80,000-mile limited- - 6-year / 75,000-mile limited- warranty warranty - CARFAX report on major - 24/7 roadside assistance accidents, fire or flood damage, or odometer fraudTable 1-1. Accreditation as applied toward used automobile products Use Case 2- The Package Engineering IndustryPackaging generally falls into three categories: 1) consumer, 2) institutional, andindustrial.7 Many companies, like Amazon.com and Wal-Mart, rely on effectiveindustrial packaging for the protection of goods they have shipped tocustomers. Companies that ship goods often look to package engineering tosupport a Box Maker’s Certificate (a round or square certification mark). Thiscertificate provides information about the box capabilities in terms of strengthand construction materials, for example: the Burst Test is the ability for a box towithstand specific environmental forces; the Combined Weight and Facingsrelates to stackability; Size Limit is the maximum length of the box to stillwarrant certification; and the Gross Weight Limit is the maximum total weightthat can be placed in the box. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 1  Page 3
  9. 9. Use Case 3 – The Public Sector Security ClearanceConsider the security clearance found in the public sector. The proposed U.S.defense budget for fiscal year 2008 is $481 billion and there are currently94,212 job seekers8 looking to enter this government market which requires asecurity clearance: individuals that would be working with sensitive andconfidential information. To gain a security clearance Rod Powers states thatthere must be an investigation that “focuses on an individual’s character andconduct, emphasizing such factors as honesty, trustworthiness, reliability,financial responsibility, criminal activity, emotional stability, and other similarand pertinent areas. All investigations consist of checks of national records andcredit checks; some investigations also include interviews with individuals whoknow the candidate for the clearance as well as the candidate himself/herself.”9Here accreditation is single-fold: the government creating a program for itsagencies to establish eligibility for access to information (using the Assessmentknowledge area)—this investigation is accredited in this case. Use Case 4 – The Entertainment IndustryConsider the entertainment industry. Dolby Laboratories “has defined high-quality audio surround sound in cinema, broadcast, home entertainmentsystems, cars, games, and personal computers.”10 It is this “entertainmentexperience” that Dolby Laboratories has received copyrights, patents andtrademarks to protect its intellectual property and trade secrets. In order foruse of Dolby technology to encode content and media or to use it in consumeror professional products, integrated circuits or software, individuals ororganizations must apply for a license or a trademark agreement. According tothe United States Patent and Trademark Office a trademark helps “protectwords, names, symbols, sounds, or colors that distinguish goods and servicesfrom those manufactured or sold by others and to indicate the source of thegoods. Trademarks, unlike patents, can be renewed forever as long as they arebeing used in commerce.”11 A license is: formal permission from agovernmental or other constituted authority to do something, as to carry onsome business or profession; a certificate, tag, plate, etc., giving proof of suchpermission; official permit; the legal right to use a patent owned by another.”12Here accreditation is multi-fold: They have protected their business name andfiled for Federal trademark protection (using the Registration knowledge area)and recognizing the value of their intellectual property they allowed for its use(using the License knowledge area).Page 4  SECTION 1  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  10. 10. Use Case 5 – The Wood Products IndustryConsider the wood products industry. We live in a rapidly changing world ofbiodiversity, a concern for all forms of life and their ecosystems, which are anincreasingly important political topic. The Rainforest Alliance is a globalorganization that declares “practical conservation through certified forestry.”13The "SmartWood Rediscovered Wood Program" was created for certification ofreused, reclaimed, recycled and salvaged wood products. Here accreditation ismulti-fold: first to earn the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)/Rainforest Alliancecertification, a company must meet the ten Principles and Criteria of the FSCforest management standards (using the Ethics and Professional Standardsontology); and secondly a review of the SmartWoodcm Program (using theAssessment and Certification knowledge areas)—the company and its productsare both accredited in this case including its partners. Use Case 6 – The Software IndustryConsider the software industry. A large software manufacture, understandingone of its products is technically challenging to install and implement,understands from its support calls and field engineers that the product is a baneof customer frustration, dissatisfaction, and a risk to business operation up-time. The software manufacture may wish to create technology accelerators(TA) for the rapid deployment of their technology and its productive use prior totheir next version release. The TA could include an assessment of thecustomer’s current environment to minimize the risk of upgrade and anunderstanding of any issues; and a resource pool of field engineers accreditedby product engineers in having completed a minimum education track, throughfurther one-on-one structured development gained essential experience, and asa result were awarded this TA certification. Here accreditation is multi-fold: Thesoftware manufacture created a technical environment assessment to ensurethe successful deployment of their product (using the Assessment knowledgearea) and creating competitive advantage, certified individuals to install theproduct (using Education, Experience, and the Certification knowledge area).Customers can now be assured that their software environment is not onlycapable of upgrade, that only accredited individuals with education andexperience will install it. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 1  Page 5
  11. 11. Use Case 7 – The Telecommunications IndustryConsider the telecommunications industry. A large telecommunicationscompany needed to leverage accreditation for an important international tradeposition; the Trade Officer (TO), whose role is to ensure compliance with U.S.Export/Import regulations as outlined by the Customs and Border Protection(CBP); the Department of Commerce Export Administration Regulations (EAR);the Department of State International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR); andthe Department of Treasury Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC). The TOwould create assessment programs as proof to the agencies as compliance andimportantly, would provide transcripts of structured development activities asevidence of up-to-date knowledge of regulatory requirements and as suchwould be certified annually as a TO. Here accreditation is multi-fold: Thetelecommunications company created an assessment to ensure regulatorycompliance (using the Assessment knowledge area) and created a certificationto satisfy government auditors that the TO was knowledgeable and hadexperience in regulatory requirements (using Education and the Certificationknowledge area). Use Case 8 – The Organic Food IndustryWhile organic food and beverage sales represented approximately 4 percent ofoverall food and beverage sales in 2010, revenue of $26.7 billion (mostly infruits and vegetables) representing a 7.7 percent growth over 2009 sales.14According to the California Certified Organic Farmers (2010), “certified organicfood in the United States is grown according to standards set by the NationalOrganic Program. According to those standards, Organic food is producedwithout using most conventional pesticides; fertilizers made with syntheticingredients or sewage sludge; bioengineering; or ionized radiation.”15Consumers observe an CCOF and USDA Organic certification stamp whichfurther enables trade, marketing, political advocacy and quality. Use Case 9 – The Aquaponic Farming IndustryTaking the Organic food industry use case further (and covered with interestingdebate) is the Aquaponic farming. According to Nelson and Pade (2011),“Aquaponics is the combination of aquaculture and hydroponics. In aquaponics,you grow fish and plants together in one integrated, soilless system. The fishwaste provides a food source for the plants and the plants provide a naturalfilter for the water the fish live in. Aquaponics produces safe, fresh, organic fishand vegetables. When aquaponics is combined with a controlled environmentgreenhouse, premium quality crops can be grown on a year-round basis,anywhere in the world.”16 This is an emerging market with pendingaccreditation to assist in consumer choice.Page 6  SECTION 1  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  12. 12. Use Case 10 – The Dietary Supplements IndustryRainbow Light Nutritional Systems introduced their trademarked VeganGuard™in 2004 to assure consumers that their products contained a formulaguaranteed to be free of meat and animal products. According to themanufacture, “you can be certain the product inside is 100% animal-free — withno animal-derived or stabilized ingredients;” appealing to the diet and religiousconscious consumers.17 Use Case 11 – The Accounting ProfessionConsider accounting. One of the “big 4” Certified Public Accountant (CPA) firms(Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu; Ernst & Young; KPMG International; andPricewaterhouseCoopers) “generally recruit outstanding graduates and highlyexperienced CPAs and encourage the development of specialized skills by theirpersonnel.”18 While Table 1-1 provided a compare and contrast with two serviceofferings from competitive manufactures, Table 1-2 provides a similar compareand contrast with how the United States and its jurisdictions vary in educationalrequirements (and in some cases the call for direct experience) in the field offinancial accounting, i.e. the CPA accreditation. Here accreditation is multi-fold:the state/jurisdiction adopted a minimum requirement in education (using theEducation knowledge area), administers an exam through the AmericanInstitute of Certified Public Accountants and potentially an additionalstate/jurisdiction test (using the Assessment knowledge area),acknowledgement of an ethical code (using the Ethics knowledge area), andconditionally a period of applicable experience (using the Experience knowledgearea): the CPA is considered a license (using the License knowledge area: notehow the other knowledge areas are attributes of this profession and itsaccreditation). Application Forty-five states jurisdictions: Guam, California, Colorado, Delaware, New Puerto Rico, and Washington D.C. Hampshire, Vermont and jurisdiction: U.S. Virgin Islands Professional Certified Public Accountant (CPA) Designation - Educational requirements - Educational requirements 19 Components (enacted legislation) for a (enacted legislation) for a minimum 150 semester hours minimum 120 semester hours of college study of college study - CPA exam administered by - CPA exam administered by individual state individual state - Accounting work experience - Accounting work experience (depends on state) (depends on state) - Code of professional conduct - Code of professional conductTable 1-2. Accreditation as applied to services in financial accounting AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 1  Page 7
  13. 13. Use Case 12 – The Project Management ProfessionConsider project management. Often considered a strategic competency inconcert with an organizations core competency, project management isacknowledged as a profession and is accredited by the global organization: theProject Management Institute (PMI®). While Table 1-2 provided theaccreditation requirements for the CPA, Table 1-3 provides that of the PMP:note the similarities, however, the CPA is a license to practice and the PMP is acredential that verifies capability of practice (license and credential arediscussed in greater detail Section 3). Here accreditation is multi-fold: the PMI isable to substitute the Bachelor’s degree with 40% more professional projectmanagement experience (using the Education and Experience knowledgeareas), acknowledge additional education with learning objectives in projectmanagement (using the Education knowledge area), administers a proctoredexam through Prometric, PMI’s examination administration partner (using theAssessment knowledge area), and acknowledgement of an ethical code (usingthe Ethics knowledge area). Interestingly, PMI is also accredited by theAmerican National Standards Institute (ANSI) as an accredited StandardsDevelopment organization (SDO).20 Application Worldwide ® Professional Project Management Professional (PMP ) Designation Without Undergraduate Degree With Undergraduate Degree 21 Components - High school diploma, associate’s - Bachelor’s degree or global degree or global equivalent equivalent - Minimum five years/60 months - Minimum three years/36 unique non-overlapping months unique non-overlapping professional project professional project management experience during management experience during which at least 4,500 hours were which at least 7,500 hours were spent leading and directing spent leading and directing project tasks project tasks - 35 contact hours of formal - 35 contact hours of formal education [with learning education [with learning objectives in project objectives in project management] management] - Project management exam - Project management exam administered by proctor administered by proctor - Project management work - Project management work experience (7,500 hours) experience (4,500 hours) - Code of professional conduct - Code of professional conductTable 1-3. Accreditation as applied to project managementPage 8  SECTION 1  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  14. 14. Benefits of AccreditationThese case studies provide an illustration that supports many applications inaccreditation: evidence in capability. These case studies illustrated: 1) services inthe automobile industry; 2) a security clearance in public sector; 3) products andpartners in the wood products industry; 4) creation and reproduction of anexperience in the entertainment industry; 5) an accredited role to ensureregulatory compliance in international trade; 6) an accredited role to ensurequality and customer satisfaction in the software industry; 7) an accredited roleto ensure compliance to applicable laws and regulations; and 8) a credentialedrole as foundation to a professional practice. Individuals and organizations useaccreditation because it promotes evidence of capability in part or holistically. Itpackages one or more of the accreditation knowledge areas (see Figure 2-2) tocreate an accreditation program.Individual AccreditationAccreditation from an individual perspective has to do with characteristicallydistinguishing themselves with academic and professional credentials thatdemonstrate knowledge, commitment, and industry standards in achievementthat organizations seek when recruiting for the best talent. It can also include anindividual’s association with a club; community; an event; a fraternity orsorority; etc. The significance is distinction and recognition by association.Organizational AccreditationFrom an organizational perspective accreditation often has to do with buildinghuman capital; a competitive position; respect through industry thought-leadership; productivity; profitability; return on investment; technologicalleadership; etc. Employees and employers, academics and consultants,governments and institutions—accreditation provides a distinction in the workindividuals do and in the products and services they deliver in today’scompetitive global economy. As one CEO (of a 119 year old U.S. based company)sited: “make sure you over invest both in capabilities and resources. Second pickthe best person you can find to lead your learning efforts. That person musthave the business acumen and the ability to link that to strategies and thelearning that’s required to achieve them.”22 This book supports this notion, i.e.accreditation provides the evidence in capability, and accreditationmanagement will enable the effort in ensuring its alignment to strategy. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 1  Page 9
  15. 15. Product and Services AccreditationAccreditation from a product and services perspective has to do with meetingperformance and quality standards; suitability for a specified purpose; as ameans toward entering specific markets; or distinguishing the product andservice from the competition. Cited in the previous paragraph above,accreditation identifies capability, exploits value to the customer, and provides afocus on competitive advantage.AMBOK® Guide Focus: the Accreditation ProviderSo far the term individual and organization has been used to differentiatepeople from business. The focus of this book, from this point forward, will befrom the point of view of the organization. This is based on the presumptionthat most individuals belong to one or many organizations and that it is theorganization that creates accreditation to attract individuals or differentiatetheir capability. The term organization will include any business deliveringproducts or services either for-profit or not-for-profit and in any sector public orprivate. Hence, it is global competition that will position its human capital asone international business textbook affirms: To create competitive advantage that is sustainable over time [an organization must] develop skills, or competencies, that: 1) Create value for customers and for which customers are willing to pay, 2) Are rare, since competencies shared among many competitors cannot be a basis for competitive advantage, 3) Are difficult to imitate or substitute for, and 4) Are organized in a way that allows the [organization] to exploit fully the competitive potential of these valuable, rare, and difficult-to-imitate competencies.23The focus of the AMBOK® Guide will be that of the Provider of accreditation, seeFigure 1-1. It is logical that even a Provider could be Holder of one or moreaccreditations.Page 10  SECTION 1  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  16. 16. Accreditation Management Definition Accreditation management formally justifies, develops and sustains an accreditation. This accreditation lifecycle allows you to follow a series of processes in which we formulate what type of accreditation we require, its form, its value, and whether to make or buy it; to procure it and/or build and deliver it; and finally, maintain it for whatever duration is determined appropriate. It should also align to an individual’s or an organization’s mission, goals, objectives and strategy in order to support this requisite capability. Accreditation management is the process in which we formulate, implement and operationalize accreditation as it aligns to mission, goals, objectives and strategy. Example of Organizational Accreditation Management The end-to-end processes are illustrated at a high-level in Figure 1-1. The following describe each of the numeric callouts in order to provide an overview and understanding of each from multiple perspectives. The inside stakeholder perspective is that of the Provider of accreditation; the outside stakeholder perspective is that of the Holder of accreditation. Accreditation Program Portfolio (Resource-Based View) Feedback on x Perception and Organizational Quality Capabilities Mission, Goals and Remote, Industry, ACCREDITATION Provider Objectives, and MANAGEMENT w and Operating or Holder Strategy Environment Tangible and u v Intangible Assets y z Voice of the Customer Performance Capability and Capacity Inside Stakeholders Outside StakeholdersFigure 1-1. Accreditation management interdependencies and stakeholders AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 1  Page 11
  17. 17. Mission, Goals, Objectives and Strategy Mission, goals and objectives, and strategy reflect the awareness of: how,when and where to compete, against whom to compete, and for what purposesto compete. In much the same way that “strategic management is the set ofdecisions and actions that result in the formulation and implementation of plansdesigned to achieve a companys objectives”—accreditation management is thestrategic enablement, i.e. it identifies and leverages the capacity and capabilityfor an individual or organization to deliver.24 It supports the notion of onebusiness and management philosopher who wrote that “every organizationneeds performance in three major areas: It needs directs results; building ofvalue and their reaffirmation; and building and developing people fortomorrow.”25Accreditation Management Accreditation management, as previously defined, is the process in whichwe formulate, implement and operationalize accreditation as it aligns to theorganizations mission, goals and objectives, and strategy. Usually anorganization will create an Accreditation Management Office (AMO) andappoint a Director to work with Accreditation Owners in determining whichaccreditations the organization has inventory of and which accreditations theorganization wishes to pursue. This inventory of current and proposedaccreditations is the organizations Accreditation Portfolio representing oneaspect of its human capital. Without this function, i.e. accreditationmanagement, most organizations typically address their core competency andinternal readiness needs often residing in an HR management system and/orLearning Management System. This is based on mainstream static models thatare sufficient but often lack the dynamic needed to create a sustainablecompetitive advantage. Accreditation management allows an organization togive further development of core and strategic competencies (i.e. projectmanagement—both a shared competency and a discrete profession).Tangible/Intangible Assets and Organizational Capabilities This represents a Resource-Base View (RBV) for the organization wherein“RBV emphasizes strategic choice, charging the [organizations] managementwith the important tasks of identifying, developing and deploying key resourcesto maximize returns”26 in order to contribute to a sustainable competitiveadvantage (SCA) These resource categories are: tangible assets; intangibleassets; and organizational capabilities. According to Brigham and Houston(2004): Tangible assets: physical assets such as plant and equipment [as well as cash, materials, real estate, etc.]. Intangible assets: assets such as patents, copyrights, trademarks, and goodwill [as well as brand, franchise, etc.].27Page 12  SECTION 1  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  18. 18. Organizations may use tangible and intangible assets as part of an accreditationas a means of competitive advantage, e.g. in the Microsoft Technology Centerfacilities28, the Microsoft brand, and the Microsoft Certified Professionalcertifications as a combined accreditation provide customers with world-classservices that cannot be duplicated with the same focus and quality by theircompetitors. Organizational capabilities are the knowledge, skills and abilities of theindividual and with an accreditation management function has the ability toenable this organizational capability with tangible and intangible assets to focuson strategy and the SCA environment it will operate within. Aggregation of allidentified resources is contained in the Accreditation Program Portfoliodiscussed subsequently.Accreditation Program Portfolio The Accreditation Program Portfolio (APP) is an aggregate of all individualand organization profiles as defined through accreditation management.Remote, Industry and Operating Environment The remote, industry and operating environments impose external factorsthat can affect the organization’s decision making in addressing mission andstrategy. As Pearce and Robinson (2007) elaborate: Remote environment: economic, social, political, technological, and ecological factors that originate beyond, and usually irrespective of, any single firm’s operating situation. Industry environment: the general conditions for competition that influence all businesses which provide similar products and services. Operating environment: factors in the immediate competitive situation that affect’s a firm’s success in acquiring needed resources.29Provider or Holder The Holder is the recipient of accreditation. The Provider is the supplier ofaccreditation. An individual and a business may both provide and hold one ormany accreditations. For example, The Microsoft Learning organization is aProvider of multiple certifications offered to the public, however, Microsoftemployees take these certifications and Hold this form of accreditation. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 1  Page 13
  19. 19. Feedback Loop Customer Supplier Customer Supplier Customer Supplier Supplier Process Customer Provides inputs to a A series of tasks that Receives outputs from a process turn inputs into outputs process Adapted from Rose (2005)Figure 1-2. High-level view of the accreditation knowledge areasAn example of this interesting, reciprocal, customer and supplier relationshipcan be illustrated in Table 1-3. Here each entity is both a customer and asupplier and they go through a process to create a point of accreditation thatpresents itself through a chain of events. The University recognizes through itsResearch and Development a demand for online Masters of BusinessAdministration (MBA) programs given experienced individuals are often busywith travel and would otherwise find it difficult to impossible to attend atraditional campus. The student/employee finds that their next promotionrequires such a degree. The employer provides further specification on the MBAas being accredited by the AACSB. The “AACSB International was founded in1916 and began its accreditation function with the adoption of the firststandards in 1919.”30 University Student/Employee Employer Customer Supplier Customer Supplier Customer SupplierRequires Provides Requires Provides Accepts Upononline MBA an online an online employer University graduationprogram be MBA MBA with online MBA employeeaccredited degree accredited acceptance program and meetsby the program from the letter to allows employersInternational accredited AACSB and the MBA employee requirementAssociation by the is accepted online tuition forto Advance (AACSB) in the program assistance managementCollegiate degree promotion Note:Schools of program accreditationBusiness by the AACSB(AACSB) is fast becoming an employer 31 requirementTable 1-3. Extrapolation of Figure 1-1 with unique entitiesPage 14  SECTION 1  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  20. 20. SummaryRobert Reich (2007), former U.S. secretary of labor and best-selling author,addressed educators from 51 countries to discuss how building human capital iskey to sustaining competitive advantage—“globalization, technological change,and demographics may be primary business vectors, but thoughtful investmentin human capital—with emphasis on skill development—is most critical tomaintaining a competitive advantage in a global business environment.”32Quick hits for many CXOs today might focus on specific areas of their value-chain, or perhaps roles, like project management, that span multiple.Accreditation initiatives that focus just on skill alone will enable performance. Asone international performance management company advertised:  Skill to diagnose customer problems and identify customer needs— beyond the obvious  Skill to present products and services as differentiated client-focused solutions.  Skill to protect profitability and strengthen relations through the process of collaborative negotiation33These examples are just the tip-of-the-iceberg when considering the use ofaccreditation as evidence of capability in building human capital, monitoring anorganizations product and services quality, requirements, risk and financialreporting, not to mention the value in association with others with a similaraccreditation—these are all important aspects of accreditation and fundamentalto this book. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 1  Page 15
  21. 21. SECTION 1 - Endnotes1 Project Management Institute (PMI), A guide to the project management body of ® rd knowledge: PMBOK Guide 3 ed., (Newtown Square, PA: PMI, 2004) 81.2 Dictionary.com, Capability, n.d., <http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/capability> 17 January 2010.3 Dictionary.com , Accreditation, n.d., <http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/accreditation> 17 January 2010.4 U.S. Department of Transportation, Research and Innovative Technology Administration, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, National Transportation Statisticshttp://www.bts.gov/publications/national_transportation_statistics/> 2011.5 Brand Spanking Used, Jeep, n.d. <http://www.brandspankinused.com/powerTrain.htm> 17 January 2010.6 Land Rover USA, Pre Owned, n.d., <http://www.landroverusa.com/us/en/Vehicles/Certified_Pre_Owned/Overview.ht m?sReferrer=P_CPO_slashCPO_CPOHome_20050526> 17 January 2010.7 Joseph F. Hanlon, Robert J. Kelsey, and Hallie E. Forcinio, Handbook of Package rd Engineering, 3 ed., (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press LLC, 1998), 6.8 ClearanceJobs.com, The ClearanceJobs Report, February 2007, Volume 2, Issue 2, <http://media.corporate- ir.net/media_files/priv/pr_130608/ClearanceJobsFeb07.pdf> 17 January 2010.9 Rod Powers, Security Clearance Secrets, n.d., <http://usmilitary.about.com/cs/generalinfo/a/security.htm> 17 January 2010.10 Dolby, About, 2010, <http://www.dolby.com/about/> 17 January 2010.11 United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), Define :trademark, n.d., <http://www.uspto.gov/main/glossary/index.html#t> 17 January 2010.12 Dictionary.com, License, n.d., <http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/license> 17 January 2010.13 Forest Stewardship Council (FSC.org), Rainforest Alliance, 2010, <http://www.rainforest-alliance.org/index.cfm> 17 January 2010.14 Organic Trade Association, Industry Statistics and Project Growth, June 8, 2011, http://www.ota.com/organic/mt/business.html15 California Certified Organic Farmers (CCOF), About Organic, 2011, http://www.ccof.org/aboutorganic.php16 Nelson and Pade, About Aquaphonics, 2011, http://www.aquaponics.com/17 Rainbow Light Nutritional Systems. Groundbreaking New Supplement Formulas Guarantee Consumers: 100% Animal-Free Multivitamins, n.d., http://www.rainbowlight.com/CategoriesCompany.aspx?Category=47f859d0-1b4e- 40b6-ab1b-2dc75b8b08d518 David Marshall, Wayne McManus and Daniel Viele, Accounting: what the numbers th mean 7 ed., (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2007), 5.19 Marshall, 6-7.Page 16  SECTION 1  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  22. 22. 20 PMI, Project Management Institute completes successful ANSI audit, 10 October 2006, < http://www.pmi.org/AboutUs/Pages/PMI-045-46-06.aspx> 1.21 Marshall, 6-7.22 Robert Lawless and Tony Bingham, Growing talent and sales at McCormick. (Training + Development, July 2007), 34.23 th Donald Ball et al., International business: the challenge of global competition, 11 ed., (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin, 2007), 353.24 John Pearce II and Richard Robinson, Jr., Strategic management: formulation, implementation, and control, (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2007), 3.25 Peter Drucker, The effective executive, (New York, NY: HarperCollins, 1967), 55.26 John Fahy and Alan Smithee, Strategic Marketing and the Resource Based View of the Firm, 1999, < http://www.amsreview.org/articles/fahy10-1999.pdf> 17 January 2010.27 th Eugene Brigham and Joel Houston, Fundamentals of Financial Management 10 ed., (Mason: South-Western, 2004), 40.28 Microsoft. Microsoft Technology Centers. 2010. <http://www.microsoft.com/services/microsoftservices/srv_tech.mspx> 17 January 2010.29 John Pearce II and Richard Robinson, Jr., Strategic management: formulation, implementation, and control, (New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2007), 84, 92, 106.30 Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB), Accreditation, . n.d., <http://www.aacsb.edu/accreditation> 17 January 2010.31 Gary Jacobsen, Be wary of online MBA, 14 August 2006, <http://blogs.computerworld.com/node/2864#comment-9859> 17 January 2010.32 Robert Reich, Human Capital Key to Sustainable Competitive Advantage for Businesses, 23 April 2007, <http://www.aacsb.edu/wxyz/hp-reich.asp> 17 January 2010.33 Acclivus, Co-Creating Competitive Advantage™, (Training & Development Magazine, March 2008) 1. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 1  Page 17
  23. 23. Page 18  SECTION 1  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  24. 24. SECTION 2 – KNOWLEDGE AREASKnowledge Area MapKnowledge can be defined as “facts or procedures that individuals or teams ofemployees know or know how to do (human and social knowledge); also acompany’s rules, processes, tools, and routines (structured knowledge).”34Figure 2-0. Accreditation knowledge areasThe accreditation knowledge areas (see Figure 2-0) contain distinct entities,sometimes with overlap in application, and each with a reasonably unique andrelevant focus. The knowledge areas, at this time, are practical in their currentdelineation and it is expected that they will evolve over time with contributionsin their definition and application from other practitioners and fields of study. If“knowledge is the result of learning and is ephemeral, constantly needing to berevised and updated:” the knowledge areas identified herein may need to berevised and updated from time-to-time to support new learning.35 Eachknowledge area discussed in detail following are broken down by: knowledgearea, knowledge component, and component examples; visually: N. Knowledge Area N.n Knowledge Component Example (when provided to expand on the component) AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 19
  25. 25. According to Princeton University’s WordNet (2006), a goal is “the state ofaffairs that a plan is intended to achieve and that terminates behavior intendedto achieve it.”36 The following are the goals of each accreditation knowledge areas: 1. Assessment: to appraise, estimate, evaluate, judge or determine the amount, content, quality, size, or value of something. 2. Certification: to attest, confirm state or validate the authenticity, fact, statement or truth of something. 3. Competency: to establish areas of capability, and levels of proficiency, in which something can be successfully executed to achieve its expected outcome. 4. Correlation: to establish a complementary, parallel or reciprocal relationship: to involve a qualitative correspondence between two or more entities. 5. Education: To obtain knowledge or skill of a specified degree, kind or level through an instruction or learning process about a particular subject and its operating environment. 6. Ethics: to demonstrate morals, principles, or standards of conduct recognized by a particular culture, group or profession. 7. Experience: To accumulate knowledge, skills and ability to a specified degree, kind or level through employment, term of employment, and operation within its environment.. 8. License: to have authority, formal or legal permission or right to do, have or use something. 9. Registration: to declare, enter or enroll something or someone as being associated and counted within a particular category, group, record, or list. 10. Regulation: to prescribe or regulate a law, statute, principle or rule as means to control or govern conduct. Some of the Knowledge Areas are results of accreditation, i.e. Accreditation Management programs that incorporate one or more of the Knowledge Areas such as a diploma or degree within Education; some of the Knowledge Areas are individual projects or activities that can be acted on individually or incorporated into an Accreditation Management program. Both Section 3 and Section 4 go into greater detail in how the Knowledge Areas are referenced and leveraged.Page 20  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  26. 26. 1. ASSESSMENT Goal: to appraise, estimate, evaluate, judge or determine the amount, content, quality, size, or value of something.Figure 2-1. Accreditation knowledge area: AssessmentThe following are typical types of assessment and while several may havesimilarities, they have been delineated due to common usage.1.1 Audit (Examination)To analyze and inspect; examine methodically; officially examine; review thecondition or situation of something usually performed internally (by employeesof the organization) or externally (by an outside firm).1.2 Behavior A behavioral assessment may measure the manner in which something functions or operates, e.g. chemicals, an engine, liquid at different temperatures, motor, an individual in a situation or environment, etc. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 21
  27. 27. Human: a behavioral assessment “measures personality traits in a more comprehensive way [than personality assessments/tests], and then determines how a given personality will react or behave in certain situations or circumstances. A person generally described as "calm, warm and friendly" might become "tense and explosive" in a stressful situation. Another person appearing to have the same personality traits may thrive and do amazing things in the same situation. Simply understanding ones personality traits has limited value in the workplace, team environment, or relationship. Behavioral assessments provide much more value in improving the effectiveness of human interaction in any environment.”37 An example of a behavioral assessment: DISC Model (Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, and Conscientiousness): identifies four dimensions of behavior in 2041 possible combinations to determine work style, dealing with conflict with others, motivational environments conductive to success, etc.1.3 Compliance The accuracy, or adherence, in the performance of something according to some standard, e.g. following a physician’s recommendations; ensuring financial statements follow generally accepted accounting practices; operating within and not exceeding published laws; operating within a policy or guideline; a measurement within an acceptable tolerance; etc.1.4 Inspection Examining, evaluating or viewing something closely in a careful and critical manner as a means to determine acceptance; compliance; data collection; mistakes; quality, etc. For example: inspecting a vehicle for safety and compliance to regulation or inspecting a weather-damaged home to determine its salvage condition. Inspection, in contrast to observation, is witnessing the evidence in performance of an activity, operation or process.1.5 Interview An interview is a type of survey, e.g. the in-person interview and the telephone interview, in which one or more individuals consult, evaluate, or question another person or group. As the interview progresses the interviewer(s) may reprioritize and submit questions in a sequence that is based on the respondent(s) reply.1.6 Observation Observation is a type of survey, e.g. gaining facts, making and recording measurements or findings. Typically not as detailed as inspection, i.e. observation is used to only look at the performance of an activity, operation or process.Page 22  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  28. 28. 1.7 Performance Performance has to do with execution efficiency and effectiveness; recognizing performance gaps or deficiencies and how performance compares to expectation or specification; action carrying into execution, for example, a project finishing on-time and on-budget; meeting or exceeding customer satisfaction; reducing cycle times; poor performance due to technical dept on a software development project; etc. Human: something performed or undertaken, carried through and accomplished (in part or full), of some act, deed, duty, feat, etc. For example: a performance appraisal using a 360o Review technique; an athlete making or breaking a record in achievement; a runner making a finish line; etc. Performance Engineering (PE): is “a management system made of a series of techniques that, used together or separately, ‘engineer’ the work environment. The result of PE is an organizational system aligned with the mission of the organization and an organizational infrastructure that supports exemplary performance”381.8 Personality Personality assessments “are designed to understand the character traits of an individual. However, any given personality type is likely to behave differently in a favorable environment than in a stressful environment. Simply profiling ones personality does not reveal behavioral tendencies. Personality is a stable, consistent pattern of thoughts, behaviors and emotions. Behavior is an expression of personality.”39 Some examples of personality tests include the: Caliper Profile, the California Psychological Inventory; the Dominance, Influence, Steadiness, Conscientiousness (DISC) test; EQSQ test; Eysenck Personality Questionnaire; Keirsey Temperament Sorter; Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory; Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory; Myers-Brigs Type Indicator® (MBTI); NEO PI-R; Personal Style Indicator (PSI); Robin Hood Morality Test; Rorschach inkblot test; Swedish Universities Scales of Personality; the 16PF Questionnaire (16PF); Thematic Apperception Test; and the Woodworth Test.1.9 Questionnaire A questionnaire is a type of survey, e.g. those administered by mail, household drop-off or by a group, which contains questions usually addressed to a statistically significant number of subjects as a means to gather information about the surveys theme. A questionnaire is something a respondent completes. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 23
  29. 29. 1.10 Survey Survey and Inspection are very similar with the following two exceptions in taxonomy: Research technique: a survey may involve any number of methodologies to appraise, examine or inspect in order to ascertain condition, situation, value, etc. and can be divided into several broad categories: focus groups, intercept, interview (in-person and telephone), observation, questionnaire (paper and web-based), and sidewalk. Usually ends with a report or reporting of findings. Land and property: measuring land to determine is size, location and physical description; a physical inspection of the property to determine its physical condition and to advise the buyer upon the value of the property (and usually similar properties).1.11 Tenure There are two general perspectives with regard to tenure: Time in position: is associated with the length of time an individual is employed in private or public sector; in the case of business, there are often implications with regard to layoffs and greater job security; in the case of academics, it is often continued employment, job security, and freedom of expression, all subject to specific conditions of behavior and right to termination. Time in possession: is associated with occupancy, the possession of premises from an owner through renting, leasing, or some other agreed to set of terms and conditions, temporary or permanent.1.12 Term A period of time in which the scope of defined conditions, and agreement, will be carried out or met, such as, a life insurance policy, a loan, or a lease.1.13 Test (Examination) To examine; to determine someone’s knowledge, skill or abilities; a process for measuring a specific characteristic when tested; to seek the presence and quality of something tested; also called an examination.Page 24  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  30. 30. 2. CERTIFICATION Goal: to attest, confirm, state or validate the authenticity, fact, statement or truth of something.Figure 2-2. Accreditation knowledge area: CertificationAccording to InTech—“Certification is private regulation. Typically the state orfederal government doesn’t have a law or regulation that covers the profession.So in the absence of government-mandated regulation, a trade association or anindependent certifying body develops a standard for certification.”40 See alsoSection 3 Definition Phase with a compare/contrast discussion with regard tothe Certification, License and Registration Knowledge areas as there is someambiguity to the use of these three taxonomies in the industry and generaluse—this Section provides an industry thought-leader discussion that will assistthe Accreditation Management professional.2.1 Academic A provider of education, continuing education, in a setting inside or outside traditional education (such as online and workplace settings) has met the minimum requirements by an evaluating body that recommends some value of credit and in some cases credit toward participating providers. For AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 25
  31. 31. example, a University Registrar may issue an official document that validates dates of attendance, student status, and award of degree. This can also be based on geographical delineation, e.g. National or Regional accreditation. In the U.S. there are six Regional accreditors recognized by both by both the United States Department of Education (USDE) and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA). This type of delineation controls transfer credit of transcripts between institutions, whether some courses will receive full or partial academic credit, etc. The American Council on Education (ACE) is a major coordinating body for all the U.S. higher education institutions.2.2 Board An individual or group, appointed or elected, having advisory and investigatory powers over an individual, public or private business; e.g. a board that maintains a faculty committee to manage testing administration and acceptance; or a board that maintains a standards committee to administer and approve an application with evidence that supports the application requirements. An alternate technique to the written test is the use of a panel evaluation by subject matter experts who reach a verdict/score. Board Certification is a service to the public allowing consumers, peers and businesses to identify those that meet the goals and objectives of the accreditation, e.g. a bankruptcy attorney, a dentist, a physician, etc. This is an accreditation that usually incorporates elements of formal and continued education, evidence of professional practice, and agreement to an ethical code of conduct. A Board may be recognized by the following additional titles: Advisory Group; Cabinet; Committee; Council; Group of advisors; Jury; Panel; or Trustees.2.3 Organizational An organization has met the requirements of a particular certification that may include specific minimum criteria such as documented and used processes with regard to production, quality, standards and regulatory guidelines. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) leads the world in developing and publishing standards that organizations follow. The ISO provides standards in over 159 countries for business, government and society, which makes it attractive from a marketing and operations standpoint.Page 26  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  32. 32. 2.4 Product A product has met the requirements of a particular certification that may include specific minimum criteria such as built to specification, quality, safety standards and regulatory guidelines. Photography: The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) in the Philippines maintain a certification composed of 4 competencies for standards in professional photography. Technology: In the case of computers, computer peripherals, even mobile telephones, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) or a designated Telecommunications Certification Body (TCB) test and certify these devices prior to availability on the U.S. market.2.5 Professional An individual has met the requirements of a particular certification that may include specific minimum criteria such as education, experience (prior to or just learned), time vested in on-the-job training, a passing score on a test, or proof in the ability to perform a job or task. You will also find this called a technical certification, technical/professional certification, trade certification, or professional designation. Emphasis for the “professional” knowledge area is that of a non- armature that has been working within a particular occupation for some minimum timeframe and usually pledges to follow a code of conduct including social and professional responsibility.2.6 Ratings A measure that relates to the activities involved in ranking or providing a score for something. Film: the Motion Picture Association (MPA) has the Motion Picture Rating System with rating symbols that are federally registered certification marks. Most producers and distributers submit films to receive a rating such as G, PG, PG-13, R, and, NC-17. Ratings allow the monitoring and control of access and distribution. Product: The Consumers Union (CU) provides ratings to consumers on the products it evaluates and as a result publishes the Consumer Reports magazine that provides a color-coded graphic image that represent the quality and safety of particular area evaluated. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 27
  33. 33. 2.7 Sales A measure that relates to the activities involved in selling goods or services, for example, customer feedback from a sale; number of sales; type of sale; etc. Recording industry: the Recording Industry Association of America RIAA® is a trade group that represents the U.S. recording industry and certifies recording sales as Gold®, Platinum®, Multi-Platinum™, and Diamond sales awards, as well as Los Premios De Oro y Platino™(an award celebrating Latin music sales). Note that the certification also includes trademarks and registered trademarks as a form of branding.2.8 Service A service has met the requirements of a particular certification that may include specific minimum criteria such as performance of duties or work for another; usually a helpful or professional activity. For example: accompanying a person with a disability; assessment services based on extensive knowledge of a business or technology application or process; cleaning services; consulting services; legal advisory services; etc.2.9 System Any functionally related group of interacting, interrelated or interdependent elements forming a complex whole such as the channels and structures for communication, distribution or travel; an electrical or mechanical system; the nervous system; a network of computer hardware and software and its communication devices; an organism; the solar system; the universe, etc. Computer system: when securing hardware and software applications that reside on U.S. government networks, these systems must go through an accreditation process that is compliant with the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) of 2002 with regard to meeting specific security guidelines.2.10 Technical An individual has met the requirements of a particular certification that may include specific minimum criteria such as education, experience (prior to or just learned), time vested in on-the-job training, a passing score on a test, or proof in the ability to perform a job or task. You will find this also called a technical certification, technical/professional certification, trade certification, or professional designation. Emphasis for the “technical” knowledge area is that it is a measurable specialized knowledge, skills and ability working with something technical within the arts, sciences or industry.Page 28  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  34. 34. 3. COMPETENCY Goal: to establish areas of capability, and levels of proficiency, in which something can be successfully executed to achieve its expected outcome.Figure 2-3. Accreditation knowledge area: CompetencyAccording to Noe (2005), competency “refers to areas of personal capabilitythat enable employees to successfully perform their job by achieving outcomesor accomplishing tasks. A competency can be knowledge, skills, attitudes, valuesor personal characteristics.”41 Moreover, Green (1999), recognizes corecompetency and organizational capability in his book Building RobustCompetencies—the Competency Knowledge Area will be delineated into Coreand Relative, i.e. Core representing a focus in competitive advantage andPertinent Capability relating directly and significantly through “businessprocesses and their professional management that enable an organization to doits work effectively.”42 According to Arthur (2001), “every job requires different competencies,there are four primary categories: (1) measurable, tangible, or technical skills;(2) knowledge; (3) behavioral; and (4) interpersonal skills. Most jobs emphasizethe need for one category over the other, but every employee should be able todemonstrate competencies, to some extent, in all four categories.”433.1 Core Those capabilities and proficiencies that provide a unique position in the marketplace; a competitive advantage; capability that is difficult for the competition to emulate such as technical knowledge about a product or service. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 29
  35. 35. 3.2 Relational Those capabilities and proficiencies, in addition to Core Competency, that are complementary and may act in concert, have a relation, to enable levels of efficiency and effectiveness; competency of a tactical or strategic nature that enable Core Competency. For example: project management and Six Sigma competencies could be used in relation to Core Competency to create a predictive outcome, ensure quality and customer satisfaction.Page 30  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  36. 36. 4. CORRELATION Goal: to establish a complementary, parallel or reciprocal relationship, with qualitative correspondence, between two or more entities/parties.Figure 2-4. Accreditation knowledge area: Correlation4.1 Advisory Council A group of individuals appointed to provide advice or subject matter expertise on current and future issues, operational processes, policy, etc.; a forum for the exchange of ideas and recommendations often with fair representation from business units and geographies. Field Advisory Council: a virtual group that may represent various regions of an international business that have global oversight, such as a Project Management Office (PMO), taking into consideration that some localization may be necessary in order to work within unique business environments. Role Advisory Council: a group of individuals that closely follow a particular role, such as the project manager, possibly working with Human Resources to keep current on career paths and banding, AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 31
  37. 37. compensation models, competency models, thought-leadership to build human capital, etc.4.2 Affiliation A business, cultural, political, or social relationship between two or more businesses, churches, clubs, organizations, people, or nations to connect or join for some specific purpose or mutual benefit; similar to an alliance. Business Affiliation: “when one business controls or has the power to control another or when a third party (or parties) controls or has the power to control both businesses. Control may arise through ownership, management, or other relationships or interactions between the parties.”44 Network Affiliation: organization often network, the International Association of Facilitators (IAF) created a memorandum of agreement between themselves and other organizations for this purpose: “the purpose of IAF Affiliation is to foster cooperation between the two organizations. This Agreement describes the nature of the relationship, delineates mutual obligations and expectations, and provides procedures for resolution of any disputes that may develop. Appendix A describes expectations of activities in which IAF and the affiliate may engage to support and encourage this relationship.”45 University Affiliation: often hospitals will work together to improve their community health and well-being by working together leveraging the multiple disciplines and technical advances found within the university.4.3 Alliance A formal affiliation, agreement, association, coalition, confederation, federation, league, union or treaty between two or more businesses, organizations, people, or nations to cooperate for specific purposes, mutual benefit or joint operations. Strategic Alliance. “an arrangement between two or more companies to pursue a common business objective. A strategic alliance is perhaps most commonly described as a partnership or a joint venture (which is really nothing more than a partnership for a specific purpose). But the term could cover a broad spectrum of business relationships that may include anything from simple cost-sharing arrangements to a fully integrated merger of two companies…*problems that could occur include:] administrative issues; costs of operating; insurance coverage; labor and employment laws; marketing angles; ownership and control; potential liability exposure; profits and losses; regulatory hurdles; tax consequences.”46Page 32  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  38. 38. 4.4 Endorsement A promotional statement; act of approval; formal or explicit approval; sanction as a means to support or validate; a signature; a voucher; an amendment to a contract; e.g. a candidate getting the endorsement of a union; a company supporting a book by lending its logo and statement on a dust cover; an athlete receiving incentives from a sporting goods manufacture; etc. Product Endorsement: the Good Housekeeping Seal (provides testing yet insufficient to fulfill the claims of the manufacture) provides a seal if it passes their tests that declares "Replacement or Refund of Money Guaranteed by Good Housekeeping."4.5 Franchise A “license granted by a company (the franchisor) to an individual or firm (the franchisee) to operate a retail, food, or drug outlet where the franchisee agrees to use the franchisor’s name; products; services; promotions; selling, distribution, and display methods; and other company support.”474.6 Partner An “organization of two or more persons who pool some or all of their money, abilities, and skill in a business and divide profit or loss in predetermined proportions.”48 Partner Programs: at Microsoft, they offer multi-level partnerships (“Registered, Certified, and Gold”) which provide scalable resources to help the partner: expand skills; increase opportunities; close more sales; and support customers.49 You can move to a level as your business changes.4.7 Research Project Research projects are sponsored to advance human knowledge on a wide variety of subjects. They are typically funded by corporations (such as research and development departments), universities and government contractors typically because they are interested in a particular subject or field of study. Affiliation can benefit sponsors and researchers in credibility, recognition and the potential for further funding for additional research. To illustrate the complexity of stakeholders in one research project: “Pavilion Lake is located about 500 kilometers north of Vancouver in Marble Canyon Provincial Park. It was formed by a glacier more than 10,000 years ago, and has for the last decade been the site of several studies into astrobiology. Primary funding for this year’s endeavor comes from the Canadian Space Agency, with additional funding from NASA, Nuytco, and McMaster University. Principal investigators are Darlene Lim from the NASA-Ames Research Center and Bernard Laval from the University of British Columbia, with collaborators from the NASA Johnson Space Center, AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 33
  39. 39. Vancouver Aquarium, SETI (Search of Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence) Institute, Simon Fraser University, Stanford University, California Institute of Technology, University of California-Davis, Portland State University, the University of Hong Kong, University of Vermont and Washington State University, among others.”504.8 Spokesperson An “individual who speaks on behalf of a product or service and whose name becomes associated with the product or service. A spokesperson may be a celebrity or someone who begins as an unknown and gains a measure of celebrity through association with the product. Personality; testimonial.”514.9 Sponsor Sponsor may refer to any of the following: “Commercial- to support an event, activity, or person; Legislative - a person who introduces a bill in the US Congress; Military, naval ship naming - a person who christens a ship at its launch; in a twelve-step program, are experienced members who make a service commitment to help others navigate the program; Self-relations Psychotherapy, a form of therapy; Child sponsorship, a form of charitable giving; the word sponsor derives from the Latin sponsor (pl. sponsors), word meaning guarantor.”52 This definition, as association, is different that an Accreditation Sponsor, as illustrated in Section 4.Page 34  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  40. 40. 5. EDUCATION Goal: to obtain knowledge or skill of a specified degree, kind or level through an instruction or learning process about a particular subject and its operating environment.Figure 2-5. Accreditation knowledge area: EducationThe Education Knowledge Area and the Experience Knowledge Area have someoverlap, so I will borrow a phrase from the real estate magnate Donald Trump—the principal difference between education and experience is “learning how thereal world operates--and learning how to operate in it—[this] will give you thedouble edge that is necessary for success.”53 Certainly the two correspond toeach other; in these two knowledge areas Education will focus on obtaining andlearning whereas Experience will focus on the employment, its term andenvironment. Those familiar with employee training and developmentunderstand that “development refers to formal education, job experiences,relationships, and assessments of personality and abilities that help employeesperform effectively in their current or future job and company.”54 Multipleknowledge areas are at work in employee training and development. Likewisean accreditation may require training, on-the-job training (OJT), and anexternship: note how both knowledge areas work together to form this type ofaccreditation (which sounds much like an apprenticeship). The Education Knowledge Area incorporates training, which can resultin, or be part of a certificate, degree or diploma program or involvement in thescope of education. Where we differentiate education and training—it isimportant to understand the overarching difference between these two: AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 35
  41. 41. “education is a learning process that deals with unknown outcomes, andcircumstances which require a complex synthesis of knowledge, skills andexperience to solve problems. Education refers its questions and actions toprinciples and values rather than merely standards and criteria. Training: hasapplication when: a) there is some identifiable performance and/or skill that hasto be mastered. And b) practice is required for the mastery of it.”555.1 Certificate A document serving as evidence that a participant has successfully completed a program by meeting or exceeding the requirements of the certificate issuing authority (for example, a business, college, or university). In addition, the certificate issuing authority may award the participant a designation/title and inclusion of associated benefits. For example, becoming certified to perform the duties of a role as the result of formal courseware, a passing score on a test, may also provide access to an online community in which there is recognition and knowledge sharing.5.2 Degree A document serving as evidence that a participant has successfully completed a program of studies by meeting or exceeding the requirements of the degree issuing authority (for example, a college, university, or postsecondary educational institution). In addition, the degree issuing authority regularly awards the participant an academic title and inclusion of associated benefits as being an alumnus. A degree, as an accreditation, may consist of a series of events, some with prerequisites, which may include lectures, seminars, meetings, presentations and workshops.5.3 Diploma A document serving as evidence that a participant has successfully completed a program of studies by meeting or exceeding the requirements of the diploma issuing authority (for example, a business, college, school, or university). In addition, the diploma issuing authority regularly awards the participant an academic title and inclusion of associated benefits as being an alumnus.5.4 Event An occurrence, something that happens at a given place and time, of personal, professional or social importance to the participant; an event may span an hour to several months; an event may lead toward a certificate, diploma or degree and may require registration in order to reserve and account for attendance. Conference: according to the International Congress and Convention Association (2009), a conference is a “participatory meeting designed for discussion, fact-finding, problem solving and consultation. As compared with a congress, a conference isPage 36  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  42. 42. normally smaller in scale and more select in character - features which tend to facilitate the exchange of information.”56Congress: according to the International Congress and Convention Association (2009), a congress is a “regular coming together on a representational basis of several hundred - or even thousands - of individuals belonging to a single professional, cultural, religious or other group. A congress is often convened to discuss a particular subject. Contributions to the presentation and discussion of the subject matter come only from members of the organizing body. Frequency: usually established in advance and can be either multiannual or annual. Most international or world congresses are of the former type while national congresses are more frequently held annually. A congress will often last several days and have several simultaneous sessions.”57Convention: essentially the same as a conference; synonymous with conference.Exhibition: according to the International Congress and Convention Association (2009), exhibitions are those “events at which products and services are displayed.”58Lecture: A group of individuals meeting for the purpose of study, discussions and the exchange of information; similar to a seminar but often includes less, if any, interactivity with the audience.Meeting: according to the Harvard Business School Press (2006), meetings are “where we get together, as teams, as ad hoc groups, as members of a department, as negotiators sitting across from one another at the table. Meetings are where problems are solved, decisions are made, and trust is built.”59 They further delineate meetings in an 8-18-1800 rule, i.e. “to solve a problem or make a decision invite no more than eight people…to brainstorm, then you can go as high as 18 people…to disseminate information…to whip the group up into a frenzy of enthusiasm…1800—or more.”Presentation: the process of speaking to an individual or group about a particular subject to facilitate learning, for the purpose of study, discussions and the exchange of information.Product/Service Demonstration: the process of speaking to an individual or group demonstrating specific features and functionality, discussing specifications, and other aspects of a product/service. In some cases, such as solution selling, the product/service demonstration is tailored to the business need of the customer; an important aspect of sales. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 37
  43. 43. Product/Service Launch: the process of speaking to a group introducing a new product/service or the improvements to existing; an important aspect of marketing. Public Speaking: the process of speaking to a group of people intended to entertain, influence, or inform about a particular subject; the setting may be formal or informal. We know when we hear a good public speaker simply reflecting on our experience with politicians and theologians. Storytelling can be an important component to public speaking; storytellers “can focus and energize their constituents. Good stories are important to individual and organizational wellbeing and effectiveness because they help people make sense of who they are by enabling them to find their place in the story. Good stories hold the organization together by pulling seeming disparate parts of the organization together, articulating both a shared past and a future.”60 Two organizations that support building public speaking skills are Toastmasters International (TI) and the National Communication Association (NCA). Self-Directed Learning: Independent study undertaken as a requisite to meet the requirements of an instructor or as a development task of an issuing authority (as in the recognition of professional development units to maintain a credential); this may include attending presentations and selected reading topics. Seminar: A group of individuals meeting for the purpose of study, discussions and the exchange of information; similar to a lecture but often includes more interactivity with the audience. Trade Show: essentially the same as an exhibition; synonymous with exhibition. Training: An individual or group meeting for education and instruction to facilitate learning. Tutoring/Tutorial: An individual that is able to clarify terms, interpret, share ideas and guide a student or small group trough a particular subject—given that they have studied any prerequisite of that subject. Emphasis is on teaching. A natural progression for a Tutor is to become a Mentor. While mentoring seems to have more emphasis in career development, perhaps tutoring is a more tactical approach to building human capital, i.e. according to one author; ‘mentoring’ is overrated as a human capital investment. I suspect that there are [corporate executives] who would become far more expert — and effective — in their roles if they took the time to explicitly teach people core skills and competencies in theirPage 38  SECTION 2  AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION
  44. 44. specialty. Better yet, the scalable impact would come when those "students," in turn, sought to reinforce their learning by teaching others. See one; do one; teach one.”61 Webinar: A seminar broadcast via the Internet and accessed through an Internet browser either real-time or on-demand. Workshop: A group of individuals meeting for the purpose of discussion, the exchange of information, and the demonstration and application of skills, principles and practices.5.5 On-the-Job Training (OJT) According to Noe (2005), OJT refers to “new or inexperienced employees learning through observing peers or managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behavior; from apprenticeships to self-directed learning, “OJT is an attractive training method because, compared to other methods, it needs less investment in time or money for materials, trainer’s salary, or instructional design…manager or peer who are job knowledge experts are used as instructors.”62 The U.S. military uses OJT extensively to ensure individuals are consciously competent in their activities especially under duress. One benefit to OJT is that it is planned, organized, and conducted at the employees workplace or in a simulated environment on a par with the workplace for reasons of safety or security. For example, it is not unusual for a large casino to have a mock-casino in which individuals perform work demonstrating their knowledge, skill and ability under the supervision of a manager or peer and once achieving a level of competence are evaluated and potentially satisfy the requirements of the work through assessment. AMBOK® GUIDE – FIRST EDITION  SECTION 2  Page 39
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